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I 



Electric Railway 
Journal 



Volume XLVIII 

July to December, 1916 



McGraw Publishing Company Inc. 

239 West 39th St., New York Qit.y 1 t , m r 

MO OF THE INI 



rr- 



Instructions for Use of Index 



This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating a 
number of different subjects are indexed un- 
der each subject. In addition, a geographical 
reference is published wherever the article 
relates to any particular railway company, 
or to the State matters of any particular 
State. The geographical method of grouping 
serves to locate in the index any article de- 
scriptive of practices, conditions, events, etc., 
when the searcher knows the electric rail- 
way, city or State to which the article ap- 
plies. Groupings are made under the name 
of the city in which the main office of the 
company is located, but an exception is made 
in the case of electrified sections of steam 
railroads, such entries being made direct un- 
der the name of the railroad. City or State 
affairs appear direct under the names of the 
city or State involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below will be found a 
list of the more common keywords used in 



the index. This list has been subdivided for 
convenience into sixteen general subjects, but 
the general subject headings, shown in capi- 
tal letters, do not appear in the body of the 
index. As an example, if a reader wished to 
locate an article on power-driven tower 
wagons he would obviously look in the list 
under the general subject "vehicles," and of 
the two keywords that appear under this cap- 
tion, only "Service and tower wagons" could 
apply to the article in question. The reader 
would therefore refer to this keyword under 
"S" in the body of the index. 

In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from railway associations and tech- 
nical societies are grouped under the names 
of the various organizations. Proceedings of 
other associations are indexed only in accord- 
ance with the subject discussed. Short de- 
scriptions of machine tools appear only un- 
der the heading "Repair Shop Equipment" 
and are not indexed alphabetically, because of 
the wide choice in most cases of the proper 
keyword. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF KEYWORDS 



ACCIDENTS AND LEGAL 

Accidents ( including wrecks) 
Accident claim department 
Legislation 
Legal 

Public service and regulative 

commissions 
Public service corporations 
Safety-first movement 



CARS 

Car design 
Cars (descriptive) 
Cleaning of cars 
Gasoline cars 
Lubrication 
Heating of cars- 
Lighting of cars 
Storage battery cars 
Tower cars 
Ventilation of cars 
Work and wrecking cars 



CAR EQUIPMENT 

Axles 
Bearings 

Brakes 

Controllers and wiring 
Couplers 

^Current-collecting devices 
■doors, seats and windows 
'Senders and wheel guards 
Qears and pinions 
Headlights 
'otors 
■ueks, car 
'eels 



EMPLOYEES 
: ees 

ind arbitrations 



FARES 
t .'il|p,-tic (including ap- 



I j 




FINANCIAL AND STATISTICS 
Accounting 

Appraisal of railway property 

Financial 

Franchises 

Maps 

Operating records and costs 
Statistics 

Traffic investigations 



Cleaning and washing of cars 
Inspection of cars 
Maintenance records and costs 
Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 
Tests of equipment 
Welding, Special methods 

OPERATION 

Carhouses and storage yards 
Multiple-unit trains 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Schedules and time tables 
Signals 

Stopping of cars 

Train operating practice 

POWER 

Boilers and equipment 
Cables 

Energy consumption 
Feeders 

Overhead contact system 
Poles 

Power distribution 

Power generation 

Power stations and equipment 



Purchased power 
Substations and equipment 
Third-rail contact system 
Transmission lines 
Turbo-generators and equipment 

RECORDS 

Maintenance records and costs 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Record forms 

STRUCTURES 

Bridges 

Carhouses and storage yards 
Power stations and equipment 
Repair shops 

Terminal stations and terminals 
Waiting stations 

TRACK 

Pavement 

Rail joints and bonds 
Rails 

Special work 
Ties 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

TRAFFIC 
Freight and express 
Public, Relations with 
Publicity 
Routing of cars 
Traffic investigations 
Traffic stimulation 

VEHICLES (not on tracks) 
Motor buses 

Service and tower wagons 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Fire protection and insurance 
Lightning protection 
Loading limits for cars 
Manufacturing conditions 
Municipal ownership 
Public, Relations with 
Standardization 
Storerooms 
Timber preservation 



HEAVY ELECTRIC TRACTION 
Heavy electric traction (gen- 
eral) 

High-tension d.c. railways 
Interurban railways (general) 
Locomotives 
•• Low-tension d.c. railways 
j;;-* - Single-phase railways 



MAINTENANCE OF 
EQUIPMENT 



July-December, 1916] 



INDEX 



III 



INDEX TO VOLUME XLVIII 



PAGES BY WEEKS 

July 1 1 to 44 

July 8 45 to 86 

July 15 87 to 128 

July 22 129 to 168 

July 29' 169 to 212 

Aug. 5 213 to 254 

Aug. 12 255 to 298 

Aug. 19 299 to 340 

Aug. 26 341 to 382 

Sept. 2 383 to 426 

Sept. 9 427 to 474 

Sept. 16 475 to 520 

Sept. 23 521 to 560 

Sept. 30 561 to 704 

Oct. 7 705 to 752 

Oct. 14 753 to 860 

Oct. 21 861 to 916 

Oct. 28 917 to 958 

Nov. 4 959 to 1002 

Nov. 11 1003 to 1046 

Nov. 18 1047 to 1088 

Nov. 25 1089 to 1138 

Dec. 2 1139 to 1186 

Dec. 9 1187 to 1230 

Dec. 16 1231 to 1280 

Dec. 23 1281 to 1326 

Dec. 30 1327 to 1374 



Academy of Political Science: 

■ Addresses on public utility labor disputes, 

1106, Comment, 1139 
Acceleration (see Tests of equipment) 
Accident claim department: 

Accident prevention, Work of claim de- 
partment in Tacoma, Wash. [Browne], 
*348 

Accidents, proposed classification, 819 

Appraisal of damaged property in Seattle, 

Wash. [Hamilton], 350 
'Boston Elevated Ry., Burdens of increased 

accident liability, 721 
Claim work principles [Walch], *877; 

[Rice], *878 
Code of ethics and policies of Pittsburgh 

(Pa.) Rys., 712; Comment, 706 
Damage expense figures, St. Louis, Mo., 

n 1318 

Fair play between claim agents and public, 

Comment, 2; [Carson], 105: [Bennett], 
147 

Fundamentals of claim work [Boynton], 

309 

Illinois Traction Svstem's claim department 
[Whitmore], 1159 

Photography an aid in trials [Handlon], 310 

Regulation of motor vehicle traffic to re- 
duce accidents [Falknor], 349; [Win- 
sor], «874; [Brown], 876 

Relation of claim department to public 

[Lonergan], 310 

-Steam railroad claim work [Lee], 309 

Accidents: 

Boston, Mass., Drawbridge accident, n 1034. 

*1102, 1146; Comment, 1048; Safe- 
guarding of drawbridges [Tohnson]. 
1339; Comment, 1327 

Cleveland, Ohio, bridge destroyed by run 

away car, *723 

Pennsylvania accident statistics, 1178 

Accountants' Association: 

Committee appointments, 1162 

Committee meetings: 

Executive, 191 

Convention : 

Committee reports: 

Accounting definitions, 814 
Claims-Accounting, 819 
Engineering-Accounting, 815 
Standard classification of accounts, 
815 

Comment, 755 

Election of officers, 820 

Papers, [Bentonl, *782; TDunn], *755 ; 
[Tones], *777; [King], *797: 
[Steuart]. *779; [Wildman], *793 

President's address, *814 



Accountants' Association : 

Convention: (Continued) 

.Proceedings, "814; Comment, 755 
Program, 496; Comment, 475 ; l hanges, 
538 

Co-Operation in accounting matters [Wil- 
son], 1024 
Accounting: 

Clearing house plan for interline traffic ac- 
counts [Kasemeier], 1250 

Continuous inventories: 

Simplifications [Carver], 818 
Use of property ledger, "815 
Value and method ot preparation [Car- 
ver], *1053 

Inconsistencies and fallacies in [Dunn], 

"775; Discussion [Forse], 937; [Wil- 
son], 1024 

Light and power accounting in relation to 

railway work [DedrickJ, 1300; Com- 
ment, 1281 

Obsolescence, Burden on future generations, 

Comment, 87 
Sinking fund accounting [Forse], 528; 

Comment, 521 
Storeroom accounting mcthoJs [Bulkeley], 

"101 

Uniformity in accounting classifications 

["Accountant"], 979 

-Uniform system of accounts, Questions and 

answers, 1078 

Value of accounting in modern industry 

[Wildman], *793 

Advertising. (See Publicity; Traffic stimula- 
tion) 

Akron, O. : 

Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Company publications, Cost and results 

[Braden], _*791 
Conductor's adjustable seat, *942 
Election of new officers, 1173 
Improvements for old-style trucks and 

brake rigging, *986 
lnterurban all-steel passenger cars, *1050 
Proposed extensions and improvements 

for 1917, 1361 
Sand-blasting of glass, *986 
Sale of company, 418 
Albany, N. Y.: 

Albany Southern R. R.: 

Annual report, 854 

Union Traction Co.: 

Different uses of pneumatic tamping 

outfits [Brennan], *1118 
Fare increase between Albany and Troy 

denied, 62; Comment, 45 
Kebuilding of old type car bodies, *980 
Single-truck cars for belt line service, 

*71 
Strike, 741 
Albia, la. : 

Albia lnterurban Ry. : 

Reorganization, n 511 
Albuquerque, N. M, : 
City Electric Co. : 

Ultra-light design of car, *59 1 
Allentown, Pa.: 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Cars of center-entrance, all-steel type 

[Fehr], *896 
Circulating water pump attachment for 

air compressor [Branson], *542 
Mounting of lamps for pit lighting, *545 
Shop reports kept by punch system 

[Branson], *454 
Wheel lathe with special face-plate 

lugs, *984 
Altoona, Pa.: 

Altoona & Logan Valley Elect. Ry.: 

Advantages of near-side stop [Hare], 
*873 

American Electric Railway Accountants' Ass'n. 

(see Accountants' Association) 
American Electric Railway Ass'n. : 

Committee appointments, 1302 

Committee meetings: 

Convention entertainment, 146, 361, 496 

Electrolysis, 235 

Executive, 1302 

Mid-year conference, 1023 

Subjects, 146 

Valuation, 498 

Committee work, Comment, 523, 1047 

Company sections: 

Capital Traction Co.. 935, *1 303, 1304 

Chicago Elevated R.R., 894, 1023, 1162, 
1303, 1351 

Connecticut Co., 66, 895, 1023, 1162, 
1253, 1304 

Denver Tramwav. 935, 987, 1207, 1304 

Manila, P. I., 235, 402, 538, 1023, 1207, 
1253 

Milwaukee. 198, 895, 935, 1207, 1350 
Newport News, 978, 1253, 1304, 1351 
Portland, Ore., 1451 

Public Service Rv., 935, 978, 1062, 1095, 

*1 303, 1351 
Washineton Rv. & Elect. Co., 935, 1062, 

1162, 1304 



American Electric Railway Assn.: (Continued) 

Convention : 

Attendance, 887 
Committee reports: 

Aera advisory, 811 
Anthony N. Brady medal, 362, 806 
Award of company section medal, 
806 

Company membership, 806 
Company sections and individual 

membership, 808 
Compensation for carrying U. S. 

mail, 807 
Constitution and by-laws, 811 
Cost of passenger transportation 

service, 806 
Electrolysis, 806 
Federal relations, 805 
Good Roads Congress, 805 
Operation of motor vehicles, 812 
Overhead and underground con- 
, struction (National Joint Com- 

• ■ mittee), 805 

' ••' f Public relations, 808 
..'.*.. ' Recommendations in president's ad- 
!.,*... dress, 813 

Social relations, 809; Special sub- 
committee, "879; Comment, 861 
Standards for car loading, 812 
Taxation matters, 812 
Valuation, 806 
Company section exhibit, *867; Com- 
ment, 522 

Entertainment committee, additional 

members appointed, 682 
Entertainments, n 850 
Papers [Baker], 804, [Kealy], *762; 

[Leach], 813; [Lee], 809; 

[Sprague], *771; [Wilson], 804; 

Comment, 754 
Plans for convention, 280, 361, 402 
President's address [Henry], *756 
Proceedings, *802; Comment, 754 
Program, 280; Comment, 475; Changes, 

538 

Special train schedule, 498 

Eight-hour law, Activity in obtaining ex- 
emption clause, 404, 461 

Election of officers, 813 

Hearing on clearance and hours of service 

bills, 25 

Manufacturers as members: 

Dues, 895 

Cist of new members, 191, 361, 1349 
Membership [Henry], *757; Comment, 

664, 755 
Reasons for, Comment, 664 
Relations with parent association, Com- 
ment, 1 

Mid-year conference program, 1252 > 

American Electric Railway Claims Ass n. (see 

Claims Association) 
American Electric Railway Engineering Assn.: 

Committee appointments, 1206, 1252 

Committee meetings: 

Block signals, 1350 

Buildings and structures, 362 

Electrolysis, 235 

Equipment, 1252 

Power generation, 1350 

Standards, 191, 235. 1252, 1349 

Committee work, Improved arrangements 

[Phillips], 1115 

Convention : 

Committee reports: 

Block signals, 826 
Buildings and structures, 835 
Electrolysis, 836 
Engineering-Accounting, 815 
Equipment, 833 
Heavy electric traction, 836 
Power distribution, 823 
Power generation, 828 
Standards, 826 

Transportation-? ngineering, 827 

Way matters, 830 
President's address, *822 
Proceedings. *822, 894; Comment, 754 
Program, 496; Comment, 475: Changes. 

538 

Election of officers, 836 

Nomination of officers, 361 

Subject assignments for \'J\fA$,l, 106,1 

American Electric Railway; .Mtiftulacturers 

Ass'n. : ;v5. ,vji' 

— Convention nctivitie-, >4V. 
American Electric Railw«r!iri£r*Wfl» r * a t«>» & 

Traffic Ass'n.: 

Committee appointments;?' frC ( 

Committee meeti ngs : 

Cost of rush lifiir st-' . 5 -' i 

Executive, 1052 

Fares and transfer i49*%ft^^HT 
Schedules and tii Mes, 1350 
Standards, 235 
Committee work, nev i'lan for, 1252: Com- 
ment, 1282 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



IV 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



American Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic Assn.: (Continued) 

Convention : 

Committee reports: 
■Block signals, 826 
Claims-'! ransportation, 839 
Company publications, 846 
Cost of rush-hour service, 842 
Express and freight traffic, 844 
Fares and transfers, 843 
Passenger traffic, 840 
Schedules and timetables, 838 
Standards, 838 

Transportation-Engineering, 827 
Uniform definitions, 841 

Papers [Braden], *791; [Bradley], 
*768; [Carraway], *792; [Doneck- 
er], 795; [HildJ, *787; [King], 
*797; [Wheelwright], *789 

President's address, *837 

Program, 497; Comment, 475; Changes, 
538 

Proceedings, *837; Comment, 754 
Executive committee adopts changes in con- 
stitution, 362 

Subject assignments for 1916-1917, 1063 

American Industrial Commission's activities, 381 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Annual meeting at Lleveland, O., $5 ' , 

American Kys. (see Philadelphia, Pa,)' i , , ' 
American Railway Ass'n.: t « i je 

Prevention of accidents at grade crossings, 

♦270 '* 
American Railway Engineering Ass'n.: 

Kail-joint mechanical tests, *940 

Treatment of fence posts, 498 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Design of electric locomotives, [Batchel- 

der], 977; [Quereau], 1203 
American Society for Testing Materials: 

Elastic limit denned, 23; Comment, 1 

Anderson, Ind. : 

Union Traction Co.: 

Accounting inconsistencies and fallacies 

[Forse], 937 
Enameling vs. painting and varnishing 

of cars [Hemming], 1208 
Financial statement, 696 
Grand County fare case, n 80 
Headlight practice and tests [Hem- 
ming], * 1 354 
Sinking fund accounting [Forse] 528; 

Comment, 52.1 
Testing axles for defects [Hemming], 

*1025, n 1114 
Unit for track maintenance costs 

[Mitchell], 403 
Work car with large cab, * 1 50 
Appraisal of railway property: 
Bay State fare case, Commission's final rul- 
ing, 444; Comment, 428 

Continuous inventories (see Accounting) 

Definition of twenty-one valuation terms, 

807 

Depreciation and reserve fund calculations 

[Loebenstein], * 1057 
Field work and preparation of appraisal 

data [Kuhn], *315 
Inventories should be classified for appraisal 

use [Betts], 1052 
Maine Commission's book appraisal of 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street 

Ky. for rate making, *180 
Minneapolis (Minn.) Street Ry. valuation 

figures, 902 

Obsolescence, Burden on future generations, 

Comment, 87 
-Overhead charges in Bay State Street Ry. 

fare case, 311 
Overhead charges in valuation work 

[Kealy], *762 
Planning appraisals and handling company 

records in appraisal [Kuhn], *97 
Suggested basis for fixing rates [Cooper], 

1060 

— — Valuation for rate making [Benton], *782 
■ Washington, D. C, Valuation agreement 

with Capital Traction Co., 1316 
Apprentice courses needed by electric railways, 

Comment, 213 
Arbitration (see Strikes and arbitrations) 
Aroostook Valley R.R. (see Presque Isle, Me.) 
Association of Railway Electrical Engineers: 

Convention at Chicago, 111., 975 

AtlantjywGa. : 

Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Advertisements to develop favorable 

public opinion, 162 
Strike, n 509, n 740, n S53, 1 262 
- Wasc increase, 1 ,«6II 
Atlantic City, N. I.: 

- Atlantic City & Shore R.R. : 

Sleet cutter and third-rail shoe com- 
bined [Blaiklock], *729 
Transformer - for testing field coils 
[Faber], *364 

\. ' -"usta-Spfen Ry. & Elect. Corp'n.: 

Aiv.mal report, 374 

Auroi -.'JBgin & Chicago R.R. (see Wheaton, 

■Hi.) 

Australia : 

New South Wales government railways, 

Financial statement, 695 



Automatic stops: 

Boston, Mass., Test of derailing device, 

♦1202 

Drawbridge safety stopping devices, * 1 102 ; 

[Strauss], *1210 
To be developed by special department on 

New Haven R.R., n 24 
Automobiles, Adaptation to track operation in 

southern California, *285; Comment, 300 
Automobile tower wagon practice on Union Ry. 

(N. Y. City), *90; Comment, 89 
Automobile trucks, Uses and design of (White), 

*152 

Axles: 

Button-end axles, Repair practice in Long 

Island R.R. shops [Mills], *193 

Button-end axles reduce wear [Graham], 

278 

Modern practice, 634 

Report of A. E. R. A. committee on equip- 
ment, 833 

Testing of axles, Anderson, Ind. [Hem- 
ming], *1025, n 1114 

B 

Bakersfield, Cal. : 

Bakersfield & Kern Elect. Ry.: 

Jitney buses operated by company lose 
money, 39 
Baltimore, Md.: 

United Rys. & Elect. Co.: 

Circular showing increase in company's 
service and decrease in value of 
the nickel, *279 
Insurance plan for employees adopted, 79 
Service order complied with, n 40 
'tracks in residential section made at- 
tractive, *142 
Traffic conditions explained to commis- 
sion, n 221 
Vestibuling open-platform cars, *302; 

Comment, 299 
Wage increase, n 740 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elect. 

R.R.: 

Catenary construction, Reinforcement 
of splices [Harding], *684 
Baltimore & Ohio Ry.: 

— — Reminiscences of electrification of belt-line 

[Kennedy], 26 
liangor, Me.: 

Bangor Ry. & Elect. Co.: 

Strike, n 414, n 463, n 508 

Wages increased, n 373 
Bay State Street Ry. (see Boston, Mass.) 
Hearings : 

— —Babbitting jig for armature bearings 

[Brown], *1116 
Babbitting practice in New York City 

[Johnson], *237 
Ball bearing journal boxes [Bruenauer], 

*541 

Bronze inserts for armature bearings, Bos- 
ton, Mass. [Blanchard], *1305 

Elimination of loose armature bearings in 

Kansas City Ry. shops, *369 

Reduction of hot boxes, Boston, Mass. 

[Blanchard], *1212 

Roller bearings applied to electric hoists 

(Economy Engineering Co.), *690 

Beaumont, Tex. : 

Beaumont Traction Co.: 

Wage increase, n 509 

Beaver Valley Tr. Co. (see New Brighton, Pa.) 

Benton Harbor, Mich.: 

Benton Harbor-St. Joe Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Bin-tag system for stock room, *323 
Center door cars, *366 
Portable air compressor for shop use, 
, *544 

Rail grinder made of scrapped mate- 
rials, *545 

Berkshire Street Ry. (see Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Binghamton, N. Y. : 

Binghamton Ry. : 

Service improvements to stimulate traf- 
fic,, *709 
Boilers and equipment: 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Ry., Steam produc- 
ing equipment of power station, * 1 1 90 

Increasing capacity of return-tubular type 

(United Furnace Corp'n), *1309 

Stokers: 

Modern practice in mechanical stoking 

[Van Brunt], 1255 
Underfeed type [Moloch], *985 
Bonds (see Rail joints and bonds) 
Boston, Mass.: 

—Bay State Street Ry.: 
Fare case: 

Arlington fare case submitted to 

commission by court, n 40 
B. J. Arnold's report, *13 
Comment, 88, 214, 428 
Company's final brief ; 189 
Final ruling of commission, n 412, 
444 

New fare schedule, 514 
Overhead charges, 311 
President Sullivan's testimony. 121 
Reports of commission's engineers, 
80 

Result of fare increases on traffic 
in Massachusetts, 250 



Boston, Mass. : 

■ Bay State Street Ry. : (Continued) 

Fare case decision contains encourage- 
ment [Observer], 683 

Freight service plan approved by com- 
mission, n 1039 

Lowell extension not required by com- 
mission, n 698 

One-man car approved by commission, 
n 911 

Park sale authorized by commission, 
n 1361 

Rail-grinding practice (Seymour), *30 
Wage agreement, n 693, 1072, n 1125 

Boston & Maine R.R. : 

Financial statement, 1037 

Boston Elevated Ry. : 

Annual report, 948 
Center-door steel motor-cars, *263 
Changes in personnel of organization, 
n 1361 

Commission's order for new cars and 

track work, n 162 
Commission's service investigation, 

n 513 

Company not liable for acts of em- 
ployees off duty, n 351 

Defense of city ownership with private 
operation, 1201 

Drawbridge accident, n 1034, n 1074, 
*1102; Comment, 1048 

Drawbridge safeguarding for railway 
operation [Johnson], 1339; Com- 
ment, 1327 

Drawbridge safety devices, Proposed 
types, *1102, *1202 

Drawbridge safety regulations, 1146 

Financial relief sought before legisla- 
tive committee, n 248, *671, 721, 
n 741, 852, n 991, 1077, 1201, 
n 1219, 1267; Comment, 665, 1168 

Freight service plan before commission, 
n 995; n 1039 

Handling of baseball crowds, n 910; 
Comment, 1089 

Near-side stop, Advantages of [Rey- 
nolds], *872 

Presidency changes hands, 555, n 548; 
Comment, 521 

Psychology and economical habits 
[Bancroft], 1289 

Safety kits provided for employees, 
n 290 

Storage yards and station improvement! 
to accommodate increased traffic, 
*258 

Subway extension put in operation, 
n 1216 

Track reconstruction work, *942 
Transfer case hearing, n 1272 
Wage agreement, n 75, 154; Comment, 
n 130 

Wood preserving plant of pressure type 
[Bright], *1065 
Boston & Worcester Street Ry. : 

Bronze inserts used for armature bear- 
ings [Blanchard], 1305 

Car inspection record system [Blanch- 
ard], *1352 

Financial statement, 1036 

Reduction of hot boxes, Boston, Mass. 
[Blanchard], *1212 
Bowling Green, O. : 

Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Ry. 

Commission without jurisdiction to pre- 
vent abandonment of line, 697 

Brakes : 

Brake valve with safety features for one 

man cars (Safety Car Devices), *405 

Energy saving by efficient braking [Arthur], 

397; Comment, 385 

Friction-clutch brake in use in Sacramento, 

Cal., *325 

Modern developments in air brakes for 

electric railway cars, *636 

Modern slack adjusters, *640 

Regenerative braking, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

locomotives, *888; Comment, 1090 
Slack adjuster (Anderson Brake Adjuster 

Co), *690 

Slack adjuster (Gould), *1358 

Slack adjuster (Smith- Ward), *738 

Brazil: 

Bahia Tramway, Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Municipality disregards obligations to 
bondholders, 1363; Comment, 1327 
Brazilian Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Toronto, Car..) 
Bristol, Tenn.: 

Bristol Traction Co.: 

Cars converted for one-man operation, 
39 

Bristol &. Norfolk Street Ry. (see Randolph, 
Mass.) 

British Columbia Elect. Ry. (see \ aucouver, 

B C ) 
Brooklyn, N, Y.: 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 332 

Car and service requirements of com- 
mission, 1317, n 1367 

Employees' Benefit Ass'n., 277, 412, 
n 719 

Gage for cutting test pieces of rubber in 
cable testing [McKelway], '983 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



W4A^fc(;i?;Miii:R, 191* 



TNDEX 



3h»sH«(#ivii K 

BKi asoliin 
noil* oq* 



: (Continued) 
c > 1 1 c- 1 ating costs 



iairi ol 



i*.Fjii 

UK , 



rransit < 
line road-roller 
' [Cram], *1163 

(•ouling tool for surfacing pavements 

KramJ, *1065 
listening of feeder pipes to vertical 
j columns [Tanis]. "1257 
^Iteh-pouring cone for paving work 
'ii* [Cram], "1255 
I .Prediction of future transit develop- 

n. t-iits [Williams], n 1032 
BUuarterly income statement, 949 

Mail bonds, Protectio i from theft [Mc- 
jl Kelway], "1165 I 
Safety hist work in schools, n 81, n 698 
JHtorage yard for heavy materials, use 
in lalior-sav.ng equipment [CramJ', 
*1284; Comment. J 28 1 
Strike threatened, "J29, 277, 719 
Transfers, Method ut printing, * 2 1 6 
li'iat'k layout standards L Bernard], " 14S 
I'vatk iiiainlcnanee c.o-l unit difficult to 

obtain [Cram], 3o3 
pulley suspension hr.ickct arms of un- 
I,, usual length [McKelway], *684 
t Mrolley trough switch [McKelway], 
3 I "237 

to ■'rolley wire maintenance inspection 
[McKelway], 1026 
U age increase, 4 I 2 
New York Municipal Ky. : 
ni Additional rapid transit lines proposed 
for Brooklyn, n 461, n 947 
Bonding of 150 1b, third-rait, • "1692; 
[Febrey], \'S2 
MlHtala Circuit-breaker installation fjl I K.), 
*1357 

Dour operating mcchauisni foi new 
iway ears (Katiottil Piettmatic), 
195 

I 't.echt \vin line "V< >" i 35, 

Brooklyn & Kv? i «9ver 11 1!, (see New York 

City) ,jf ot*» /V-t- 

"Buffalo, LbtH.pot t & Rochester Ry (see Roches- 
ter N". Yd 
Buffalo. N. Y. : 

buffalo S BHe Ry. : 

Light-weight, flush-pi. it form design of 
car. S&3 
'iiffolo Southern Ry. : 

Strike results in effort to remove re- 
ceiver, n 113, n 157; Proposed 
strike agree nent fails, n 24n; P. mi- 
age done by strikers, n 331; Busi- 
ness loss, n 415 Settlement, 5 In 
^ittti-lMirfBbj & Wellesville R.R.: 

Abandonment of road, n 990 
terv.ational Ry. : 

Aerial tramwav over Niagara Falls, 
rjgMfr *1022 

Employees' tickets of new design, "359 
Fire destroys sixteen cars, n 24<> 
Preparedness parade causes rerouting 
of cars n 164 
' ^Transfer regulations, Publication or- 
a B Wflr dered by court, n 996 

Fax and fare ease, n 508. n 699, n 742, 
n 910, n 947, n 1039 
■i-J_i-Int**f»ational Traction Co.: 

'■'bAAnual report, 417 
IJ'aieau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce to 
B jiff™"* - * itl^estigate railway equipment market in 
Eastern countries, n 382 
llil'tnii 9f Standards (V. S.) : 
— — Power service standards, 720 

-Safety code published, n 1059 
Burlington, la.: 
-._^nttrlinRton Ry. & Ft. Co.: 

Motor trucks, with steel-flanged wheek 
-i OE boll*; used as work ears, * 1070 
.l'<i4i$»}l$|!. M., K Co. see Chicago) 

I io >4o, 

c 

PSrWe caused by melting of insulation. 1070 
-i+nFS»i«|J|!6plini.' of tabes in manholes |Il'o.ee]. 
„ 1068, ["Conduit" 1. 1305 
RuleT for insulation tests on d.c. feeders, 
' "«$86 

T$5t£hg1 instrument for locating gr tnds 

iSjp^ffatthews & Pro.), *1213 
-ISee .also F'eeders) 
4 ratetl'aiwaimachines in railway work (Monroe/, 
to I ,735 
Calgary. Can. : 

t.alya,ry Street Ry. : 

Equipment and operating features, *962 
>Gali&rmaW 

"litniev regulative measures passed at elec- 

:]iHMn, n 1081 
Railroad Commission: 

Electric transmission safety orders, n 724 
Hirisdiction over interurban bases, n 1368 
School children's fares held discrimina- 
tory, n 1223 

Statistics showing si7e of railway industry 

ibi* California. 462 
California' Electric Railway Association: 
m — jrlBlSwieW of the California jitney situation, 

A — f-Sa{aty; appeal sent to automobile owners, 
u,,294 



<& t 

of'. , 

:|i f 



Canadian government ownership of rail- 
roads a failure. Comment, 169 

Canadian Railway Club: 

Railway publicity [Thompson], 1346 

Electric railway conditions during I 15, 119 

Municipal railways operating at a lo: , n 1267 

Canadian Electric Railway Association: 

Annual meeting and election of officers in 

Toronto, Can., 281 
Canton, Mass.: 

Norwootl, Canton & Sharon Street Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1081 
Capital Traction Co. (See Washington, D. C.) 
Car design: 

Construction materials and framing for mod- 
ern cars, "595 

Double-deck car body design suggested. St. 

Joseph, Mo„ *1030 

■ Floor and step heights for modern cars, 576 

■ Interest in recent developments, Comment, 

663 

■ Lengths for modern cars, *585 

— —Low-floor cars discussed, *573 

Modern cars, Design and construction, *56l 

Obsolete equipment expensive to operate, 

Comment, 1328 

P. A. Y. E. car evolution in Montreal, Can. 

[Gaboury], *1 1 63 

Practical details often overlooked [Inspector 

of Car Equipcent], 238 

Rebuilding cars for rush-hour service, She- 
boygan, Wis. [Shaw], * 194 ; Connecticut 
Co., *1069 

Rebuilding old-type car bodies, Albany, 

N. Y., _*980 

Rebuilt equipment may be economical, Com- 
ment, 918 

t Safetv developments, n 85 

— Standardization suggestions [Ileulines], 1371 

Standard weights for electric cars [Clardy], 

283 

— r-Truss-side construction for steel cars [Still- 
well], *112, 1208; Comment. 1140 

Vestibuling of onen-platform cars in Balti- 
more, Md., *302; Comment. 299 

Widths for modern car bodies, 591 

Widths of aisles and cross-seats for modern 

city cars, 592 

Carhouses and storage yards: 

Cleveland (O.) Rv.. Description of new stor- 
age yards, *132 

Material storage vard of Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., Types and uses of labor- 
saving machinery, [Cram], *284; Com- 
ment, 1281 

-Office made from an old car, *326 

— '■ — Shop yards beautified by employees in Port- 
land, Ore , 490: Comment. 475 

Water heater of home-make [Werth], *364 

Cars: 

Albany. N. Y., New, single-truck, lightweight 

units. *71 

Albuquerque, N. M., Ultra-light design, *591 

— — Allentown, Pa., Center-entrance, all steel 

design [Fehr,]. *896 
Benton Harbor, Mich., Center-door tvpe. 

*366 

Boston Elevated Rv., New center-door steel 

motor-cars, *263 
Buffalo & Erie Ry., Low-floor, light-weight, 

flush-platform design, *562 
-Chattahoochee Valley Ry., Storage battery 

car, *368 

Cleaning. (See Cleaning of cars) 

Caso'ine. (See Gasoline cars) 

— ■ — Heating. (See Heating of cars) 

Inspection. (See Inspection of cars) 

Interurban all-steel passenger cars, Northern 

Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co., *1050 

Modern types, General discussion of design 

and equipment. *561 

One-man. (See One-man cars.) 

Rebuilt cars. (See Car design) 

Repair-part stock discussed by manufactur- 
ers. 1135. 1183, 1 325 

Rochester, N. Y . Front-entrance, center- 
exit car. *570; [Cook], *1234; Com- 
ment, 1231 

Salt Lake & Oeden R.R., Semi-convertible 

trailers, *104 

— 1 — Steam motor car in use on Vermont railroad 
(Laconia), *506 

■ Vancouver, B. C, Open air, roofless design 

for summer travel, *401 

Ventilation. (See Ventilation of cars) 

Washington (D. C.) Ry. & Elect. Co., Re- 
modeled private car, *1029 

Weights and dimensions of recent double- 
truck city cars, 565; Single-truck cars, 
565: One-man cars, 566; Interurban 
cars, 566 

Work. (See Work cars) 

Car unloading equipment: 

Floist used in Detroit, Mich.. *236 

Incline used in Dallas, Tex., *941 

Catenary construction. (See Overhead contact 
system) 

Cedarburg, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Northern Ry. : 

Voltage regulating system for car light- 
ing, *1258 

Cedar Rapids, la.: 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Selling of stock to patrons, '356 



working 



[.lack |, 



Central Electric Railway Accountants' Ass'n: 
Meeting in Cincinnati, O., Proceedings, 1249; 

Paper [Kasemcicr], 1250 
Central Kleetrie Ivailway Ass'n.: 
Engineering subdivision needed, Comment, 

1139; [Henry], 1254 

Meeting in June held on lake steamer, 23, 63 

Meeting in Toledo, O., 1147; Papers [Clapp], 

1110; [Coates], 1154; [Coen], 1109; 

[Mackalll, M151; [Rumney], 1150; 

[Dedrick], 1300; Comment, 1281 
Charleston, W. Va. : 
Charleston Interurban R.R.: 

Power contract, n 116 
Charlotte, N. C: 
Piedmont S: Northern Ry.: 

Flood causes severe damage, n 145, "188 
Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Company publications. Editing and dts 
tribution [Carraway], *792 

Newspapers as a medium of publicity 
[Carraway], 936 

One-man car operating experiences 
[FZrvin], M44 

Wage increase, n 990 
Charlottesville, Va.: 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry. Co.: 

Operator's name displayed in one-man 
cars [Livers], *726 

Chattanooga, Tenn. : 

Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Double routed cars, * 357 
Strike, n 372, n 415; New 
agreement, 946 

Chattahoochee Valley Ry. : 

Storage battery car, *368 

( hester, Pa. : 

Southern Pennsylvania Tr. Co.: 

Precautions against accidents 
1294 
Chicago, 111.: 

Byllesby, H. M., & Co.: 

Safety-first campaigns among children, 
n 82 

Selling securities to patrons, *264, n 854, 
Comment, 256; Interest in subject 
spreading [Hodge], 403 
Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Advertising campaign to stimulate traffic, 
*359 

Annual report, 1315 

Safety record for past eight years, n 122 

Chicago & Interurban Tr. Co.: 

Franchise renewed in Blue Island, 111., 
n 945 -' 

Chicago Surface Lines: 

Traffic investigation of Loop district by 
B. O. S. E., *183, *218, *271 

Chicago & West Towns Ry. : 

Court upholds railway in rate increase 
case, 987 

Middle West Utilities Co.: 

Financial statement, 205 

Preparedness parade causes rerouting of 

loop-district cars, n 9 
Booklet on subsidiaries, n 182 

Rapid transit plans: 

Inspection tour in New York City, 

n 1075, n 1123 
Report of Chicago Traction & 
Commission, * 1 197, 1297: 
ment, 1231; 1232 
Traction report of I?. O. 
n 1021 

Standard Gas & Elect. Co.: 

Union station proposal of Illinois 

R.R., *537, n 990; Electrification plans, 
n 1311; Comment, 1329 
Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (See 

Michigan City, Ind ) 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.: 

Financial and operating statement. 993 

High candle-power headlights on electric 

locomotives, 323 
■ Locomotives of regenerative, axle-mounted- 
motor type, *888; Comment, 861, 1004, 
1090 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R. (See 

Highwood, III.) 
Chicaao, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (See Toliet, 111.) 
Chicago & .Toliet Elect. Ry. (See Toliet, 111.) 
Chicago & Milwaukee Elect. R.R. (See Chicago, 

North Shore & Milwaukee R.R. under 

Highwood, 111.) 
Chico. Cal.: 

Northern Electric Ry. : 

Reorganization proceedings, 743, n 909 
Chosen (Corea) : 

Operating statistics of railroads, 695 

Cincinnati, O.: 

Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Companv objects to proposed extensions, 
n 330 

Fare case, 244, n 245 

Financial condition determined for rate 

making, 244 
Hearing on valuation for fixing fares in 

new franchise, 201 
Track maintenance unit for comparing 

costs [Berry], 403 
Traffic report on proposed loop, n 1313 
Wage agreement accepted, 74 
City Lt. & Tr. Co. (See Sedalia, Mo.) 



Subway 
Com- 



E. issued. 



Central 



^f>m»P-^9mr;-i ft N^Hftte&.'l » Slip, t.^ ^ej^^^i.) 

mm mm m&mmmmi m the hkcunmno of, ih$ *nup* 



VI 



....... ^ 



"873; 
*878; 
*877; 



Claims Association: 
Convention : 

Committee reports, 819, 821, 839; *879 

Papers and discussions [Brown], *87e; 
[Green], *868; [Hare], 
[Reynolds], *872; [Rice], 
[Tynan], 870; [Walch], 
[Winsor], *874 

President's address, *820 

Proceedings, *820 

Program, 497; Comment, 475; Changes, 

538 

Social relations, Special committee's re- 
port on employees' benefit associa- 
tions, *879; Comment, 861 
Cleburne, Tex.: 

Cleburne Street Ry. : 

Abandonment of line, n 1173 
Cleveland, O.: 

Bridge wrecked by runaway car, * 723 

— — Cleveland Ky. : 

Dipping equipment for painting car 
fenders [Ebeling], *321 

East Cleveland franchise discussed, 
n 115, n 1035 

Financial statement, n 1267 

Measuring granite block yardage by 
weight, M10 

Method of flushing city streets [Ebel- 
ing], *64 

Ohio compensation act [Green], *868 

Portable controller for shop use [Ebel- 
ing], *685 

Power contract controversy, 547, n 853, 
n 906, n 947, n 1034, 1074, 1123, 
n 1217, n 1315 

Steam flow meters. Application to re- 
ciprocating engines [Phillips], *728 

Storage yards at Denison Avenue and 
Harvard Avenue, * 1 32 

Tax dispute settled, n 158 

Track renewal caused by corrosion, * 545 
Lake Shore Elect. Ry. : 

Taxation and regulation problems 
[Coen], 1109 
Ohio State Pr. Co., Power plant at Fremont, 

*1343 

Rapid transit financing plan, n 1034, n 1172 

Coal handling machinery of Holyoke (Mass.) 

Street Ry. power station, * 1 1 90 
Coal situation in Central States, Reasons for 

shortage, 1251; Comment, 1003 
Coasting (see Energy consumption) 
Color blindness, New tests for, Comment, 88 
Colorado : 

Public Utilities Commission: 

Authority upheld by Supreme Court, 
n 1362 

Free transportation made unlawful, 
n 122 

Colorado Elect. Lt., Pr. & Ry. Ass'n : 
— — Convention, 724 
Columbus, Ga.: 

Columbus R.R.: 

Master mechanic's office made from an 
old car, *326 
Columbus, O. : 

Columbus Ry., Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Annual report, 1077 

Safety work on electric railways 

[Clapp], 1110 
Storeroom methods [Bulkeley], * 1 1 
Company publications (see Publicity) 
Company Sections (see American Electric Rail- 
way Ass'n.) 

Concreting precautions for cold weather work, 
458 

Connecticut Co. (see New Haven, Conn.) 
Contact systems (see Overhead contact system; 

Third-rail contact system) 
Controllers and wiring: 

C, M. & St. P. locomotive control equip- 
ment, *888 

Control equipment for low floor cars (West- 

inghouse), *735 
Compressor circuits protected by potential 

relays on Long Island R.R. [Bleck- 

wedel], *454 
Fuse cabinet sealed to assure supply of 

fuses [Mullett], *29 
• General discussion on control systems for 

modern cars, *651 
Ratchet switch for eliminating arcing, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. [Cook], *1235 
Two-unit car control, equipment, Toledo, O. 

(Westinghouse), *738 
Corrugation of rails (see Rails) 
Couplers : 

Modern practice, 640 

Cranes, Different types and operating practice 
for material storage yards [Cram], 
*1284: Comment, 1281 

Crossing signals (see Signals) 

Cuba: 

Havana Electric Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Difficulties with double trolley system 

and small street clearances, *367 
Operating data of new power plant, 72 
Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Port- 
land, Me.) 
Current collecting devices: 

Modern practice and equipment, *659 

, Welding broken trolley poles in Kansas 

City, Mo., 198 



INDEX 



D 



[Vol. JfcVHtf 

V 



Dallas, Tex.: 

City's right to regulate jitneys sustained by 

court, n 952 

Dallas Consolidated Electric Street Ry. : 

Method of unloading new cars, *941 

Express terminal plans, n 947 

Local ownership and valuation controversy, 

370, 414, n 692, 903, 987, n 1033, 1122, 
n 1170, n 1217 

Terminal station for interurban lines 

[Moore], *525; Comment, 522; Correc- 
tion, 713 

Texas Elect. Ry. incorporates to consolidate 

Texas Traction Co. and Southern Trac- 
tion Co., n 117, 205 

Davenport, la.: 

—United Lt. & Rys. : 

Electric-welded joint practice [Smith], 
♦68 

Denver, Col.: 

Denver & South Platte Ry. : 

Supreme Court upholds State Commis- 
sion in fare case [Wells], 96 

Denver Tramway: 

Unit for comparing track maintenance 

cosU [West] 500 
Company publications [Hild], *787 
Financial statement, n 158 
Rapid track laying to accommodate mo- 
bilization of troops, n 147 
"Tramway Bulletin" improved, n 1080 
Wage increase request withdrawn, n 1126 
Depreciation (see Appraisal of railway property) 
Des Moines, la.: 

Des Moines City Ry. : 

Equipment installed in rebuilt cars 
M027 

Safety first plans, n 1130 

Derricks (See Cranes) 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit United Railway: 

Carhouse destroyed by fire, n 75 
Fare case won by company, 1271 
Freight and express traffic on electric 

railways [Rumney], 1150 
Method of unloading new cars [Potter], 
*236 

Painted arrows on pavement indicate 
location of car stops, n 163 

Proposed office building and carhouse, 
n *720 

Skip-stop operation, n 123, 162, 208 
Water heater, Home-made [Werth], 
*364 

District of Columbia (see Washington, D. C.) 
Doherty, H. L., & Co. See New York City ) 
Doors, seats and windows: 

Conductor's adjustable seat, Akron, O., *942 

Door and control interlocking, 657 

-'Door arrangement for modern cars. * 5 7 7 

Door control attachment on brake valve 

(Safety Car Devices), M05 
General discussion on modern door opera- 
tion, *613 

General discussion on modern seat design, 

*618 

Modern practice in window and curtain con- 
struction, 620 

New tyne door engine (Consolidated Car 

Heating). *69 

New York Municipal Ry. Corp'n., Door op- 
erating mechanism for new subway cars 
(National Pneumatic), * 195 

Vestibuling of open-platform cars in Balti- 
more, Md., *302: Comment, 299 

Washington Ry. & Elect. Co.. Seats for con- 
ductors permitted, n 1368 

Drawbridee protective devices, *1 102. * 1 202 ; 
[Strauss], M210 

Drawbridge safeguarding for railway operation 
[Johnson], 1339; Comment. 1327 

Drawbridge safety regulations, 1146 



Earnings of electric railways (see Financial) 
Fastern Pennsylvania Rys. (see Pottsville, Pa.) 
Fast St. Louis, 111.: 

East St. Louis & Suburban R.R.: 

One-man car permit sustained by Cir- 
cuit Court, n 123 

Elastic limit defined by A. S. T. M., 23; Com- 
ment, 1 

Electrical industries rapid growth [Steuart], 
*779 

Flect'-ic Railway Journal: 

Convention issue. Comment, 663; Letters of 

approval [Lewis], 895; [Cooper], 895 

-Convention report issues, Comment, 706 

Electric railways: 

Combination apainst union domination nec- 
essary, 453; Comment, 427 

Concerted action desirable in efforts to in- 
crease income, Comment, 477 

Condit ; ons to be met after war [Henry], 

*756 

Co-operation with technical schools, Com- 
ment, 170 

Discrimination of accident insurance asso- 
ciations against. Comment, 171 

English custom of honoring railway offi- 
cials contrasted with American prac- 
tice, Comment, 1231 




ones], 



Electric- railways: (Continued; 
Engineering development of 

railway [Sprague], *771 
Federal inquiry into railway tra 

problems provided for, n 157| 
Financial and operating stueist.i 

halt of 1916, 551 
Future status of the street railwa 

1157 „ ... „ 
Interurban lines, Analysis of financial and 

other developments [DoolittleJ, 6:.. 
Interurban railway outlook LBoardman], 

!■ 

-Jitney operation creates demand for quicker 

service on Pacific Coast, Continent, 707 
Possible service in ease of steam n droad 

strike, Comment, 383 
■- Preparedness movement on electric railways 
(see Preparedness) 
['pigrcs-s suiiiniai i/c.l in special? issue of 

London "mectrician," 712 'E3 
— Publication oi salaries, Comment, 662 
War-time conditions in England, it 404 

Employees : 

Apprentice systems needed by electric rail- 
ways. Comment, 213 
Board ot discipline established in Indian- 
apolis, Ina., 1073 
Com; .iiiv built houses for employees of Nor- 
folk & Western Ry.. n *194« 

Co-operation urged by superintendent's open 

feller, Juliet, 111., n 2U7 
T*©Tj|bc.-opeTation witli technical schools in train- 
ing men, Comment, 170 
■ -— Correspond, m . course; conducted by Penn- 
sylvania K.K., n 96 
-H3~iviglit;honr. , laiw,. Clause exempting electric 

railways', n 404, 401 
vMn-EftrVipcai. *.■<• » effect on wages and labor 
.(DhsmuaWeJiryoL *760 

—Experience ordinances repealed: 

,lt a ,t-.*M#">«t-"i'". M.-^i ■ , ,! ! ..' 

rr H»Bnt Vernon? N. Y.,,)*! 740 
jf-nrtl'und'amentnls of in -'ual • detn.QOrafl' 
I \V est. in], 1205 
— Cr» wince committees organ -ed . in , Ke* 
York 'City companies, ' 371 

Individual contracts: 

( omment, 169, 42F, 7117 
History in I ndiaiiapofis, 678 
\cw \ ork i it, . +13, '449, 507 
I bird Avenue (New ¥<M4e> Ky 
erf es, 1"9, u 1216 

Insurance : 

Emplovees receive policies aS"Chfi 

presents, Manhattan & Queens Tr. 
Corp'n, N. V. City, n 1361 
(.roup iiisuiance f oi railwajtB' 1 [Cham- 
berlain], 1291 
\ew lerse ..n • i vitii.n 

nan], 870 •»/ 
( Ihio's compensation act [Green], *868 
Plan adople.l in ]!altimore„,.Md., 79 
Plan of II ud .on-Manhattan Co., New 

York City, 553 
I "nder employees' mutual benefit asso- 
ciations, 'K79; Commentk'861 
I 'nder mutual company, Comment, 170 
I 'nder workmen's compensation law, (10: 

Comment, 47 
Workmen's compensation laws pnt ;t- 
prcl'-d by recent court decisions. 
Comment, 131 

Laboi shortage acute on eastern),! rail' 

n 1215 r.H 
-Labor-saving device- and high wage*,: I 
ment, 1281 mtk/I 
-Large nuiiilu r of i uiployees noi 
public, Comment, 383 

al ' > .'Minna i ■ : ■ i , I . • . - .1 

kee. Wis. [Lemon], 494 

Milwaukee, Wis., W.-lfarc association a 

itie- | Hall], *44l ; Loan funds [_-B,3 ] 
726 

-Mutual benefit as-nriai ions. Report of 

K \. committee', 87'' : Comment, 861 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Co., Be- 
ta, L of c,-(.n, in i i ve- plan 
*968; Comment, 960 

— . — Profit sharing a possible solutWPTW dbrb'jT 
(roubles, Comnnut, 341 o01 

Psuhologv of ecoiU'tini al habits' rWaMHmii 1 , 

Publication of salaries, C ommentjnfcB* 1 — - 

Public service corporal ions and 1Kb 

man [Shonts], 1237 
-fnbbc utility labor di rules, Pain 
the Academy of Political S 
Comment, 1139 

Railways should combine against 

ination, 453; Comment, 42" 

Shop workmen should know rel 

available material [Vulcan] 

Shortage of labor necessitates ad 

platform men, n 1360 

Social meetings as an aid in co 

agement, Comment, 300 

Tests for color blindness, Coramt, 88 

_ —Training of men for executive po^itioi 5 
[Bradley], *768 

Training platform men by tr&^eline 

struct.. rs in Ivrnvi' Citv, Mo!y' 1 

Training platform men t > handle public n 

Minneapolis and St 'aril, Mtnn., 13!) 

Traveling experts, Plar adopted^y ^ L. 

Doherty & Co., *49l; Comment, 476 



_e, llOo; 
YTfigtt 
WrrO-n>- 

,s,ng _f... 



(Abbreviations: * Illnst rated.- n Short- news item.) .. 

KKAiy iWg 1 instrttc'ttonM at thk irnofNNlWW the indiox 



July-December, 1916] 



INDEX 



VII 



Employees: (Continued ) 
— —-Wage increases: 

Atlanta, Ga., 1360 

Baltimore, Md., n 740 

Bangor (Me.) Ky. & Elect. Co., II 373 

Bay State Street Ky., 1072 

Beaumont, Tex., n 509 

Berkshire Street Ry., n 35 

Boston Elevated Ky.. a 7a, n 154; Coin 
ment, 130 

Brooklyn (IN. Y.) Rapid Transit Co., 

Chattanooga, Tom., 946 
Chicago & Joliut Elect. Ky., n 203 
Cincinnati (O.) Traction Co., 74 
Galveston, Tex., n 463 
Rarrisburg, Pa., 200 
tiolyoke, Mass., n 906, 1172 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., 
114 

luterborotigh Rapid Transit Co., New 

York City, *232, 413 
Kansas City (Mo. J Rys., n 1125 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R.R., 

n 510 
Louisville, Ky., n 509 
Memphis (Tenn.) Street Ry., 291 
Mount Vernon, N. Y., 75 
Nashville, Tenn., n 463 
New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co., n 

291 

New York Rys., »229, 507 

Niagara (N. Y.) Gorge Ky., n 549 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., n 415 

Port Arthur, Tex., n 548 

Quebec, Can., 1361 

Kockland (Me.), Thomaston & Camden 

Street Ky., n 291 
Schenectady, N. Y., n 549 
Southern Public Utilities Co., n 990 
Springeld, Mass., 73 

Third Avenue Ry., New York City, n 546 
Trenton & Mercer County (N. J.) Tr. 

Corp'n, 156 
United Kys. of St. Louis, 1315 
Worcester, Mass., 73 
Yonkers, N. Y., 75 

-Wage question from economic and political 

standpoints, Comment, 1048 

Wages, Government regulation favored by 

National Municipal League, 1200 

Wages, Government regulation of, Com- 
ment, 1139 

Welfare work, Kansas City (Mo.) Rys., 670 

Energy consumption: 

Coasting recorder maintenance on Long 

Island R.R. [Bleckwedel], *983 
Energy losses in car operation require spe- 
cial study, Comment, 429 
Fundamentals of energy saving in car opera- 
tion [Arthur], 397; Comment, 385 

Modern devices for saving energy, *658 

Starting effort tests on cars [Ewing], *974 

Visualizing energy losses, Comment, 89 

Engineering Ass'n. (see American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Ass'n.) 
England (see Great Britain) 
Experience ordinances (see Employees) 
Export trade, Comment, 1327 
Express. (See Freight and express) 



Fare collection: 

Combination fare-box and register (Am. 

Rys. Equipment Co.), * 1 309 

Front-end collector's transfer in Kansas 

City, Mo., *57 

Front-end fare collectors used in Vancouver, 

Can., n 1040 

General discussion on modern practice in 

fare-collecting and registering methods 
and equipment, *622 

Metal ticket fare registration system (John- 
son Fare Box), *1120 

Mileage recording and fare registering de- 
vice for interurban roads (Bonham), 
*1257 

Pay-as-you-pass-the-fare-box svstem on Roch- 
ester (N. Y.) cars [Cook], *1234; 
Comment, 1231 

Prepayment systems, Discussion of, 844 

Fares: 

Bay State Street Ry. fare case (see Bos- 
ton, Mass.) 

Burlington County (N. J.) Transit Co. fare 

case, n 81 

Chicago & West Towns rate case, Supreme 

Court ruling, 987 
Cincinnati (O.) Traction Co. fare case, 244, 

n 245 

Denver & South Platte (Col.) Ry., Supreme 

Court upholds fare granted by State 
Commission [Wells], 96 

Effect of increased fares on revenue, Bos- 
ton, Mass., 250; Comment, 214 

Illinois Traction System, St. Louis fare 

case, 995, 1222; Details of final ruling, 
1269, n 1362 

Increases : 

Illinois Traction System, 1222, 1320 
Manchester (N. H.) & Derry Street Ry., 
Eight-cent fare unit allowed, 952 



Fares : 

Increases: (Continued) 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry., 
Six-cent fare allowed, 951, 1038; 
Comment, 1003 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co., 911 

Randolph, Mass., Six-cent fare allowed, 
n 469, 553 

Seven-cent fare allowed in New Hamp- 
shire, 851 

Titusville (Pa.) Tr. Co., Six-cent fare 
allowed, n 1178 

New England fare increases. Comment, 917 

Interurbans of Indiana allowed only single 

fares within limits of cities, n 747 
Kansas City (Mo.) Kys., Suburban fare case, 

n 1180 

Length of single-fare rides in American 

cities [McGrath], *223; Comment, 21' 

.Maine Commission adjusts fare zones of 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street 
Ky., "180 

Owl cars, Extra fare charged by many rail- 
ways, 146 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Kys., Owl car fare case, 

n 39, n 79, n 699, 856, n 1179; I om- 
ment, 45 

Prepayment booths used for special traffic, 

Springfield, Mass., *1348 
Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., Fare case, 

n 377 

Reduced-rate tickets abolished on Gary & 

Interurban R.K., n 39 

School fare held discriminatory by Califor- 
nia commission, n 1223 

Service rates under municipal ownership 

[Lippincott], 1010 

Suggested basis for fixing rates [Cooper], 

1060 

United Traction Co., Albany, N. Y., Fare 

increase denied, 62; Comment, 45 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana, Grand 

County fare case, 80 

Vancouver, B. C, Change in children's 

fares, 469 

Zone system proposed for Boston Elevated 

Ky., *675 

Federal regulation of railroads, Recommenda- 
tions of Philadelphia Bourse, n 436 

Feeders : 

Cable reeling machine [Foster], * 1 92 

Fastening of feeder pipes to vertical col- 
umns, Brooklyn, N. Y. [Tanis], *1257 

Fault-locating instrument (Matthews & 

Bros.), *1213 

Fireproofing of cables in manholes [Hovey], 

1068 

— Insulation clamp for feeder wires (Hatch), 

*544 

Terminal for connecting feeders to third- 
rail (Standard Underground), *1213 

(See also Cables) 

Fenders and wheel guards: 
Modern tendencies, 642 

New York commission approves the Ameri- 
can Safety Fender, n 906 

Financial : 

Allowable capitalization for foreclosed rail- 
way, Massachusetts Commission's discus- 
sion, n 1364 

Annual report of Georgia railways, 374 

Annual reports, Simplicity and clearness de- 
sirable, Comment, 1047 

Bay State Street Ry.: 

Analysis of revenue and expenses [Ar- 
nold], *13 
Brief of financial condition, 189 
Effect of increased fares on revenue, 
250; Comment, 214 

British use railway securities as collateral 

for war loan, 1 127 

California railway statistics, 462 

Canadian government railroads a financial 

failure, Comment, 169 

Chicago, 111., Report on financing plans for 

rapid transit system, 1297 

Earnings of electric railways: 

Current tendencies in [Conway], 10; 

Comment, 2 
Geographical analvses by A. E. R. A., 
119, 375, 551, 948, 1175, 1266 

Effect of regulation on speculation and in- 
vestment in public utilities, 1174; Com- 
ment, 1139 

Interurban railways, Analysis of conditions 

[Doolittle], 392, 937 

Iowa interurban railways, Tax valuation in- 
creased, n 549 

Investment per revenue passenger in re- 
lation to density of traffic, *58; Com- 
ment, 46 

^Jacksonville rate case, 360 

Maine commission's ruling on depreciation 

and fair return, *180 

Municipal operation in San Francisco, Cal., 

138; Comment, 130 

Nebraskan railway earnings show decrease 

in 1915, n 334 

Ohio tax assessments on electric railway 

property increased, n 77 

Pavement costs an unfair burden on car 

riders, Comment, 1089 

Regulation of capitalization and inter- 
corporate matters, 1100 



Financial: (Continued) 

Saving bank investments in public utility 

securities, 926; Comment, 917 

Selling securities to patrons: 

Byllesby properties, "264 ; Comment, 
256 

Iowa Ky. & Lt. Co., *356 

Steam railroads, Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission's statistical reports abstracted 
[1915], 103; [1916], 972 

Stock consolidation without physical ap- 
praisal, Decision of Illinois commission, 
965: Comment, 959 

Stockholders should know company's prob- 
lems, Comment, 521 

Taxation of different forms in Pennsyl- 
vania [Spahr], 1245 

Virginia tax assessments, 949 

Washington railways depreciate from auto- 
mobile competition, n511 

Fire protection and insurance: 

Co-operation in tire insurance matters 

[Bowman], 1292 
Fitchburg, Mass.: 

Fitchburg & Leominster Street Ry.: 

F'air play between claim agents and pub- 
lic [Bennett], 147 

Flag with self waving attachment (General 
Electric), *724 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. (See 
Gloversville, N. Y.) 

Flood-lighting of railroad yards (Western Elec- 
tric), * 1 1 19 

Flushing streets with tank-car, Cleveland, O. 

[hbeling], 64 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R.: 
Extensions to power plant and roadway, 

*344; Comment, 343 
Fort Smith, Ark.: 
Fort Smith Lt & Tr. Co.: 

Method of concreting track, Mil 

Pull-in truck of simple design [Wright], 
*148 

Fort Wayne, Ind. : 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Tr. Co.: 

Sale of energy on interurban lines, *924 
Strike in Logansport, Ind., n 156, n 204 

Fort Worth, Tex.: 

Jitneys excluded from business district, n 

1320 

Northern Texas Tr. Co.: 

One-man car operation, nll79; [Beck], 
1195 

France : 

American Industrial Commission's investi- 
gation begun, 381 

-Conditions in French electric railway in- 
dustry, n 75 

I-'ranchises: 

Henderson, Ky., passes radical franchise 

ordinance, n 416, n 1035 

Minneapolis, Minn., Proposed ordinance with 

provisions for partnership between city 
and railway, 1261 

Relation of national issues to local fran- 
chises [King], *797 

Resettlement franchise passed in Oakland, 

Cal., 1071 

Strike arbitration clauses suggested in New 

York City, 329 
Freeport, 111,: 

Freeport Ry. & Lt. Co. : 

Commission's decision allowing stock 
consolidation without physical ap- 
praisal, 965; Comment, 959 

F'reight and express: 

Boston Elevated Ry. freight plans, n 995, 

n 1039 

Car famines and freight interchange, Com- 
ment, 129 

Compensation for carrying U. S. mail, 807, 

n 853, n 1131; Zone system legislation 
proposed, Comment, 1282 

Contracts with old-line companies, 845 

Freight and express traffic on electric rail- 
ways [Rumney], 1150 

Freight service in cities approved by Massa- 
chusetts Commission, n 1039 

Freight service of Fort Dodge, Des Moines 

& Southern R.R., *344 

Handling of freight, A. E. R. A. committee 

report, 845 

Illinois Traction System, Handling of car- 
load freight, *48; Comment, 46, 129 

Interurban freight line, Aroostook Vallev 

K.K., Me., M006 

Kansas City Rys., Freight service in city 

streets, n 1366 

Pick-up and delivery system inaugurated in 

Vancouver, Can., n 1081 

Toledo (O.) & Western R.R. freight traffic 

[Swartz], *1055 

Freight rates: 

Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Ry. not 

compelled to establish through routes 
and joint rates with Indiana Trans- 
portation Co., n 82 

Illinois Traction Svstem, *48; Comment, 46 

129 

Front-end collectors (see Fare Collection) 
Fuse labels to prevent accidents [Ransom], *897 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



VIII 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



Galesburg, 111.: 

Galesburg Ky., Ltg. & Pr. Co.: 

Armature banding tensioner, *984 
Bulldozer made of an air-brake cylin- 
der, *326 

Commutator slotting attachment for 

lathe, '368 
Pipe bender made of trolley wheels, 

*459 

Gait, Can.: 

Lake Erie & Northern Ry.: 

Catenary construction with aluminum 
messenger and steel contact wire, 
*1353 
Galveston, Tex. : 
Galveston Electric Co.: 

Wage increase, n 463 
Garage of portable type useful in construction 

work (Pruden), *1070 
Gasoline cars: 

Union Pacific R.R., Combination mail, ex- 
press and baggage car (McKeen), '153 

Gears and pinions: 

Gear cases: 

Development of sheet-steel type 

[Squier], * 1 166 
Maintenance experience with different 
types [Vulcan], 1116 

Mating of worn gears and pinions on 

Springfield (111.) Consolidated Ky., 286 

Modern practice, 635 

Relation of gears and pinions to motor de- 
sign [McCloskeyJ, *408 

Georgia: 

Financial report on Georgian electric rail- 
ways, 374 

Supreme Court ruling in jitney case, n 122 

Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Atlanta, Ga.) 
Germany : 

— — Frankfort-on-Main Municipal Street Rys., 

Financial and operating report, n 263 
Gloversville, N. Y. : 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R.: 

Annual report, 1036 
Government ownership: 

Canadian experience unfavorable, Comment, 

169 

Evils of government management detailed 

by Merchants' Association of New YorK, 

-Resolution providing for investigation by 

I. C. C, n 200 

(See also Municipal ownership) 

Grade crossing safety recommendations of A. R. 

A., *270 

Grade crossing signals (see Signals) 
Grand Kapids, Mich.: 

United Lt. & Rys. Co.: 

Annual report, 292 
Grand Trunk Ry.: 

Railway publicity [Thompson], 1346 

Graphical solution of railway problems, Univer- 
sity of Illinois bulletin, n 281 
Great Britain: 

Charing Cross & Hampstead Ry.: 

Klaxon horn used as crossing signal 
during fogs, 360 

Financial statement of railways of South 

Shields, Newcastle and Southampton, 
465 

Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Annual report, 417 
. London, Letters from, 32, 242, 411, 739, 

1031, 1169 

London Underground Electric Rys.: 

Advertising posters, MOO 
— — Manchester Corp'n. Tramways: 

Financial statement, 36 
North Eastern Railway : 

Electrification of the Shildon-Newport 
freight line at 1500 volts d.c, *4; 
( orrection, 147 

Strike handling methods. 535 

War-time conditions in England, n 404 



bearings 
car roof 
on rotary 

M. & St. 
Ry. 



Pa. 



H 



Hazleton, Pa.: 

. > ilkes-Barre & Hazleton Ry. : 

Babbitting jig for axle 

[Brown], * 1 1 1 6 
Headlight mounting on 

[Brown], *501 
Renewal of collector rings 

converters [Brown], 30 

Headlights: 

High candle-power design for C. 

P. electric locomotives, 323 

Methods of installation, Los Angeles 

[Clarke], *107 

Modern practice, *617 

Mounting on car roofs, Hazleton, 

[Brown], *501 

-Practice and tests, Anderson, Ind. [Hem- 
ming], * 1 354 

-Projector for Golden-Glow headlights 

(Electric Service Supplies), 732 

Sand-blasted glass fronts, Portland, Me., 

*984 

Theory of illumination in headlight con 

struction [Mackall], * 1 151; Discussion, 
1147 

Heating of cars: 

Forced-ventilation electric heater (Peter 

Smith), *899 

General discussion on modern practice, *603 

Hot-water heater for interurban cars (Peter 

Smith), *458 
New type of electric heater (Peter Smith), 

153 

Safety-switch for heating circuits (Krantz), 

*324 

Heavy electric traction: 

Relation of tractive effort to coefficient of 

adhesion, Comment, 342 

Review of typical a.c. and d.c. installations in 

United States [Carlier], 1155; Com- 
ment, 1139 

Steam railroad electrification, History of 

[Sprague], *774; Correction [Kennedy], 
1114 

Swiss P'ederal Rys., Discussion of proposed 

propulsion systems, *225 ; Comment, 215 ; 
[Arthur], 319 

Henderson, Ky.: 

Franchise ordinance drawn with radical fea- 
tures, n 416, n 1035 
High-tension d.c. railways: 

Electrification of Shildon-Newport freight 

line, North Eastern Railway, *4; Cor- 
rection, 147 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R.R., 

Extensions and sale of power, *344; 
Comment, 343 

Salt Lake & Utah R.R.: 

Hew extension, equipment and service, 
*143 . 

Highway crossings (see Grade crossings; Sig- 
nals) 

Highwood, 111.: 

Chicago & Milwaukee R.R. (see Chicago 

North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.) 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.: 

Handling troops, *129S 
Reorganization plans completed, 324 

Holland, Mich.: 

— — Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Ry. : 

I.C.C. refuses to establish through routes 
and joint rates with Indiana Trans- 
portation Co., n 82 
Holyoke, Mass.: 

Holyoke Street Ry. : 

Remodeling of steam end of power sta- 
tion, *1190 
Wage arbitration settlement, n 906, 
1172 

Honolulu, Hawaii: 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co.: 

Financial statement, 77 
Hot Springs, Ark.: 
Hot Springs Street Ry.: 

Psychological puzzle of the jitney bus 
[Dillon], 147 
Houston, Tex.: 
Houston Electric Co.: 

Near-side stop adopted, n 1040 

Jitney ordinance upheld by court, n 208 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R. (see New York 

City) 



Hainesport, N. H. : 

Burlington County Transit Co.: 

Fare case, n 81, n 1223 

Haiti: 

Haitian-American corporation for acquiring 

Haitian public utilities planned, n 74 
Hamilton, Can.: 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co.: 

Suit to obtain alleged hypothecated 
funds, n 908 
Hamilton, O. : 

. Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co.: 

Court declares company insolvent, n 37 
Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Jitney ordinance amended, n 1081 

— — Harrisburg Rys. : 

Strike, 155, 243, n 291, n 331, n 372, 

548, n 549; Comment, 384 
Working agreement with loyal men, 
Wages increased, 200 
Haverhill, Mass.: 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry. : 

Six-cent fare allowed, 951, 1038; Com- 
ment, 1002 



Illinois: 

Public Utilities Commission: 

Court overrules commission in Chicago 

& West Towns rate case, 987 
Jacksonville rate case, n 204, 360 
Illinois Northern Utilities Co., Decision 

allowing stock consolidation without 

physical appraisal, 965; Comment, 

959 

Rules issued for overhead lines, n 1342 
Illinois Central R.R.: 

Electrification of Chicago terminal, Recom- 
mended by commission, n 907; Railway 
company's plans, n 13.11; Comment, 1329 

Proposed union station for Chicago, 111., 

*537, n 990 

Illinois Electric Railway Ass'n. : 

Chicaeo meeting, 1138; Papers [Beck], 

1195; [Case], 1194: [Insull], 1160; 
[Pegler], 1160; [Whitmore], 1159 



Illinois Traction System (see l eoria, 111.) 
Illinois University Bulletin on graphical solu- 
tions for railway problems, n 281 

Indiana: 

Public Service Commission: 

Interurbans allowed only single fare 

within limits of cities, n 747 
Union Traction Co. permitted to lease 
Muncie & Portland Tr. Co., n 120 
Indiana Harbor, Ind.: 

Gary & Interurban R.R.: 

Low-fare tickets abolished by commis- 
sion, n 39 
Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Experience clause eliminated from city code, 

,n 853 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Tr. Co. 

Attendance at the Toledo meeting of 
the C. E. R. A. [Henry], 1254; 
Comment, 1139 
Review of railway conditions and ac- 
tivities of A. E. R. A. [Henry], 
756 

Sale of energy along interurban lines, 

*924 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Efforts to unionize employees, n 988 

Employees board of discipline estab- 
lished, 1073 

Financial statement, 696 

Individual working agreements with 
employees, History of, *679; Com- 
ment, 707 

Pronosed wage agreement, 114 

Strike, 1073, 1124 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

Annual report, 76 

Interurban railway conditions [Board- 
man], *775 

Mileage and fare registering machine 
for interurban service (Bonham), 
*1257 

Sale of energy along interurban lines, 

*923 

Union Traction Co.: 

commission permits leasing of Muncie 
& Portland Tr. Co., n 120 
Injuries to persons (see Accident claim depart- 

partment) 
Inspection of cars: 

Record form system [Blanchard], * 1352 

Insulating material having new properties (Dia- 
mond State Fiber Co.), *1214 
Insulators (see Transmission lines) 
Insurance: 

Employees' (see Employees) 

Accident insurance companies' discrimina- 
tion against electric railways, Comment, 
171 

Mutual insurance of different forms, Com- 
ment, 170 

Interborough Consolidated Corp'n. (see New 
York City) 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (see New York 
City) 

International Ry. (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 

International Traction Co. (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 

Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Ry. not 

compelled to establish through routes 
and joint rates with Indiana Tran- 
sportation Co., n 82 

Steam railroad statistics [1915], 103; 

[1916], 972 

St. Louis (Mo.) fare case, Illinois Traction 

System, 995, 1222 
Uniform system of accounts, Questions and 

answers, 1078 
Interurban railways: 

Analysis of financial and other developments 

[Uoolittle], 390, 937 

General outlook of [Boardman], *725 

Inventories (see Accounting; Appraisal of rail- 
way property) 

Investment Bankers' Ass'n.: 

— — Public utilities' securities as savings bank 

investments, 926; Comment, 917 
Investments (see Financial) 
Iowa: 

Tax valuation of interurban railways in- 
creased, n 549 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co. (see Cedar Rapids, la.) 

Isles of safety. Unfavorable criticism in New 
York City, n 163 

Ithaca, N. Y. : 

-Ithaca Traction Corp'n.: 

Staging of car wreck for moving pic- 
ture company, *227 



Tacksonville, Fla.: 

■ Jacksonville Traction Co.: 

Strike, n 1033 
Tacksonville, 111.: 
Jacksonville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Rate case, n 204, 360 
Jitney bus: 

. -Bakersfield & Kern Elect. Ry. operating jit- 
neys at loss in California, 39 

California jitney situation, n 294; Election 

results, 1081: [Hilll, 1024 

— — Effect on railway earnings [Conway], 10; 
Comment, 2 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



July-December, 1916 J 



INDEX 



IX 



Jitney bus: (Continued) 

. Fort Worth, Tex., jitneys excluded from 

business district, a 1320 

Georgia Supreme Court ruling on Commis- 
sion's regulation of jitneys, n 122 

Harrisbirg, l J a., Car strikers seek jitney aid, 

n 372, n 548; Comment, 384; Ordinance 
amended, n 1081 

Houston, Tex., Court upholds jitney ordi- 

nace, n 208 

Insurance company classes jitneys as public 

conveyances, n 279 
Jitney operation creates demand for quicker 

service on Pacific Coast, Comment, 707 
-Legal protection against jitney competition 

[McCahill], 1248; Discussion, 1244 
■ Long Beach, Cal., Operating company 

formed, n 1223 
Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Operating data, * 1 39 

Railway's protest, 514 

Sixteen-passenger bodies, 139 

McAIester, Okla., restricts operation, n 81 

— — New Jersey law upheld by court, n 1131 

New Orleans, La., Court ruling, n 124 

Pennsylvania commission's permits, n 461, 

513, n 1222 

Portland, Ore., Regulation of jitneys, n 114, 

n 336, n 1081, 1130, n 1180, n 1222; 
Comment, 87 

Providence, R. I., Operation decreasing, 

n 158 

Ruling on ordinance, Muskogee, Okla., n 123 

Sacramento, Cal. Stringent ordinance causes 

withdrawal of jitneys, n 420 
San Francisco, Cal., Ruled from business 

district, n 208, n 335, n 378, n 419, 

n 698 

Seattle, Wash., Regulation by City Council, 

n 163, n 251, n 294, n 377, n 468, n 857 

Springfield, Mass., passes strict ordinance, 

n 996 

Topeka, Kan., adopts stringent ordinance, 

n 81 

-Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Rys. protest against 

operation without State certilicate, n 163 
Joliet, 111.: 

• Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry.: 

Employees' co-operation urged in open 
letter, 207 
Chicago & Joliet Elect. Ry. : 

Wages increased, n 203 
Joplin, Mo.: 

Universal transfer plan abandoned, 746 



K 



Kansas City, Kan.: 

Kansas City Western Ry. : 

One-man car operation plnnned in 
Leavenworth, Kan., n 1320 
Kansas City, Mo.: 

Interurban terminal proposition before the 

city, n 202 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Ry.: 

Receivers d'scharged, n 1220 

Kansas City Rys.: 

Annual report, 374 
Ballast screening machine. * 1 1 68 
Brake-beam holder for shop use, * 1 5 3 
Cap for waterproofing armature-bearing 
ends, 197 

Device for remedying loose armature 
bearings, *369 

Financial history, *667' 

Freight traffic in city streets, n 1366 

Front-end collector's transfer, *57 

Newspaper selling on cars stopped as 
safety measure, n 469 

Overhead charges in valuation work 
[Kealy], *762 

Publicity campaign to secure new fran- 
chise, *667; Comment, 663 

Safety campaign in schools, n 163, n 468, 
n 713 

Size of passenger's bundles limited, n 39 

Stops prevent use of curtains as rain 
shields, n 239 

Storage battery marker-lights for emer- 
gencies, 198 

Suburban fare case, n 1180 

Theft of lamps prevented by use of 
special lamps, 145 

Track construction and maintenance 
methods and costs, *430 

Traveling instructors for platform men 
introduced, n 40 

Waee increase, n 1125 
. Welding of broken sections of trolley 
poles, 198 

Welfare work, 670 

Wheel flange contour changed, *240 
Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (See Lex- 
ington, Ky.) 



Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Ry. (See 

Bowline Green, Ohio) 
Lake Erie & Northern Ry. : 

Regenerative, d.c. locomotives [Whittaker], 

*730 

Lake Shore Elect. Ry. (See Cleveland, O.) 
Lamp for tunnel inspection work [Thayer], 
*1117 



Lamp shade and socket combined (Central), 
n 1362 

Lamp thefts prevented by special design, Kansas 
City Rys., 145 

Legal: 

Abandonment of service not allowed, Ham- 

den-Iackson Line, Hocking Valley R.K., 
n 1318 

Commission's authority upheld by Colorado 

Supreme Court, n 1362 
Company not liable for acts of employees 

off duty, Massachusetts Supreme Court, 

n 351 

Denver (Col.) & South Platte Ky. fare case, 

Supreme Court upholds State Commis- 
sion IWellsJ, 96 

Experience ordinance prevents operation of 

cars during strike in Yonkers, N. Y., 
199; Comment, 109; Held unconstitu- 
tional, n 1216 

Experience ordinance repealed in Mount Ver- 
non, N. Y., n 740 

Interuruans classed as railroads and ve- 
hicles should stop before crossing tracks, 
California court decision, n 1320 

Jitney buses classed as public conveyances 

by insurance company, n 279 

Majority stockholders guardians of minor- 
ity interests, New York Supreme Court 
decision, I 1 28 

New lersey jitney law upheld by court, 

n 1131 

New York commission's rrght to order im- 
provements upheld, n 946 

Paving suit won by Third Avenue Ry., New 

York City, n 1217 

Regulation by law of motor vehicle traffic 

m Seattle, Wash. [Falknorj, 349; 
[Winsor], *874; [Brown], 876 

Toledo, O., newspaper lined for interfer- 
ence with court's 3-eent fare injunction, 
n 1315 

Transfer regulations, Publication ordered by 

court, Buffalo, N. Y., n 996 
Vancouver, Call., Liability in runaway 

freight car case, n 537 
Workmen's compensation laws interpreted by 

recent court decisions, Comment, 131 
Legislation : 

Accident liability legislation in Massachusetts, 

721 

. Colorado, Free transportation made unlawful, 

n 122 

Control of vicious legislation [Budd], 63 

Eight-hour law, Clause exempting electric 

railways, n 404, 441 
Federal inquiry into railway transportation 

problems provided for, n 157 
Foreign trade should be fostered by passage 

of Webb bill, Comment, 1187 

New Jersey's compensation law [Tynan], 870 

— —Ohio's compensation act [Green], "868 

Railroads object to competitive bidding clause 

in Clayton act, n 159 
Strike prevention by federal legislation. 

Comment, 1187 
Workmen's compensation laws interpreted by 

recent court decisions, Comment, 131 
Zone system legislation for second class 

mail matter undesirable, Comment, 1282 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, Pa.) 
Lemoyne, Pa.: 
Vallev Rys.: 

Commission orders fumigation of cars 

and increased schedule, n 163 
Lethbridge. Can.: 
Lethbridge Municipal Ry.: 

Annual report, 417 
Lewiston, Me.: 

Lewi=ton, Augusta & Waterville Street Ry.: 

Fare zones adjusted by commission, * 1 80 
Lexington, Ky.: 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Annual report, 991 
Lighting of cars: 

General discussion on modern practice, 610 

Maintenance of lamps, Los Angeles Ry. 

[Clarkel, *1 07 
— ■ — Safetv-switch for lighting circuits (Krantz), 
_ 324 

Switch of inclosed, safety type, *943 

Voltage regulating svstem on Milwaukee 

Northern Ry., *1258 
Lighting system changed to prevent lamp thefts 

in waiting stations, Kansas City (Mo.) 

Rys., 145 
Lightning protection: 

Arresters of condenser type (Westinghouse) , 

♦112 

Car lightning arresters: Installation and 

maintenance [Parsons], *502 

Condenser tvpe car lightning arresters 

[P,rackett], 731 

Electrolytic arresters or new type (Westing- 
house), *240 

Fundamental theory and its application 

[Newton], 1246 

Lima, O. : 

Western Ohio Ry.: 

Sa'e of energy along interurban lines, 
*924 

Lincoln, 111.: 

Lincoln Railway & Heating Co.: 

Service abandoned, n 1180 
Loading limits for cars: 

Chicago, 111., Limits proposed by B. O. S. E., 

*274 



Loading limits for cars: (Continued) 

Principles of car loading as applied in 

Rochester, N. Y. [ArnoldJ, M240 

Washington, D. C, Commission sets stand- 
ards, 419, 951 

Locknut of new design (Industrial Development 
Corp'n.), "459 

Lockport, N. Y.: 

Niagara & Eastern R.R.: 

Certificate for new line denied, n 944 

Locomotives: 

Axle-mounted armatures discussed by Master 

Mechanics' Association, 12 
C, M< & St. P., Regenerative, axle-mmint- 

ed-motor locomotives, "888; Comment, 

861, 1004, 1090 
Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend freight 

locomotives, * 1 1 8 
Design of electric locomotives [ Batchelder], 

977; [QuereauJ, 1203 
Formulas tor tonnage capacities of inter- 
urban locomotives, 306 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. 

freight locomotives, "344 
History of multiple-unit control [Kennedy |, 

1114 

North Eastern Ry., England, 1500-volt d.c. 

design for freight service, 4; Correc- 
tion, 157 

Regenerative d.c. type on Lake Erie & North- 
ern Ry. [Whittaker], *730 

Relation of tractive effort to coefficient of 

adhesion. Comment, 342 

Toledo lO.) & Western R.R. [SwaiizJ, 

•1056 

London. (See Great Britain) 
Long Beach, Cal. : 

Jitney operating compauy formed, n 1223 

Long Island R. R. : 

Accidents at crossings, n 249 

Coasting recorder maintenance [ Ifleckwedel I , 

♦983 

Compressors on cars protected by potential 

relays [Bleckwedel], *454 
Electric tractor for handling rolling stock in 

yards and shops [Mills], M209 

Reclaiming button-end axles [Mills], * 1 93 

Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Jitney operation data, Development of sixteen 

passenger car-bodies, "139 

Los Angeles Ry.: 

Lamp maintenance [Clarke], *107 

— — Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Experimental operation of motor bus 

feeders (Fadgl), *314 
Financial statement, 695 
Jitnev competition protest, 514 
Shockless crossing operation (Cobb), 
*733 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Tr. Co. (See New 

Albany, Ind.) 
Louisville, Ky.: 

Louisville Ry.: 

Baseball transfer designed to save con- 
ductor's time, *274 
Educational exhibit showing railway de- 
velopments, n 1263 
One-ton line truck (Smith Form-a- 

Truck), *505 
Wage increase, n 509 
Low tension d.c. railways: 

Reminiscences of B. & O. electrification 

[Kennedy], 26 



M 



McAIester, Okla.: 

— ; — Jitney operations restricted, n 81 

Pittsburgh County Ry. takes over railway 

property of Choctaw Ry. & Ltg. Co., n 

160 

Macon, Ga. : 

Macon Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Armature buggy, *457 
Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co. (see 

Youngstown, O.) 
Mail (see Freight and express) 
Maine: 

Public Utilities Commission: 

Fare zones adjusted on Lewiston, Au- 
gusta & Waterville Street Ry., *180 
Maintenance records and costs: 
-Double-trolley-wire system maintenance 

costs, Havana, Cuha, *367 
Frogs made of track-scrap in Rochester, 

N. Y., at low cost [Benham], *408 
— ■ — Lamp maintenance on Los Angeles Ry. 

[Clarke], *107 
Method of keeping maintenance costs in 

Oakland, Cal. [Miller], *312 
Mileage allowances in motor maintenance, 

New Brighton, Pa. [Boyce], *479 
— ■ — New York Central R.R. electric locomo- 
tives maintenance costs, 1204 
Philadelphia (Pa.) subway unballasted track, 

maintenance costs [Twining], *481 
Self-pronelled tower wagon, operating costs, 

Union Ry.. N. Y. City [Kent], *90; 

Comment, 89 
■ Substation, maintenance data on Illinois 

Traction Svstem [Leisenring and Coe], 

*352; Comment, 342 
Track and pavement costs in Kansas City, 

Mo., *430 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news Item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



X 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



Maintenance records and costs: (Continued) 
Units for comparing track maintenance 

costs (see '.track maintenance) 
Manchester, N. H. : 
— Manchester & Derry Street Ry. : 

.tight-cent fare unit authorized, 952 
Manchester & Nashua Street Ry.: 

Seven-cent fare authorized by commis- 
sion, 851 

Manchester Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

future status of the street railway 
[Jones], 1157 
Manganese steel welding ["Way Engineer"], 

*27 

Manila, P. I.: 

Manila Elect. R.R. & Lt. Corp'n. : 

financial statement, 465 

Offers use of pulmotor to city, n 100 

Maps: 

Chicago, 111., Rapid transit routes, 1198 

Chicago Surface Lines, ..'13 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R.R., 

345 

Rochester, N. Y., Street car lines, 1238, 1239 

Swiss Federal Rys.» St. Gothard line, 225 

Marion, O. : 

Marion Street Ry. : 

Strike, n 1217 
Market conditions: 
Brakes (hand), 1372 

Copper, 127, 239, 704, 1046, 1087, 1324, 1373 

Electrical exports, 1373 

Heating equipment, 1372 

Insulators, 1045 

Iron and steel, 127 1046 

Lumber, 381 

Motors and control, 703 

Paints and enamels, 859 

Pipe, steel, 519 

Poles, steel, 473 

Rails, 1087, 1372 

Signals, 1324 

Ties, steel, 473 

Track grinders, 1324 

Ventilators. 957 

Market conditions. Interviews on: 

Adams, A. M. 1184 

Boyer, Warren L., 1184 

Drew, James H., 1086 

Englund, A. H., 1277 

Fay, John L., 1185 

■ George, H. FL, 1227 

Grayson, F. O., 1001 

Hammond, W. S., 1372 

Hurley, Edward N., 1000 

Kilburn, Tohn B , 1045 

LeGrand, Nic, 1135 

——Marshall, B. G., 1277 

Ohmer, John F., 1229 

Pearson, J. A., 1227 

Price, E. C., 1229 

Radford, Robert, 1278 

Rhea, Frank. 382 

Rice, E. W., Tr., 559 

Sheer, A., 1228 

Stigall, E. E., 1085 

Valentine, Langdon B., 1045 

Vogel, E. W., 1185 

Massachusetts: 

-Financial relief case, Boston Elevated Ry., 

*671, 721, n 741, 852, n 991, 1077, 1201, 
n 1219, 1267; Comment, 665, 1168 

Gas & Electric Light Commission: 

Interlocking directorates disapproved, n 
1363 

Public Service Commission: 

Bay State fare case (see Boston, Mass.) 
Boston drawbridge accident report, 

1103; Safety regulation, 146 
Boston Elevated Ry., Additional cars 

and track laying ordered, n 162; 

Findings in service investigation, 

n 513 

One-man car of Bay State Street Ry. 
approved, n 911 

Six-cent fare allowed in Randolph, Mass., n 

469, 553 

Six-cent fare allowed Massachusetts North- 
eastern Street Ry., 951, 1038; Com- 
ment, 1003 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Ry. (see 

Haverhill, Mass.) 
Massachusetts Street Railway Assn. : 

December meeting, 1337 

Master Mechanics Ass'n: 

Axle-mounted armatures, Discussion, 12 

Memphis, Tenn.: 

Memphis Street Ry.: 

Company publication inaugurated, n 294 

Strike, n 202 

Wage increase, 291 
Meters (see Power stations and equipment) 
Metropolitan Street Ry. (see New York City) 
Mexico, Mex. : 
Mexico Tramways: 

Report of bondholders' protective com- 
mittee, n 118, 511, n 993 
Michigan City, Ind.: 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry.: 

Freight locomotives, *1018 

Pantograph collectors shifted to give 

better operation, 1165 
Rigid car insnection methods [Wilcox- 

on], *1305 

Milwaukee Northern Ry. (see Cedarburg, Wis.) 



Milwaukee, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Elect. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Sealed fuse cabinet on cars [Mullett], 
*29 

System of medical examinations of em- 
ployees [Lemon], 494 
Track standards, * 198 
Welfare association activities [Hall], 
*441; Loan funds [Hall], 726 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Du- 
buque Elect. Tr. Co.: 
Receiver appointed, n 206 

Minneapolis Street Ry. : 

Proposed franchise with provisions for 

partnership with city, 1261 
Valuation report, 902 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Training platform men in handling pub- 
lic, 135 
Missoula, Mont. : 

Missoula Electric Street Ry.: 

Extension built in record time to se- 
cure freight business, 530 
Montgomery, Ala. : 
Montgomery Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Power suit lost by railway, n 1035 
Montreal, Can.: 
Montreal Tramways: 

Auditional franchises proposed, n 1173, 
n 1217 

Annual report, 465 

Evolution of the P. A. Y. E. car 
[Gaboury], * 1 163 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry.: 

Construction details on 16-mile exten- 
sion, *395 

Motor buses: 

Design adapted for both track and road op- 
eration in California, *285; Comment, 
300 

Pacific Coast railways trying out motor 

buses, *314, n 515; Comment, 707 
Traffic regulation, Seattle, Wash. [Falknor], 

349; Tacoma, Wash. [Windsor], *874; 

[Brown], 876 
Use as an auxiliary and feeder of electric 

railways, Comment, 300 

Motors: 

Axle-mounted type, C. M. & St. P. locomo- 
tives, *888; Comment, 861, 1004, 1090 

Cap for waterproofing armature bearings, 

Kansas City (Mo.) Ry., 197 

Commutating pole changes necessitated by 

closer gear centers [McCloskey], *408 

General discussion on modern motor design 

and construction, *643 

Lubrication for GE-80 motors [Elgee], *1307 

■ -Motor capacities and car weights for repre- 
sentative cars, 649 

Series motors as generators, Comment, 1090 

.Standardization of motor sizes, 751 

■ \ entilation of GE-54 motors for summer 

service [Wurzbach], *238 

Ventilation of GE-58 motors in Portland, 

Ore. [Maize], *284 ■ 

Mount Vernon, N. Y. : 

Westchester Elect. R.R.: 

Experience ordinance repealed, n 740 
Strike, 199, *229, *484, 546, n 740; 

Comment, 169 
Wage increase, n 75 

Multiple-unit trains: 

Two-motor-car trains vs. trailers, Toledo, 0-, 

723 

Municipal ownership: 

Boston subway, Defence of policy of city 

ownership with private operation, 1201 

Reasonable service rates [Lippincott] , 1010 

San Francisco, Cal., Conditions of 1916 

compared with 1915, 138; Comment, 130 
Toledo (O.) community traction plan, n 

157, n 202, n 245, n 902, n 990, 1124 

(See also Government ownership) 

Muskogee, Okla. : 

Muskogee Elect. Tr. Co.: 

Strike, n 906 
Ruling on jitney bus ordinance, n 123 

N 



Nashville, Tenn.: 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Ry. : 

Reorganization and proposed 18-mile ex- 
tension, n 34, n 248 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 463 

National Association of Railway Commissioners: 

Action on grade-crossing safety recommenda- 
tions, n 1366 

Convention at Washington, D. C, Commit- 
tee reports, 1097 

National Electrical Safety Code published by 
Bureau of Standards, n 1059 

National Industrial Conference activities, 1087 

National Municipal League: 

-Favorable report on government regulation 

of wages, 1200 
National Safety Council: 

■ Annual congress in Detroit, Mich., n 694, n 

887; Proceedings, 930 
Annual report, 493 



National Safety Council: (Continued) 
Fire and accident prevention day, Advertis- 
ing poster, *536 
Near-side stop (see Stopping of cars) 
Nebraska: 

Kailway earnings show decrease in 1915, n 

334 

New Albany, Ind.: 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Tr. Co.: 

JN ear-side stop adopted, n 1179 

Newark, N. J.: 

Public Service Ry. : 

Market conditions discussed by officials, 
1227 

New Jersey's compensation law [Ty- 
nan], 870 

Political position defended, n 1171; 

Comment, 1187 
Public relations improved by proper 

service [Wakelee], 1095 
Rerouting ot traffic permitted by New- 
ark Terminal [Donecker], *l/3; 
Comment, 169 
Schedule-makers, Development of 

[Donecker], *795 
Tribute to N. W. Bolen, *448 
New Bedford, Mass.: 
— ■ — 'Union Street Ry. : 

Single-truck car operation sustained by 
commission, 335 
New Brighton, Pa.: 

Beaver Valley Tr. Co.: 

Maintenance record system [Boyce], 
*479 

Safety-first publicity work, *718 
New England Street Railway Club: 
— — Annual outing, *678 

Electric locomotive performance, on C. M. 

& St. P. Ry. [Hill], 1351 

November meeting, 1157 

New Hampshire: 

Public Service Commission: 

Eight-cent fare unit allowed Manches- 
ter & Derry Street Ry., 952 
Six-cent fare authorized on Massachu- 
setts Northeastern Street Ry., 1038; 
Comment, 1003 
New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co. : 

Rebuilt carbody made of two single- 
truck units, *1069 
Statistician's work in railway com- 
panies [Jones], *777 
Trustee appointments, n 1174 
Use of power-driven devices desirable 
in maintenance work [Harte], 278 

New Jersey: 

Financial and operating statistics for elec- 
tric railways, 992 

Jitney law upheld by court, n 1131 

Public Utilities Commission: 

Burlington County Transit Co. fare 
case, n 81 

Trenton & Mercer Co. Tr. Corp'n. fare 
case, n 80, n 1131 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co. (see Tren- 
ton, N. J.) 

New Orleans, La.: 

-Jitney ruling, n 124 

Local public utilities board created by legis- 
lature, n 203 
New Y»rk Central R.R. : 

Experiences with axle-mounted armatures, 12 

Locomotive maintenance costs [Quereau], 

1204 

Nickel Plate R.R. sold to Cleveland inter- 
ests, n 113 

West Side, New York, improvement plans 

indorsed by Chamber of Commerce, n 74 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis R.R. : 

Election of officers, n 158 

Sale of stock to Cleveland interests, n 113 

New York City: 

Brooklyn & North River R.R. : 

Strike, *229, 275 

Bureau of Franchises, Annual report, 399 

Doherty, H. L., & Co.: 

Meeting of managers in Toledo, O., 866 
Observations of traveling track special- 
ist [Swartz], 717 
Traveling-experts, Plan to promote effi- 
cient management, *491; Comment, 
476 

Fifth Avenue Coach Co.: 

Fair play for claim agents and claim- 
ants [Carson], 105 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R.: 

Differences with employees settled, n 

852, n 906 
Life insurance plan for employees, 553 

Interborough Consolidated Corp'n.: 

Suit to force receivership, n 1268 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 694 
Bonds for 150-lb. third-rail, *940 
Dynamite exploded in subway by 
strikers, n 947, n 1034, n 1075; 
Comment, 1003 
Employees' grievance committee organ- 
ized, 371 

Individual working agreements for em- 
ployees, 413: Cause strike, *449; 
Comment, 427, 707 

Queensboro subway, Grand Central to 
Queens Plaza, placed in operation, 
n 1033 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



July-December, 1916] 



INDEX 



XI 



New York City: 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 

Rubbish removal from subways, 76 
Strike, *229, 277. *449, *484, 546, n 
692, n yOS, n 947, n 1034; Com- 
ment 427, 476, 521, 523, 706, 100 1 
Third rail of 150-lb. type, '543 
Traffic increase during June, 1916, a 
122 

Wage increases, *232, 413 
Isles ot safety. Unfavorable criticism, n 163 
Manhattan & Queens Tr, Corp.: 

insurance policies for employees, n 1361 
Metropolitan Street Ey. : 

Suit against New York Rys., 1220 
New York & (Jueens County Ry.: 

Employees grievance committee organ- 
ized, 371 

Strike, "229, 275, 546 
New York Municipal Ky. (See Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 

New subway system: 

Lost will exceed estimates (P. S. C. re- 
port), n 115 
(See also Interborough Rapid Transit 
Co.; New York Municipal Ry. ) 

New York Rys. : 

Annual report, 907 

Employees' grievance committee organ- 
ized, 371 

Individual working agreements with em- 
ployees, *44y, 507; Comment, 427, 
707 

Statistics of surface car delays, 251 
Strike, *22y, 275, 327, 328, 370, *449, 
*484, 546, n 692, n 905; Comment, 
225, 427, 476, 521, 523, 663, 706 
Traffic increase during June, 1916, n 122 
Wage increases, *229, 507 

Public Service Commission: 

.Bribery charge pressed against ex-com- 
missioner, n 1362 
Brooklyn car and service order, 1317 
Court upholds right to order improve- 
ments, n 946 
Engineering feats necessitated by sub- 
way work, 493 
Fender indorsed for cars, n 906 
Railways must make yearly inspection 

of bridges, n 306 
Report of passengers carried yearly, 994 
Strike prevention plans, n 1171 
Strike settlement activities, *229, 275, 
327, 329, 370, *484, 507, 546; Com- 
ment, 255, 299, 476, n 692 
Thompson committee, Review of work, 
n 73 

Turn-back car case, n 81, n 162 
Republic Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Annual report, 36 
Richmond Lt. & R.R. Co.: 

Strike, 275 
Second Avenue R.R.:. 

Strike, *229, 275, 328, *484, 546 
Third Avenue Ry. : 

Annual report, 743 

Coasting contest, n 24 

financial loss caused by strike, n 1177 

Motor bearing babbitting practice 
[Johnson], *237 

Paving suit won, n 1217 

Strike, *229, 275, 328, 370, *484, 507, 
546, n 692, n 905, 1177; Comment, 
214, 255, 299, 476, 521, 523, 663, 706 

Wage increase, n 546 

Westchester Electric R.R. (see Mount 
Vernon, N. Y.) 

Yonkers R.R. (see Yonkers, N. Y.) 
Union Ry. : 

Self-propelled tower wagons [Kent], 
*90; Comment, 89 

Strike, *229, 275, *484, 546, n 905; 
Comment, 521 

Trolley wire performance [Kent], *540 
United Gas & Electric Corp'n.: 

Annual report, 76 
White, J. G., Co.: 

Financial statement, 36 

Preparedness, Efficiency in [White], 106 
New York Electric Railway Ass'n: 

Committee appointments, 925 

Insurance methods under workmen's com- 
pensation law, 60; Comment, 47 
June meeting, Paper [Bellinger], *18; Re- 
port of committees, *20; Discussion, 22 

Preparedness, Discussion of, Comment, 45 

Presidential address [Dempsey], 15 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R.: 
Automatic-stop development by special de- 
partment, n 24 
New York State: 

Public Service Commission (Second Dis- 
trict) : 

Safety conference in Rochester, n 1221 

Fare increase on Albany-Troy line de- 
nied, 62; Comment, 45 
Organization and work of commission, 

*1330; Comment, 1328 
New York State Rys. (see Rochester, Syracuse 

and Utica) 

Niagara & Eastern R.R. (see Lockport, N. Y.) 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. : 

Aerial tramway over whirlpool rapids, *1022 

Niagara Gorge Ry. : 

Wage increase, n S49 



Norfolk, Va.: 

Franchise negotiations, n 115, n 210, n 331, 

n 460, n 1035 
Norfolk & Western Ry. : 

Company-built houses for employees, n "194 

Northern Electric Ry. (see Cliico, Cal.) 
Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co. (see Akron, O.) 
Northwestern Ohio Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Toledo, O.) 
Norwich, Conn.: 

Norwich & Westerly Tr. Co.: 

Operation comes under J. G. White 
Management Corp'n., n 35 

Shore Line Elect. Ry. : 

Operation comes under J. G. White 

Management Corp'n., n 35 
Purchase of several Connecticut prop- 
erties, n 120 
Norwood, ("Milton & Sharon Street Ry. (see 
Canton, Mass.) 



o 



Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry. : 

Method of keeping maintenance costs 
[Miller], "312 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Annual report, 1363 

Resettlement franchise, 460, 1071, n 
-1096 

School fares held discriminatory by 

commission, n 1223 
Vehicles should stop before crossing in- 

terurban tracks, Court decision, 

n 1320 
Ogden, Utah: 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry.: 

Ventilation of GE-54 motors for sum- 
mer service [Wurzbach], *238 

Ohio: 

Public Service Commission without jurisdic- 
tion to prevent abandonment of line, 
697 

Tax assessments on electric railways in- 
creased, n 77 
Ohio Electric Ry. (see Springfield, O.) 
Omaha, Neb.: 

Omaha &• Council Bluffs Street Ry. : 

Metal shearing machine with air cylin- 
der attachment, *1027 
Portahle fuel-oil furnace for shop use, 
*368 
One-man cars: 

Bay State Street Ry. design approved by 

commission, n 911 
Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Co. converts cars 

for one-man operation, n 39 

Design and operation of [Cass], 1194 

Field of one-man cars and experience of 

Southern Public Utilities Co. [Ervin], 

*144 

— ■ — Fort Worth, Tex., Experimental operation 

begun, n 1179 
-Illinois Circuit Court sustains permit 

granted to East St. Louis & Suburban 

R.R., n 123 

Illinois Traction Svstem design. Details of 

construction, *864 
Leavenworth, Kan., Necessitated by reduced 

traffic, n 1320 
Logansport, Ind., strike caused by one-man 

cars, n 156 

-isame not indicating reduced service wanted. 

Comment, 476 

Names suggested [A Friend], 539; [Le 

Grand]. 1114; [Lipps], 1064; [Livers]. 
726; [Trathen], 1064 

Operating experience in Fort Worth, Tex. 

[Beck], 1195 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. &• Pr. Co granted 

one-man car permits for two lines, n 123 

Report of committee on transportation- 
engineering, 827 

Seattle, Wash., Experimental operation au- 
thorized, n 40 

— — Tacoma, Wash., operation begun, n 208 

Topeka, Kan., rebuilt car, *1028 

Operating records and costs: 

Bay State Street Rv., Analysis of revenues 

and expenses [Arnold], *13 

Boston Elevated Rv., Data on increased cost 

of service, *671 

Chicago Loop district operating data. *271 

Comparison of power plant operating data, 

829 

Gasoline road-roller operating costs [Cram], 

"1163 

Influence of size of car body on operating 

costs, 586 

Obsolete equipment expensive to operate. 

Comment, 1328 
One-man car operation in Fort Worth, Tex. 

[Beck], 1195 
Operating records over crossovers with 

double and single berths, Chicago, 111., 

*220 

Relation of investment to traffic density 

[McGrath], *58; Comment, 46 

Rush-hour service costs, *842 

Signal performance on Scranton & Bing- 

hamton Ry., *388 



Operating records and costs: (Continued) 

System of keeping substation operating 

records on Illinois Traction System 
[Leisenring and Coe], * 352 ; Comment, 
342 

Operation of cars and fundamentals in energy 
saving [Arthur], 397; Comment, 385 

Oregon: 

Public Service Commission: 

Commissioner makes plea for investors, 
n 159 

Overhead contact system: 

Aluminum messenger with steel contact 

wire, Lake Erie & Northern Ry., "1353 
Catenary construction, Reinforcement of 

splices [Harding], *684 
— — Copper-clad steel wire, Properties and 

method of manufacture (Copperweld), 

409 

Double trolley-wire problems in Havana, 

Cuba, *367 

North hastern Ry., England, 1500-volt d.c. 

catenary construction, *4 

Trolley shoe practice (Miller), *504 

Trolley suspension bracket arms of unusual 

length [McKelway], *684 
Trolle- trough switch in use on Brooklyn 

(N. Y.) Bridge [McKelway], *237 
Trolley wire maintenance and inspection 

[McKelway], 1026 
Trolley wire performance on Union Ry 

N. Y. City [Kent], *540 
Owl cars: 

Extra fare charged by many railways, 146 

Pittsburgh fare case (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 



Pacific Claim Agents Ass'n: 

Annual convention at Tacoma, Wash.: 

Proceedings, 307; Papers [Bovnton] 
309; [Browne], 348; [Coffin], 308 
[KalknorL 349; [Hamilton], 350 
[Handlon], 310; [Lee], 309 
[Lonergan], 310 

Safety first training for school children 

[Henry], *437; Comment, 428 

Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Pacific Gas & Elect. Co. (see Sacramento, Cal.) 

Paints and painting: 

Dipping equipment for painting car fenders 

[libeling], *321 

Enameling vs. painting of cars [Valentine], 

_ 1045; [Hemming], 1208 
Paint gun, Application to railway work 

(Spray Engineering), *410 
Pavement : 

Costs a burden on car riders, Comment, 1089 

Foundation of old sandstone blocks, To- 
peka, Kan., *941 

Grouting tool used in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

[Cram], *1065 

Measuring granite block yardage by weight 

in Cleveland, 0„ *410 

Pitch-pouring cone, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

[Cram], »1255 

Pennsylvania : 

Public Service Commission: 

Jitnev certificate requirements, n 1222, 
n 1271 

Jitneys classed as public service com- 
panies, 513 

Toilets on interurbans opposed by rail- 
ways, 1129 
Pennsylvania R.R.: 

Correspondence courses conducted for em- 
ployees, n 96 

Historical pamphlet issued, n 1342 

Philadelphia-Paoli line, Voltage regulation 

by automatic tap-changers on trans- 
formers, *732 

Safety record, 179 

-Signal-light aspect colors changed, 480 

Peninsular Ry. (see San Jose, Cal.) 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Ass'n: 

Convention in Philadelphia, Pa., Proceed- 
ings, 1242; Papers [Bowman], 1292; 
[Chamberlain], 1291; [Clinch], 1292; 
[Hoffman], 1244; [Tack], 1294; fMc- 
Cahill], 1248: [Newton], 1246; [Pavnel. 
1290: [Spahr], 1245 

Pennsylvania Welfare and Efficiency Conference, 
Annual meeting, 1131 

Peoria, 111.: 

Illinois Traction System: 

Bond shield to prevent theft, *286 

( laim department's organization and 

operation [Whitmore], 1159 
Freieht service rearrangement plans, 

n 1319 

Freight traffic development, *49; Com- 
ment, 46, 129 

Grain elevator built at Evans, 111., n 
943 

Tnterurban fare chanfes, 1320 
One-man cars, Details of construction, 
*864 

Publicity through attractive advertising, 
*715 

St. Louis (Mo.) fare case, 995, 1222, n 
1362; Details of final ruling, 1269 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



XII 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



Peona, 111.: 

Illinois Traction System: (.Continued) 

bale of erergy along interurban lines, 
*922 

Shop jobs for substation attendants' 
spare time, *^2'2; Comment, 342 

Substation maintenance costs and 
method of Keeping records [Leisen- 
ring and Coe], *352; Comment, 
342 

Peru : 

Lima (Callao) Light, Power & Tramways 

Co.: 

1-inancial statement, 550 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 
American Kys. : 

Unit for comparing track maintenance 
costs [KeenJ, 682 
Philadelphia kapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 24/ 

Employees' co-operative plan [Con- 
way J, *968; Comment, 960 

Fire ordinance, Benents of co-operative 
plans [Bowman], 1292 

Maintenance record of unballasted track 
in subway [Twining], *481 

Operating agreements with city, * 1 1 6, 
1122 

Proposal to operate new rapid transit 

lines, 1359 
Safetv campaigns in Philadelphia, Pa. 

[Clinch], 1292 
Strike, 288 
Wage increase, n 415 

Report on rapid transit progress, * 1 1 6, 1359 

Philippine Islands (see Manila, P. I.) 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

Pittsburgh Rys. : 

Education of public, Posters and his- 
torical parade, 1338 
Claim work principles [Rice], *878 
Code of ethics and policies, 712; Com- 
ment, 706 
Financial statement, n 159 
Owl-car fare case, n 39, n 79, n 699, 

856, n 1179; Comment, 45 
Safety-lirst exhibit, 104 

Report on improved city traction, n 905 

Pittsfield, Mass.: 

Berkshire Street Ry.: 

Hearing to force operation of Lee- 

lluntington line, n 746 
One-year wage agreement signed, n 35 

Poles: 

Blasting pole boles in clay [Squires], "29 

Calculation of pole loads (Bates), *457 

Concrete pole design, 824 

Jack used for straightening poles (Simplex), 

*691 ; 

Preservative treatment specifications, 400 

Reinforcing tubular poles internally, San 

Francisco, Cal. [Foster], *109 
Port Arthur, Tex.: 
Port Arthur Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 548 
Portland, Me.: 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Headlight maintenance, *984 
Lubrication for GE-80 motors [Elgee], 

*1307 
Strike, n 116, n 154 

Portland, Ore.: 

Jitney bus regulation, n 336, n 1081, n 1130, 

1180, 1222 

Portland & Oregon City Elect. Ry. : 

Franchise for bus operation proposed, 
n 1367 

Portland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Annual report, 117 

Claim department's relations with pub- 
lic [Lonergan], 310 

Claim-work fundamentals [Boynton], 
309 

Fan ventilation of GE-58 motors 
[Maize], *284 

Financial plight to be investigated by 
special commission, n 989; Com- 
ment, 959 

Jitney competition discussed by Com- 
missioner Campbell, 114; Com- 
ment, 87 

Jitney regulation necessary to safeguard 
railway investments, n 944 

Shop grounds beautified by emplovees, 
*490; Comment, 475 

Traffic increased by bathing beach, n 
1178 
Pottsville, Pa. : 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys.: 

Annual report, 1128 
Power (see also Purchased power; Sale of 

power) 

Power consumption of cars (see Energy con- 

sumntion) 
Power distribution: 

Inclosed mounting for combination fuse and 

switch ( Anderson-Ellcon) , *732 

. Insulator clamp for feeder wires (Hatch), 

*544 

Line secttonalizing by use of transformers, 

Comment, 1090 
— i — Switch of inclosed type (Western Electric), 

*943 

Voltage regulation by automatic trans- 
former-tap changers on Philadelphia- 
Paoli line, *732 



Power generation: 

interconnecting of power supply systems, 

economies effected [InsullJ, 1160 

Power stations and equipment: 

Barometric condenser of new type (Inger- 

soll-Kand), *110 

Boilers. (.See Boners and equipment) 

Choke coil of air-cooled design (Westing- 
house), *369 

Controller for large d.c. motors (Industrial 

controller Co J , "1120 

Flow-meter with alarm attachment (Spray 

Engineering), *326 

Fort JJoage, Des Moines & Southern R.R., 

Steam and electrical equipment, *344 

Holyoke, Mass., Steam generating equip- 
ment, *1 190 

Impregnated stone for switchboards (Lin 

Stun Co.), 1168 

Meters, Astatic and other construction^ fea- 
tures in recent types (Hickok Elect. 
Inst. Co.), *1260 

Meters, Demand type (General Electric), 

*1310 

Name plates for machine panels and han- 
dles of high tension switches [Tanis], 
*283 

Ohio State Power Co.'s plant at Fremont, 

*1343 

Oil circuit breakers with tank-removing de- 
vice (General Electric), *287 

Oil-switch tank lifter (General Electric), 

*241 

Overload relay for high voltage a.c. circuits 

(Westinghouse), *942 

Relay of induction, selective overload type 

(General Electric), *901 

Report of A. E. R. E. A. committee on 

power generation, 828 

Reverse-phase relay (General Electric), *737 

Steam flow meters, Application to recipro- 
cating engines, Cleveland, O. [Phillips], 
*728 

Steam turbines used to drive small auxil- 
iaries (General Electric), 1211 

Stokers (See Boilers and equipment) 

Switchboards, Design having all live parts 

on back of board (General Electric), 
*1260 

Switchboard with special safety feature 

(General Electric), *241 

Turbo-generators. (See Turbo-generators 

and equipment) 

Preparedness : 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R., 

Handling of soldiers, * 1295 

Efficiency in [White], 106 

Electric railways' service in war time. Com- 
ment, 862 

Mexican trouble causes enlistment of rail- 
way men, n 33 

Mobilization ot electric railways discussed. 

Meeting of New York Elect. Ry. Ass'n, 
*16; Comment, 45 

Payment of salaries to National Guard mem- 
bers in the field, Comment, 3 

Track laying rushed to accommodate mobil- 
ization of troops in Denver, Col., n 147 

Presque Isle, Me.: 

Aroostook Valley R.R. : 

Equipment and operation of freight 
road, *1006 

Providence, R. I. : 

The Rhode Island Co.: 

Jitney operation, decreasing, n 158 

Publicity: 

Advertisements in newspapers, Georgia Ry. 

& Pr. Co., 162 

Advertising attractively, Illinois Traction 

System, *715 

-Advertising campaign for increased busi- 
ness, Doherty properties, *140; Com- 
ment, 129 

Advertising campaign to stimulate traffic on 

Chicago Elevated Rys., *359 

-Advertising securities to be sold to patrons, 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co., *356 

Annual reports as publicity material, Com- 
ment, 129 

Cartoons on publicity, 705, 753, 863, 919, 

961, 1005, 1049, 1091. 1141, 1189, 1233, 
1283, 1327 

Company publications: 

Co-operative standardization plan [Hild], 
*787 

Denver Tramway Bulletin improved, n 
1080 

Editing and distribution methods, 
Charlotte, N. C. [Carraway], *792 
Methods and results in Akron, O. [Bra- 
den], *791 
Use and value, Virginia Rys. & Pr. Co. 
[Wheelwright]. *789 
Folder advertising trolley routes, Washing- 
ton, D. C. (Matthews-Northrup), *530 
.Kansas City Rvs., Work of publicity depart- 
ment, *670; Comment, 663 

London, England, advertising posters, MOO 

Newspapers as a medium of publicity [Car- 
raway], 936 

New York Rys. strike advertisement, *229 

Pittsburgh, Pa., posters, *1338 

Publicity and the ills of street railways 

[Payne], 1290 

Publicity campaigns, Ammunition for, Com- 
ment, 3 



Publicity: (Continued) 

Public relations improved by publicity [Lee], 

809 

Public Service Ry. of New Jersey forced to 

refute election attacks, n 1171; Com- 
ment, 1187 

Selling points to be considered in planning 

campaigns, Comment, 171 

Value in puolic relation iThompson], 1346 

Public, Relations with: 

cartoons on publicity, 705, 753, 863, 919, 

961, 1U05, 1049, 1091, 1141, 1189, 1233, 

1283, 1327 

Claim agents' relations with the public [Lon- 
ergan], 310 

Code of ethics and policies of Pittsburgh 

(Pa.) Kys., 712; Comment, 706 

Company publications (see Publicity) 

Education of public by Harrisburg (Pa.) 

strikers, Comment, 384 

Good-will tostered by courteous treatment of 

public [Elmendorf], 1301 

House-to-house canvass for increased busi- 
ness in Sedalia, Mo., *140; Comment, 
129 

Improvement of public relations [Coates], 

1154 

Kansas City, Mo., Campaign to secure new 

tranchise, *667; Comment, *663 

Newspapers' attitude toward railways [Car- 
raway], 936 

Mutual unuerstanding, Comment, 1327 

Outline of metnouS tor bettering public rela- 
tions, 386; Comment, 383 

Pittsourgh, Fa., posters and historical pa- 
rade, *1338 

Proper attitude of company important 

[VVakelee], 1095 

Publicity ana tne ills of street railways 

[Payne], 1290 

Publicity work, Policy of frankness neces- 
sary [Lee], 809 

Railway omciais as citizens, Comment, 87 

selling securities to patrons to better public 

relations, Iowa Ky. Ji Lt. Co., *356; 
Byllesby properties, *264, n 854; Com- 
ment, 256 

Signs on cars to reduce rowdyism, *25 

Support of local business men. Comment, 427 

l'en commandments for improving public re- 
lations, Doherty properties, 866 

Training platform men in handling public 

at Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn., 135 

Valuable addition to nublic relations code 

[PordJ, 448 

Value of publicity [Thompson], 1346 

Work of A. E. R. A., 809 

Public service and regulative commissions: 

Pederal vs. state regulation, 1097, 1100 

Louisiana creates local public utilities board 

for New Orleans, n 203 
Organization and wotk of New York Com- 
mission, Second District, *1330; Com- 
ment, 1328 

'"Public Service Reports Annotated" merg- 

ered with "Official Public Service Re- 
ports," n 145 

Public service corporations: 

Regulation of relations between utilities and 

employees, National Municipal League 
report, 1200 

Public Service Ry. (see Newark, N. J.) 

Puget Sound Elect. Ky. (see Tacoma, Wash.) 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Seattle, 
Wash.) 

Purchased power: 

Cnarleston (VV. Va.) Interurban R.R. 

power contract, n 116 

Cleveland (O.) Ry., Power contract contro- 
versy, 547, n 853, n 906, n 947, n 
1034, 1074, 1123, n 1217 

Demand system of payment, 929 

Factors governing the purchase and sale of 

power by electric railways, Comment, 
343 

United Rys. of St. Louis, Mo., Power situa- 
tion, 531- Comment, 706 
(See also Sale of power) 

Purchasing supplies on standard specifications 
[Twyford], *973; Comment, 959 



o 



Ouakertown & Delaware River R.R.: 

Change of ownership causes rumors of 

electrification, n 116 
Ouebec, Can.: 

- — Quebec Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 
Financial statement, 1037 
Strike, n 508 
Wage increase, 1361 



Rails: 

Corrugation : 

Chicago investigation, Etfeot ot shape 

of rail, *1012; Comment, 1004 
Data sheet for investigating causes 

[Cooper], 727 
Effect of resilience of foundation 

[Jones], *67 
Remedies for [Holt], *456 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



July-December, 1916 1 



INDEX 



XIII 



Rails: (Continued) 

Grinding practice on Bay State Street Ry. 

(Seymour), 30 
Line contact with wheels desirable, ( om- 

ment, 385 

Track sander (Haese Co.), *544 

Rail joints and bonds: 

Arc-welded track joints, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

[JrlottmanJ, 1244 
Bond testing outht (Roller-Smith Co.), 

•1167 

Electric-welded joint practice in Daven- 
port, la. [Smith], *68 

Joint welding practice in Youngstown, O. 

((joluschmiut), *239 

Mechanical tests of rail joints, A. R. A. 

bulletin, "940 

Protection against theft of bonds, Brooklyn, 

M. Y. [McKelwayl, *1 165 

Riveted and welded track joints, Rochester, 

M. Y. [balconerj, "982 

Shield for the prevention of bond thefts, 

Illinois Traction System, *286 

Soldered bonds, Experience in Seattle, 

Wash. [Mcllraith], "938 

Steel terminal bond of great strength [Sim- 
plex], *31 

Third-rail bonding on new rapid transit 

lines, Brooklyn, N. Y., *1092; [1-eb- 
rey], *282 

Third-rail bonds for new subways in New 

York City, *940 
Railway Signal Ass'n. : 

Annual convention, n 492 

Randolph, Mass.: 

Bristol & Norfolk Street Ry.: 

Commission allows six-cent fare, n 469, 
553 

Rate making. (See Appraisal of railway prop- 
erty) 
Record forms: 

Appraisal record forms [Kuhn], *99, *315 

Car inspection record forms [Wilcoxon], 

"1305; [Blanchard], *1352 
Continuous inventory data sheets[Carver], 

"1053 

Maintenance cost-svstem forms, Oakland, 

Gal. [Miller], "312 

Maintenance record forms, New Brighton, 

Pa. [Boyce], *479 

Punch-mark system of car-shop reports in 

Allentown, Pa. [Branson], *454 

Special work, Method of recording [Ben- 
ham], *27 

-— — Storeroom record forms [Bulkeley], *401 
Substation record forms on Illinois Traction 

System [Leisenring and toe], *352; 

Comment, 342 
Regeneration. (See Brakes) 
Repair shop equipment: 

Air compressor of portable type, Benton 

Harbor, Mich., *544 
Armature-banding tensioner, Galesburg, 111., 

shops, *984 

Armature buggy used in Macon, Ga., *457 

Brake-beam holder, Kansas City Rys., *153 

Bulldozer made from air-brake cylinder in 

Calesburg, 111., "326 
Circulating water pump attachment for air 

compressor [Branson], *542 
Commutator slotting attachment for lathe, 

*368 

Current collecting carriage for supplying 

current to third-rail equipments [Tanis], 
*939 

Dipping machine for painting car fenders of 

Cleveland (O.) Ry. [Ebeling], *321 

Electric tractor for handling rolling stock 

in shop [Mills], *1209 

Hoist used for unloading new cars in De- 
troit, Mich. [Potter], *236 

Lockers of steel, Galveston (Tex.) Electric 

Co., *1308 

Metal shearing machine with air cylinder 

attachment, Omaha, Neb., *1027 

Pipe bender used in Galesburg (111.) shops, 

*459 

— — Pit lighting, Mounting for lamps, Allentown, 
Pa., *545 

Portable controller for applying current to 

trucks, Cleveland (O.) Ry. [Ebeling], 

"685 

Portable fuel-oil furnace used in Omaha, 

Neb., *368 

Pull-in truck in use in Fort Smith, Ark. 

[Wright], *148 

Soldering iron with high resistance tips 

(Clemens Electrical Corp'n.), *1168 

Tools, Electric versus pneumatic, 976 

Tools High-speed steel tips welded to ma- 
chine tools, *1069 

Transformer for testing field coils in Atlan- 
tic City (N. J.) shops [Faber], *364 

Water heater operated by babbitting furnace, 

*406 

Wheel turning lathe with special face-plate 

lugs, Allentown, Pa., *984 
Repair shop practice: 

Acetylene cutting and welding practice in 

Washington, D. C. [Haar], *939 

Armature bearing babbitting practice in New- 
York City [Johnson], *237 

Armature spider repair job [Ernest], *1026 

Axles of button-end type, Method of reclaim- 
ing in Long Island R. R. shops [Mills], 
*193 



Repair shop practice: (Continued J 

Axle tests for location of defects, Anderson, 

Ind. [Hemming], M025 
Babbitting axle bearings by use of special 

jig, Hazleton, Pa. [Brown], "1116 
Drying out motor-generator sets [Koppel], 

*67 

Inspection methods, Michigan City, Ind. 

[WilcoxonJ, "1305 
Machining of tires in England ["Vulcan"], 

"108 

Method of handling large car-remodeling 

job in Baltimore, Md., *304; Comment, 
299 

Neatness makes a more efficient shop; Com- 
ment, 4/5 

Oxy-acetylene cutting practice in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. [Legare], "108 

Sand-biastmg ot glass, Akron, O., "986 

Substation attendant's spare time used on 

small jobs, *322; Comment, 342 

— —Ventilation of railway motor for summer 
service, Ogden, Utah [Wurzbach], *238 

— — .Welding of broken sections of trolley poles, 
Kansas City Rys., 198 

Workmen should know relative cost of avail- 
able material ["Vulcan"], 321 

Work reports kept by punch marks, Allen- 
town, Pa. [Branson], *454 

Repair shops; 

Lighting, Comparative maintenance costs of 

of different units, 975 
Pit lighting conduit construction, Springfield, 

Mass., "899 

Republic Ry. is. Lt. Co. (See New York City) 
Rhode Island to. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Richmond Lt. & R.R. Co. (see New York City) 
Kicnmond, Va. : 

Virginia Ry. it Pr. Co.: 

Annual report, 1175 

Company puoiications, Objects and re- 
sults [Wheelwright], "789 

Grade cross. ng protective device (Con- 
solidated Car Heating Co.), *1121; 
Operation with signal system practi- 
cal [Taurman], 1161 

Large turoine installed in record time, 
"1308 

Norfolk, Va., franchise negotiations, n 

115, n 201, n 331, n 460, n 1035 
Rail corrugation, Effects of resilience of 

foundation [Jones], *67 
Safety-hrst week activities, n 1294 
Rochester, N. Y. : 

Buffalo, LoCKport & Rochester Ry. : 

Reasons for defaulting interest on 
bonds, 333 

Improvement of street car traffic by rerout- 
ing, Arnold's report, n 947, *1238; 
Comment, 1231 

New York State Rys.: 

Advertising for platform men, n 1360 
Controlling factors in track maintenance 

costs [Falconer], "499 
frogs made of track-scrap by arc-weld- 
ing [Benham], *407 
Front-entrance, center-exit car, *570; 

[Cook], M234; Comment, 1231 
Jitney competition, n 39, n 74, n 746 
Recording second-hand special work 

[Benham], "27 
Rochester-Charlotte fare case, n 953 
1 rack joints of riveted and welded type 
[Falconer], "982 

Safety conference, n 1221 

Rock! ord, 111. : 

Kockford & Interurban Ry.: 

Button-end axles reduce wear [Graham], 
278 

Rockland, Me.: 

Rockland, Thomaston & Camden Street Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 291 
Routing of cars: 

Chicago, 111., Recommendations of Board of 

Supervising Engineers, *183, *218 

Double routed cars used to solve routing 

problem in Chattanooga, Tenn., *357 

Fundamentals of traffic routing as applied in 

Kochester, N. Y. [Arnold], *1238; Com- 
ment, 1231 

Newark, N. J. [Donecker], "173; Comment, 

169 

Rubber-cutting gage for cable testing use [Mc- 
Kelways], "983 



St. Joseph, Mo. : 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Car body double-deck design giving large 

capacity, *1030 
Repair of an armature spider [Ernst], 
*1026 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

United Rys.: 

Annual report, 550 

Claim work policies [Walch], "877 

Damage expense figures for past six 

years, n 1318 
Franchise and mill tax controversy 1170, 
n 1215, 1314, n 1361 
1314 

Power situation, 531; Comment, 521, 
706 

W age increase, 1315 



Sacramento, Cal : 

Jitneys withdraw because of stringent or- 
dinance, n 420 

Pacific Gas & Elec. Co.: 

Derrick car tor yard and shop use, "287 
Friction-clutch brake of improved de- 
sign, *325 

Motor buses to be operated by com- 
pany, n 515 
Safety First 1* ederation: 

Bureau of standards created, n 693 

— - — Annual convention m Baltimore, Md., 1296 
Safety first movement: 

California Electric Railway Ass'n sends 

satety appeal to automobile owners, 
n 294 

Circulars distributed among children by H. 

M. Byllesby & Co., Chicago, III., n 82 
Co-operation ot railways with motor vehicle 

owners in lacoma, Wash. [Browne], 

*348 

Exhibit of Pittsburg Rys., 104 

Fire and accident prevention day, advertis- 
ing poster, "536 
Grade cross. ng safety recommendations of 

A. R. A., "270 
— — Kansas City, Mo., campaign carried into 

schools, n 163, n 468, n 713 
Manila (P. 1.) Elect. K.K. & Lt. Co. offers 

use of pulinotor to city, n 100 
Memphis (lenn.) Street Ry. inaugurates 

company publication, "Safety First 

1 opics," n 294 
National Satety Council, proceedings of 

convention, 930 
Newspaper selling stopped on cars of Kansas 

City Rys., n 469 
Philaueiph.a, Pa., Safety-first campaigns 

[Clinch], 1292 
Portland, Ore., Work of safety commission 

[Coffin], 308 

Precautions against accidents [Jack], 1294 

Prizes awarded to Brooklyn (N. Y.) school 

children, n 81 
Publicity campaign in Beaver Falls, Pa., 

"718 

Safety work on electric railways, Columbus, 

U. [Clapp], 1110 

Street traffic regulation, Comment, 917 

Training of school children in Tacoma, 

Wash. [Henry], *437; Comment, 428 
Sale of power by electric railways: 

Power load developed by Fort Dodge, Des 

Moines & Southern R. R., "344; Com- 
ment, 343 

Practices of interurban roads of the Cen- 
tral States, "920; Comment, 918 

Service standards of U. S. Bureau of Stand- 
ards, 720 

(See also Purchased Power) 

Sales work by personal solicitation overdone in 
electric railway field; Comment, 475 

Salt Lake City, Utah: 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R.: 

Substation for 1500-volt line [LottJ, 
"1142 

Trailer cars for summer service, *104 
Twenty-mile extension, Equipment and 
service, * 143 
San Francisco, Cal.: 

Jitneys ruled from business district, n 208, 

n 335, n 378, n 419, n 698 

Municipal Ry. : 

Extension built to avoid a hill, "179 
Financial statement, Comparison with 

1915, 138; Comment, 130 
Strike demonstration, n 203 

Traction situation not satisfactory, n 1171 

United Railroads: 

Capitalization cut in half, 744 
Employees loyal in spite of effort to 

stampede strike, n 203, n 288 
Motor-driven cable-reeling machine 

[Foster], *192 
Ownership by city proposed, n 1033 
Oxy-acetylene cutting practice [Le- 
gare], *108 
Paralleling of track by Municipal Rail- 
way, Comment, 1 
Photography as an aid in court trials 

[Handlon], 310 
Reinforcement of tubular steel poles 

[Foster], *109 
Reorganization proceedings, n 205, 292, 
696, 744, n 908, n 1079, n 1127 

United Railways Investment Co.: 

Annual report, 1218 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. (see Oak- 
land, Cal.) 
San Jose, Cal.: 

Peninsular Ry. : 

Automobiles, Adaptation to track oper- 
ation, "285; Comment, 300 
Schedules and time tables: 

Development ot schedule engineers [Don- 
ecker], *795 

Double routed cars used to solve routing 

problem in Chattanooga, Tenn., *357 
Rochester, N. Y., B. J. Arnold's recom- 
mendations for improving operation, 
*1240 

Two-car train, Influence on schedule speed, 

"586 

Schenectady, N. Y. : 

Schenectady Ry. : 

Strike arbitration settled, Wage in- 
crease, n 549 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



XIV 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



Scranton, Pa. : 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R. : 

Wage increase, n 510 
Scranton & Bingh,.mton Ry. : 

Signal system performance records, 
*388 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Jitney bus regulation by City Council, n 

163, n 294, n 377, n 468, n 857 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Annual report, 464 

Appraisal of property damaged in acci- 
dents [Hamilton], 350 

Bonding experiences [Mcllraith], *938 

Effort to force extensions, n 35 

Franchise case, n 904 

Heating of cars ordered by commis- 
sion, n 123 

Jitney regulation asked for, n 377 

Low-fare case, n 377 

One-man cars, Experimental operation 
authorized, n 40; Permits granted 
for two lines, n 123 

Paving suit, n 1216, n 1313 

Regulation of motor vehicle traffic to 
reduce accidents [Falknor], 349 

Service reduced because of jitney 
competition, n 124, n 163, n 295 
Railways gain over jitneys in traffic check, 

n 1040 

Seattle & Ranier Valley Ry. : 

Franchise case carried to Supreme 
Court, n 246, n 1220 

Operating agreement with municipal 
lines, n 1080 

Receivership, 1037 
Seattle Municipal Street Ry. : 

Financial statements, n 161; Loss 
shown, n 1128 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. : 

(See Seattle & Ranier Valley Ry.) 

Traffic check on street travel, 420 

Seats (see Doors, seats and windows) 
Second Avenue R.R. (see New York City) 
Security selling to patrons (see Public, Rela- 
tions with) 
Sedalia, Mo.: 
City Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Campaign to secure increased business, 
M40; Comment, 129 
Service and tower wagons: 

Experience of Union Ry. (N. Y. City), with 

self-propelled type [Kent], *90; Com- 
ment, 89 

Light weight automobile tower wagon, 

Utica, N. Y. [Throop], *364 
— — Motor bus service for stores department 

[McKeen], *1068 
One-ton line truck for hilly country (Smitli 

F"orm-a-Truck), *505 
Uses and design of automobile types 

[White], *152 
Shawnee, Okla. : 

Shawnee-Tecumseh Tr. Co. : 

Strike, n 1126 
Sheboygan, Wis.: 
Sheboygan Ry. & Elec. Co.: 

Cars rebuilt for rush-hour service 
[Shaw], *194 
Shore Line Elect. Ry. (see Norwich, Conn.) 
Signals: 

Crossing protective device used by Virginia 

Ry. & Pr. Co. (Consolidated Car Heat- 
ing Co.), 1121; Operation with block 
signal system practical [Taurman], 1161 

Crossing signal of closed-circuit type 

(Union Switch & Signal Co.), *1214 

Denver & Rio Grande Ry. crossing signals 

(Protective Signal Mfg. Co.), *151 

Drawbridge signals [Johnson], 1339; Com- 
ment, 1327 

Impedance bond with protecting case 

(Union Switch & Signal), *543 

Installations on electrified sections of sev- 
eral steam roads (Union Switch & Sig- 
nal), 404 

Klaxon horn used as a crossing signal dur- 
ing fogs in London, England, 360 

Pennsylvania R.R. changes colors for fixed 

signal aspects, 480 

Scranton & Binghamton Ry., Signal system 

performance records, *388 

Signal lights with side indication in Los 

Angeles, Cal. (Union Switch & Signal), 
*506 

Standard clearances and aspects, *826 

Street semaphore sis:nals recommended in 

Chicago, 111., *183, *273 
Track circuit transformers (Union Switch & 

Signal), *73S 
■ — ■ — Transformer for testing signal relays 

(Union Switch & Signal), *691 
Trolley contactor system with standard as 

pects (U. S. Elect. Sig. Co.), *686 

fSee also Automatic stops) 

Signs for guidance of public, Psychology in 

wording, Comment, 169 
Single-phase railways: 

Swiss Federal Rys. adopts single phase for 

St. Gothard line, *225; Comment, 215; 
Influencing factors [Arthur], 319 

Skip-stops (see Stopping of cars) 

Sleet cutter of semi-rotary type (Bayonet), 1358 

Snow-fightine equipment should be investigated 
by Engineering Ass'n, Comment, 861 

Snow-fighting preparedness, Comment, 1003 



Snow scraper for city cars (Root Spring 

Scraper), *459 
Society for Electrical Development: 

Poster for America's Electrical Week, *351 

South American Trade, Comment, 1327 
Southern Public Utilities Co. (see Charlotte, 

N. C.) 

Southern Traction Co. (see Dallas, Tex.) 
Special-work : 

Box girder foundations with wood-block fill- 
ing for railroad crossings (Interna- 
tional), *689 

Electric track switch practice in New Eng- 
land, *503 

Frogs made from track-scrap in Rochester, 

N. Y. [Benham], *407 

Recording second-hand special work [Ben- 
ham], *27 

Shockless crossings with automatic control 

(Cobb), *733 
Specifications, 830 

Standard designs of Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid 

Transit Co. [Bernard] *148 

.Welding manganese steel [Way Engineer], 

*27 

Specifications, Standards in purchase of railway 
supplies [Twyford], *973; Comment, 
959 

Spokane, Wash.: 

Washington Water Power Co.: 

Financial statement, 77 
Springfield, 111.: 

-Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co.: 

Mating of worn gears and pinions, 286 

Springfield, Mass. : 

Jitney ordinance passed, n 996 

Springfield Street Ry. : 

Handling exposition crowds, * 1348 
Installation of conduit for pit lighting, 
*899 

Mail carrying compensation increased, 

n 1131 
Wage agreement, 73 
Springfield, Mo.: 

Springfield Traction Co.: 

Strike forbidden by injunction, 741; 
Strike follows dismissal of injunc- 
tion, n 946, 988, n 1362 
Springfield, O.: 

Ohio Electric Ry. : 

Clearing house plan for interline traffic 
accounts [Kasemeier], 1250 
Handling crushed stone for use on high- 
ways, n 943 
Sale of power along interurban lines, 
*925 
Standardization : 

Car design [Heulings], 1371 

Classification of car weights for standard 

motors [Clardy], 283 

Manufacturers' activities in standardizing 

motors, n 1294 

Motor sizes [Lambert], 751 

■- Specifications for railway supplies should be 

standardized [Twyford], *973; Com- 
ment, 959 

Statistics: 

Annual geographical analysis of railway sta- 
tistics, 1175 

Census of electrical industries [Steuart], 

♦779 

Collisions with vehicles [Winsor], *874 

-Interurban railway statistics analyzed [Doo- 

little], 392 

New Tersev railway financial and operating 

statistics, 992 

Pennsylvania accident statistics, 1178 

-Statistical work needed in railway com- 
panies [Jones], *777 

Steam railroads, Financial and operating re- 
port of Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion [1915], 103; [1916], 972 

Stokers (see Boilers and equipment) 

Stopping of cars: 

Acceleration and braking tests, Chicago 

Loop district, *271 

Fundamentals of energy saving in car op- 
eration [Arthur], 397; Comment, 385 

Influence of car-bodv size on operating cost, 

586 

Near-side stop operation: 

Advantages of [Hare], *873; [Rey- 
nolds], *872 
Houston, Tex., n 1040 
Jeffersonville, Ind., n 1179 
New Albany, Ind., n 1179 
Walla Walla, Wash., n 1223 

Skip stops: 

Detroit, Mich., n 123, _ 162, 208, 838 
Recommended by Chicago Traction & 
Subway Commission, 1200: By B. 
O. S. E., *183, *218 
Report of Committee on Schedules and 
Timetables. 838 

(See also Automatic stops) 

Storage battery cars: 

Design to take current from trolley wire, 

Bradford (England) Tramways, n 179 
Storerooms: 

System for keeping a continuous inventory, 

Benton Harbor, Mich., *323 

System for handling stock [Bulkeley], * 1 01 

System of accounting for material in Oak- 
land, Cal. [Miller], *312 

Test board for fuses and lamps [Ransom], 

*455 



Strikes and arbitrations: 
Albany, N. Y., 741 

■ Atlanta, da., n 509, n 740, n 853; Disor- 
ders and trial of car dynamiters, 1262 

Bangor, Me., n 414, n 463, n 508 

British methods of handling strikes, 535 

Buffalo (N. Y.) Southern Ry., n 113, n 157, 

n 246, n 331, n 415, n 510 

Chattanooga, Tenn., n 372, n 415, 946 

Cumberland County (Me.) Pr. & Lt. Co., 

n 116, n 154 

Harrisburg (Pa.) Rys., 155, 200, 243, n 291, 

n 331, n 372; Comment, 384 

Holyoke, Mass., wage arbitration, n 906, 

1172 

Indianapolis, Ind., 1073, 1124 

Industrial democracy and prevention of 

strikes [Weston], 1205 
Jacksonville, Fla., n 1033 

Legislation to prevent strikes. Comment, 1187 

Logansport, Ind., n 156, n 204 

Marion, O., n 1217 

Memphis, Tenn., n 202 

Mount Vernon, N. Y., 199, *229, *484, 546, 

n 740; Comment, 169 
Muskogee, Okla. n 906 

National Civic Federation plans boards- 

of arbitratipn, n 1074 

New York City: 

I. R. T. Co., *229, 277, *449, *484, 546, 
n 692, n 905, n 947, n 1034; Com- 
ment, 427, 476, 521, 523, 706, 1003 
Brooklyn & North River R.R., *229, 275 
New York & Queens County Ry., *229, 
275, 546 

New York Rys., *229, 275, 327, 328, 
370, *449, *484, 546, n .692, n 905; 
Comment, 225, 427, 476, 521, 523, 
706 

Recommendation that strike arbitration 
clauses be incorporated in fran- 
chises 329 
Richmond' Lt. & R.R. Co., 275 
Second Avenue R.R., *229, 275, 328, 
*484, 546 

Sympathetic general strike to aid car- 
men improbable, Comment, 663 

Third Avenue Ry., *229, 275, 328, 370, 
*484, 507, 546, n 692, n 905, 1177; 
Comment, 214, 255, 299, 476, 521, 
523, 706 

Union Ry., *229, 275, *484, 546, n 905; 
Comment, 521 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 288 

Public utility labor disputes, Papers before 

Academy of Political Science, 1106; 

Comment, 1139 
Quebec, Can., n 508 

Railways should combine against union 

domination, 453; Comment, 427 

San Francisco, Cal., Demonstration by Mu- 
nicipal Ry. men, n 203 

Schenectady, N. Y., Arbitration settlement, 

n 549 

Shawnee, Okla., n 1126 

Springfield, Mo., 741, n 946, 988 

Strikes an unsatisfactory method of settling 

disputes, Comment, 341 
Trenton, _ N. J., Discharge of conductors 

sustained by arbitration board, n 34, n 

156 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Terms of final settlement, 

*1312 

Wilmington, N. C, 202 

Yonkers (N. Y.) R.R., 199, *229, *484, 

*546, n 740; Comment, 169, 299 

Storage yards. (See Carhouses and storage 
yards) 

Substations and equipment: 

Choke coil of new air cooled design (West- 

inghouse), *369 

Tobs for attendants' spare time, *322; Com- 
ment, 342 

Maintenance costs and method of keeping 

records on Illinois Traction System 
ri.eisenring and Coe], *352; Comment,. 
342 

Name plates for high tension switch han- 
dles and machine panels [Tanis], *283 

North Eastern Rv., England, Inclosed rotary 

converters, *4 

Oil circuit breakers with tank removing de- 
vice (General Electric), *287 

Oil-switch tank lifter (General Electric), 

♦241 

Overload relay for high voltage a.c. circuits. 

(Westinghouse), *942 

Relav of induction, selective, overload type 

(General Electric), *901 

Rotary converter collector rings, Method of 

renewal [Brown], 30 

Salt Lake & Utah R.R., 1500-volt substa- 
tion [Lott], *1142 

Wirine of transformers using special outlets- 

(Crouse-Hinds), *943 

Switchboards (see Power stations and equip- 
ment) 

Switzerland : 

Swiss Federal Rys.: 

Single-phase adopted for St. Gothard 
line, *225; Comment, 215; Influ- 
encing factors [Arthur], 319 

Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Lake Shore & Northern R.R..: 

Independent receivership to be estab-- 
lished, n 120 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



July-December, 1916 1 



INDEX 



XV 



Syracuse, N. Y.: 

New York State Kys. : 

Regulation of motor vehicle traffic 

[Brown], «876 
Unit for track maintenance costs 
[Roundey], 500 

Syracuse & South Hay Elect. R.K.: 

Reorganization plans, 333, n 950 



Tacoma, Wash. : 

Puget Sound Elect. Ry. : 

Prevention of collisions with vehicles 
[Winsor], *874 

Tacoma Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Co-operation of railways with motor ve- 
hicle owners in safety work 
[Browne], *348 
franchise case, 904, n 945, n 1035 
One-man cars placed in operation, n 208 
Safety-first training of school children 
[Henry], *437; Comment, 428 
Taxes. (See Financial) 

Technical journals' service valuable [Cooper], 
1011 

Technical schools should co-operate with rail- 
ways, Comment, 170 

Terminal stations and terminals: 

Chicago, 111., Proposed union station for Il- 
linois Central Ry., *537 

Dallas, Tex., Interurban terminal building 

[Moore], *525; Comment, 522; Correc- 
tion, 713 

Newark, N. J., Rerouting of traffic 

[Donecker], * 1 73 ; Comment, 169 

Springfield Street Rys. plan for handling 

exposition crowds, * 1348 

Terre Haute, Ind.: 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. 

Co. (Terre Haute Div.) : 

Block signals being installed, n 158 

(See also Indianapolis, Ind.) 

Tests of equipment: 

— — Acceleration and braking tests in Chicago 

Loop district, *271 
Axle testing methods, Anderson, Ind [Hem- 
ming], * 1025 

Bond testing, Brooklyn, N. Y., *1094 

Boston, Mass., Train derailing test, *1202 

Table testing instrument for locating 

grounds (Matthews & Bro.), "T213 

Insulator testing methods [Ewing], 1209 

Rules for insulation tests on d.c. feeders, 

*286 

- — —Starting resistance offered by cars [Ewing], 
*974 

Transformer for testing field coils in Atlantic 

City (N. J.) shops [Faber], *364 

Transformer-oil moisture test, 1030 

Two-car train, Test in comparison to single 

car, *586 

Texas Electric Ry. (See Dallas, Tex.) 

Texas Traction Co. (See Dallas, Tex.) 

Third Avenue Ry. (See New York City) 

Third rail contact system: 

Bonds (see Rail joints and bonds) 

Circuit breaker installation for N. Y. Muni- 
cipal Ry., *1357 

N. Y. City, I. R. T. Co., 150-lb. third rail 

for new subways, *543 

— — Sleet cutter and third-rail shoe combined, 
Atlantic City, N. J. [Blaiklock], *729 

Terminal for connecting feeders to third-rail 

(Standard underground), * 1 2 1 3 

Types of third-rail construction, *824 

Tickets: 

of new design used in 
, *359 

(See Wilmington, N. C.) 



-Employee's ticket 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Tidewater Power Co. 
Ties: 

Spacing and creosoting practices, Doherty 

properties [Swartz], 717 
Tamping practice and economy of pneumatic 

machines [Hicks], *533 
Timber preservation: 

Pole treatment specifications, 400 

Preservatives and treatment specifications, 

831 

Pressure type wood preserving plant, Boston, 

Mass. [Bright], *1065 

Use of treated timber by railways [Tees- 
dale], 1254 

Titusville, Pa.: 

Titusville Traction Co.: 

Six-cent fare allowed, n 1178 

Toilets on interurban lines opposed by Pennsyl- 
vania railways, 1129 

Toledo, O. : 

Community traction plan and financial con- 
troversy, n 157. n 202, n 245, n 902, 
n 990, 1124, 1172, 1218 

Newspaper fined for interference with court's 

3-cent fare injunction, n 1315 

Northwestern Ohio Ry. & Fr. Co.: 

Signs to reduce rowdyism, *25 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Control for two-car units (Westing- 
house), *738 
Court allows expenditure for new cars, 
n 331 

Improvement of public relations 

[Coates], 1154 
Sliding scale of fares suggested, n 1218 
Two-car unit operation, 723 



Toledo, O.: 

Toledo & Western R.K.: 

Freight and passenger traffic and op 

crating features [Swartz], "1055 
Track conditions on Doherty properties 
[Swartz], 717 
Topeka, Kan. : 

Jitney ordinance stringent, n 81 

Topeka Ry, : 

Uars rebuilt for one-man operation, 
"1028 

Paving foundation made of old sand- 
stone blocks, "941 
Toronto, Can. : 

Brazilian Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Annual report, 510 
Ontario hydro-radial railways' plea for gOT- 

ernment assistance, n 1173 
Toronto & York Radial Ry. : 

Deviation case won by railway, n 989 
Tower wagons (see Service and tower wagons) 
Track construction: 

Ballast, Report of committee on way mat- 
ters, 831' 

Ballasting conditions, Doherty properties 

[Swartz], 718 

Baltimore, Md., Beautifying tracks, *142 

Concreting track in Fort Smith, Ark., "Ill 

Gasoline road-roller operating costs in 

Brooklyn, N. Y. [Cram], 1163 

Kansas City, Mo., Methods and costs, *430 

Leveling track with prepared wedges (Steele- 

Alderfer), *505 

Milwaukee, Wis., standards, "198 

-Power tools supplanting labor, Comment, 

429 

Rail corrugation, Effect of flexibility of 

roadbed, Comment, 1004 
Standard layouts of Brooklyn (N. Y.) 

Rapid Transit Co. [Bernard], * 1 48 
Steel tie construction in shallow roadbed 

(International), * 543 
Tie tamping in Kansas City, Mo. (Ingersoll- 

Rarid), *1167 
Tie tamping practice and economy of pneu- 
matic machines [Hicks], *533 
Tilted rail construction to obtain full line 

contact (International), M029 
Washington, D. C Improved yoke for slot 

construction [Kimball], *501 

(See also Rails; Special-work) 

Track maintenance: 

Ballast screening machine on Kansas City 

Rys., »1 168 

Boston Elevated Ry., Girder rails replaced 

by T-rails, *942 
Corrosion causes rail renewal in Cleveland, 

O., *545 
Corrugation (see Rails) 

'■ Frogs made of track-scrap in Rochester, 

N. Y. [Benham], *407 

Handling material in storage vards [Cram], 

*1284: Comment, 1281 

Kansas City, Mo., Methods and costs, *430 

Oxy-acetylene cutting practice in San Fran- 
cisco. Cal. [Legare], *108 

Philadelphia subway, Record of unballasted 

track [Twining], *48 1 

Pneumatic tamning outfits useful in differ- 
ent ways [Brennan], *1118 

Power tools supplanting labor, Comment, 

429 

Rail grinder made of scrapped materials, 

Benton Harbor, Mich.. *545 

Rail grinding practice of Bay State Street 

Ry. (Seymour), 30 

Rail grinding practice on Boston Elevated 

Ry. (Stow), *542 

Single truck cars increase wear on track 

[Swartz], 718 

Steam shovel for track rehabilitation, 

Youngstown, O. (Keystone), * 1 95 

Tie tamping practice and economy of pneu- 
matic machines [Hicksl, *533 

Unit for comparing costs: 

Best unit dependent upon its applica- 
tion [Kees], 682 
Classifications involved [Roundev], 500 
Comment, 257, 301 

Controlling factors [Falconer], *499; 

[Mitchell], 403 
Difficulties in deriving unit [Cram], 

363, [West], 500; [Cooper], 539 
Suggested classification [Berry], 403 

Traffic investigations: 

Boston Elevated Ry., *673 

Checking traffic for establishing schedules, 

Connecticut Co. [Camit]. 66 

Chicago Loop district, *183. *218, *271 

— ■ — Length of single-fare rides in American 
cities [McGrath], *223: Comment, 214 

Newark, N. T. [Donecker], * 173 : Com- 
ment, 169 

Seattle, Wash., Traffic check on street 

travel, 420 
Traffic peaks expensive, comment, 1089 
Traffic stimulation: 

Advertising attractively, Illinois Traction 

System, *715 
Advertising campaign of Chicago Elevated 

Rys., *359 

Bathing beach increases travel in Portland, 

Ore., n 1178 
Binghamton, N. Y., Improving service to 

stimulate traffic. *709 



Traffic stimulation: (Continued) 

Campaign for increased business in Sedalia, 

Mo., "140; Comment, 129 

Carload freight development on Illinois 

Traction System, *49; Comment, 46, 129 
- — London, England, advertising posters, "400 

Rochester, N. Y. [Arnold], " 1238; Com- 
ment, 1231 

Selling points to be considered in planning 

campaigns, Comment, 171 
Train resistance (see Energy consumption) 
'Irani operating practice: 

Operation of cars and fundamentals in en- 
ergy saving [Arthur], 397; Comment, 
385 

Transfers: 

Boston Elevated Ry., Proposed changes in 

privileges, *674 
Design used for special crowds in Louisville, 

Ky., *274 

Front-end collectors, special form, Kansas 

City, Mo., "57 

Joplin, Mo., Universal transfer plan aban- 
doned, 746 

Printing methods of Brooklyn (N. Y.) 

Rapid Transit Co., "216 

I'rotection from abuse of privileges, 843 

Publication of transfer regulations is re- 
quired by court, Buffalo, N. Y., n 996 

Transfer-issuing machines, "627 

Transmission lines: 

Illinois Commission issues rules for electrical 

construction, n 1342 
Inclosed mounting for combination fuse and 

switch ( Anderso'n-Ellcon), *732 

Insulator problems, Comment, 1188 

Insulators, Field testing methods [Ewing], 

1209 

Metering equipment for high tension out- 
door operation ( Westinghouse), *900 

Steel conductors, Electrical and mechanical 

characteristics, 898 

Transformers used for sectionalizing pur- 
poses, Comment, 1090 

Traveling experts, Plan to improve service by 
holding-compiny's specialists, *49 1 ; 
Comment, 476 

Trenton, N. .i . : 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase allowed on suburban line, 
911 

Wage increase, n 291 

— — Trenton & Mercer County Tr. Corp'n. : 

Discharge of conductors sustained by 

arbitration board, n 34, n 156 
Fare case, n 80, n 1131 
Wage agreement, 156 

Trolley wire. (See Overhead contact system) 

Trolley ooles and wheels. (See Current collect- 
ing devices) 

Trucks, car: 

C. M. & St. P. locomotive trucks. *888 

Effect of single truck on economical size of 

car body, 589 
General discussion on modern practice in 

truck design, *628 
Improvements for old-style trucks, Akron, 

O., *986 

Improvements in standard truck construc- 
tion (Brill), *736 

One-man car type, Illinois Traction System, 

864 

Pull-in truck in use in Fort Smith, Ark. 

[Wright], *148 _ 
Turbo-generators and equipment: 
Large installation for Virginia Ry. & Pr. 

Co., *1 308 

Twin Citv Rapid Transit Co. (see Minneapolis, 
Minn.) 



u 



Union Ry. (see New York City) 
Union Street Ry. (see New Bedford, Mass.) 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana (see Anderson, 
Ind.) 

United Gas & Elect. Corp'n. (see New York Citv) 
United Lt. & Rys. Co. (see Grand Rapids, Mich.) 
United Railroads of San Francisco (see San 

Francisco, Cal.) 
United Rys. &• Elect. Co. (see Baltimore, Md.) 
United Rvs. of St. Louis (see St. Louis, Mo.) 
United Traction Co. (see Albanv, N. Y.) 
Utica, N. Y.: 
New York State Rys. : 

Light weight automobile tower wagon 
[Throop], *364 



Valley Rys. (see Lemoyne, Pa.) 

Valuation (see Appraisal of railway property) 

Vancouver, Can.: 

British Columbia Elect. Ry. : 

Children's fares changed, 469 
Enlistment of employees in European 

war, n 227 
Express pick-up and delivery system in- 
augurated, n 1081 
Front-end fare collectors, n 1040 
Liability in runaway freight car case, n 
537 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



XVI 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



Vancouver, Can.: 

British Columbia Elect. Ry.: (Continued) 

Open-air, rootless car for summer 
travel, *401 
., .Traffic increases shown, n 208 
Ventilation of cars: 

— — General discussion on modern practice, 606 
Virginia Public Utilities Ass'n: 
— — Field of the one-man car [Ervin], *144 
Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Richmond, Va.) 



w 



Wage arbitration (see Strikes and arbitrations) 
Wages (see Employees) 
Waiting stations: 

■ .Boston tlevated Ry., Improvements to re- 
lieve congestion, *258 

Safety-switch for panel boards for station 

lighting system (Krantz), *324 

Warsaw, Ind. : 

Winona Interurban Ry. : 

Receiver appointed, n 206 

W'ahington (State): 

Public Service Commission: 

Order requiring Puget Sound Lt. & Pr. 

Co. to heat certain cars, n 123 
Railway losses shown by annual report, 
n 160 

Railway values depreciate because of auto- 
mobile competition, n 511 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elect. R.R 
(see Baltimore, Md.) 

Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co.: 

Car-loading standards, Discussed before 

commission, n 82 
Valuation figures adjusted, 1316 

Commission issues service standards, 419, 

951 

Operating statistics of railways of District 

of Columbia, 466 

Railway guide of attractive design (Mat- 
thews Northrup), *530 

Washington Ry. & Elect. Co.: 

Acetylene, Uses in car shop [Haarl, 
♦ 939 

Annual report, 204 

Car-loading standards, Discussed before 
commission, n 82 



Washington, D. C. : 

Washington Ry. & Elect. Co.: (Continued) 

Heavy yokes for conduit (slot construc- 

tion) railways [Kimball], *501 
Remodeling of private car, *1029 

Waterloo, la.: 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry.: 

One-man cars. Their design and opera- 
tion [Cass], 1194 
Sale of energy to municipalities along 

interurban lines, *922 
Special train for demonstrating farm 
tractors, *493 
Welding, Special methods: 

Acetylene welding practice in Washington, 

D. C. [Haar], *939 

V Constant-current arc system (Elect. Weld- 

1 ing Co.), *1307 

Cutting with oxy-acetylene flame in San 

Francisco, Cal., *108 
High-speed steel tips welded to machine 

tools, *1069 

y Manganese steel welding ["Way Engineer"], 

*27 

/ Slag-coateJ electrodes and polarity reversal 

in electric welding, 1028 
Track joint arc-welding practice in Wilkes- 

Barre, Pa. [Hoffman], 1244 
Welfare work (see Employees) 
Westchester Elect. R.R. (see Mount Vernon, 

N. Y.) 

Western Ohio Ry. (see Lima, O.) 
Western Red Cedar Ass'n: 

Specifications for treatment of poles, 400 

Westinghouse Elect. & Mfg. Co., Proposed new 

plant, n 1278 
Wheaton, 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R.: 

Annual report, 1266 
Wheelguards. (See Fenders and wheelguards) 
Wheels: 

Cast-steel wheel with manganese tread and 

flange (American Steel Foundries), 

*69; Correction, 103 
Contours should obtain line contact with 

rail, Comment, 385 
Flange contour changed to reduce noise, 

Kansas City Rys., *240 

Machining of ["Vulcan"], *108 

Modern practice, *633 

Report of committee on equipment, 833 



Wheels: 

Weight increase recommended, 1000 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: 

Wilkes-Barre Ry. : 

Arc welding of track joints [Hoffman], 
1244 

Protest against jitney operation, n 163 
Strike, Terms of settlement, 1312 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Ry. (see Hazleton, Pa.) 

Wilmington, N. C, : 

Tidewater Power Co.: 

Strike settled, n 202 

Winona Interurban Ry. (see Warsaw, Ind.) 

Worcester, Mass.: 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.: 

Home-made sprinkler for lawns, *722 
Wage agreement, 73 

Work and wrecking cars: 

Design with large cab, Anderson, Ind., * 1 50 

Flushing cars, Rebuilt from sprinkler cars, 

Cleveland, O. [Ebeling], *64 

Home-made derrick car for yard and shop 

use in Sacramento, Cal., *287 

Motor trucks with steel-flanged wheels, Bur- 
lington, la., * 1070 

Track construction cars in Kansas City, Mo., 

*430 

Wrecks (see Accidents) 



Y 



Yards (see Carhouses and storage yards) 
Yonkers, N. Y. : 
—Yonkers R.R.: 

Experience ordinance unconstitutional, 
n 1216 

Strike, 199, *229, *484, 546, n 740; 

Comment, 169, 299 
Wage increase, n 75 
Youngstown, O.: 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co. : 

Light and power accounting in relation 

to railway work [Dedrick], 1300; 

Comment, 1281 
Steam shovel for track reconstruction 

(Keystone), * 195 
Track joint welding practice (Gold- 

schmidt), *239 



AUTHOR INDEX 



"Accountant." Uniformity in accounting class- 
ifications, 979 
"A Friend " Suggested name for one-man cars, 

Arnold, B. J. Report on Bay State Street Ry., 
*13 

Fundamentals of traffic routing as applied 

m Rochester, N. Y., * 1238 

Arthur, William. Fundamentals of energy sav- 
ing in car operation, 397 

Influencing factors in choice of single phase 

by Swiss Federal Rys., 319 



B 



Bancroft, William A. Psychology and economi- 
cal habits, 1289 

Batchelder, A. F. Mechanical design of electric 
locomotives, 977 

Beck, C. H. Operation of one-man cars in 
Fort Worth, Tex., 1195 

Beeler, John A. Corporations as employers, 539 

Bellinger, J. B. Electric railways in military 
service, *18 

Benham, C, Jr. Frogs made of track-scrap in 

Rochester, N. Y., *407 

Recording second-hand special work, *27 

Bennett, H. K. Fair play between claim agents 

and public, 147 
Benton, John E. Commission valuation for rate 

making, *782 
Bernard, M. Standard track layouts of Brooklyn 

(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Co., *148 
Berry, E. H. Unit for track maintenance costs, 

403 

Betts, Philander. Classification of inventories 
essential, 1052 

Blaiklock, J. B. Combination sleet cutter and 
third rail shoe, *729 

Blanchard, A. Reduction of hot boxes on Boston 
& Worcester Street Ry., *1212 

Use of bronze inserts for armature bear- 
ings, Boston, Mass., *1305 

Car inspection record system, * 1 3 52 

Bleckwedel, George H. Coasting recorder main- 
tenance on Long Island R. R., *983 

Compressor circuits protected by potential 

relays on Long Island R. R. cars, *454 

Boardman, A. J. Interurban railway outlook, 
• *725 

Bowman, E. W. Co-operation in fire insurance 

matters, 1292 
Boyce, W. H. System of car maintenance 

records, New Brighton, Pa., *479 
Boynton, B. F. Fundamentals of claim work 

309 

Brackett, O. A. Condenser type car lighting 
arresters, 731 



Braden, James H. Getting out a company pub- 
lication, Akron, O., *791 

Bradley, L. C. Training of men for executive 
positions, *768 

Branson, Harry. Circulating water pump at- 
tachment for air compressor, Allen- 
town, Pa., *542 

Punch-mark system of keeping car-shop re- 
ports, *454 

Brennan, Charles. Different uses for pneu- 
matic tamping outfits, Albany, N. Y., 
* 1 1 1 8 

Bright, Edgar W. Pressure type wood preserving 

plant, Boston, Mass., *1065 
Brown, A. D. Regulation of motor vehicle 

traffic, *876 

Brown, James W. Babbitting jig for axle bear- 
ings, Hazleton, Pa., * 1 1 16 

Installation of headlights on car roofs, 

Hazleton, Pa., *501 

Renewal of converter collector rings, 30 

Browne, J. W. Co-operation of railways with 
owners of motor vehicles in safety 
work, Tacoma, Wash., *348 

Bruenauer, O. Ball bearing journal boxes 
(Gurney), *541 

Buck, A. M. "Local conditions fallacy" in car 
design, 727 

Bulkeley, W. V. C. Storeroom methods used by 
Columbus (O.) Ry., Pr. & Lt. Co., * 101 



Carlier, Joseph. Review of typical a.c. and d.c. 

installations in United States, 1155 
Carraway, Leake. Editing and distribution of 

company publications, Charlotte, N. C, 

*792 

Newspapers as_ a publicity medium, 936 

Carson, George. Fair play between claim agents 
and public, 105 

Carver, Harry E. Continuous inventory simpli- 
fications, 818 

Uses and preparation of continuous inven- 
tories, *1053 

Cass, C. D. Design and operation of the one- 
man car, 1194 

Chamberlain, William F. Group insurance for 
railway employees, 1291 

Clapp, Harold W. Safety work on electric 
railways, 1110 

Clardy, W. J. Desirability of standard weights 
for electric cars, 283 

Clarke, J. L. Lamp maintenance on Los An- 
geles Ry., *107 

Clinch, Beatrice V. Safety campaigns in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 1292 

Coates, F. R. Improvement of public relations, 
1154 



Coe, Harry W. Substation maintenance costs 
and keeping of records on Illinois Trac- 
tion System, *352 

Coen, F. W. Taxation and regulation problems, 
1109 

Coffin, Harry B. VVork of Portland (Ore.) 

Safety Commission, 308 
"Conduit." Fireproofing of cables in manholes, 

*1305 

Conway, Thomas, Jr. Current tendencies in the 

railway business, 10 
Employees' co-operative plan in Philadelphia, 

Pa. *968 

Cook, E. J. Front-entrance center-exit car, 
Rochester, N. Y., *1234 

Cooper, H, S. Appreciation of convention issue 
of Electric Railway Journal, 895 

Cost of service is proper basis for rate 

making, 1060 

Data sheet for investigating causes of rail 

corrugation, 727 

Practical unit for comparing track main- 
tenance costs not obtainable, 539 

Service of technical journals, 1011 

Cram, R. C. Gasoline road-roller operating 
costs, *1163 

Grouting tool for surfacing pavements, 

*1065 

Material storage yard and labor saving 

equipments, Practice of Brooklyn (N.Y.) 
Rapid Transit Co. and other railways, 
"1284 

Pitch-pouring cone for facilitating paving 

work, Brooklyn, N. Y., *1255 

Units for comparing track maintenance 

costs difficult to obtain, 363 

D 

Dedrick, A. E. Light and power accounting, 
1300 

Dempsey, J. J. Causes of increased cost of rail- 
way operation, 15 

Dillon, S. E. Psychological puzzle of the jitney 
bus, 147 

Donecker, H. C. Development of schedule engi- 
neers, *795 

Rerouting of traffic at Newark, N. J., * 1 73 

Doolittle, F. W. Developments in interurban 

railway conditions, 392, 937 
Dunn, Homer A. Accounting inconsistencies 

and fallacies, *775 



Ebeling, H. C. Dipping equipment for painting 

car fenders, Cleveland, O., *321 
-Portable controller for shop use, Cleveland, 

O., *685 

Street-flushing car used in Cleveland, O., 

*64 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



July-December, 1916J 



INDEX 



XVII 



Elgee, E. W. Oil cup lubrication for old-type 
motor, "1307 

Elmendorf, K. 11. Good-will fostered by cour- 
teous treatment of public, 1301 

Ernst, VV. A. Repair of an armature spider, 
with loose laminations, *1026 

Ervin, J. 1!. i lie field of the one-man car, 
-144 

Ewing, D. D. Forces necessary to start differ- 
ent types of cars, *974 

Methods of testing insulators in service, 

1209 



Faber, George F. Transformer for testing field 
coils in Atlantic City (N. ].) shops, 
*364 

Falconer, D. P. Controlling factors in track 
maintenance costs, *499 

Riveted and welded construction of track 

joints, Rochester, N. Y., *982 

Falknor, A. J.. Regulation of motor vehicle 
traffic in Seattle, Wash 349 

Febrey, H. 11. New type of third rail bond for 
new lines in Brooklyn, N. Y., *282 

Fehr, H. R. All-steel, center-entrance cars, 
Allentown, pa., *896 

Ford, Frank R. Valuable addition public rela- 
tions code, 448 

Forse, W. H., Jr. "Accounting inconsistencies 
and fallacies," an exaggeration, 937 

Sinking fund accounting, 52S 

Foster, S. L. Motor-driven cable-reeling ma- 
chine, San FVancisco, Cal., * 1 92 

Reinforcement of tubular steel poles in San 

Francisco, Cal., *109 



Gaboury, A. Evolution of the P. A. Y. E. car 

in Montreal, Can., * 1 163 
Graham, J. N. Button end axles reduce wear, 

278 

Green, R. C. Ohio's compensation act, *868 



K 



H 



Haar, G. E. Uses of acetylene in Washington 

(D. C.) car shops, *939 
Hall, Bert. Welfare association activities in 

Milwaukee, Wis., *441: Loan funds, 

726 

Hamilton, F. M. Appraisal of property dam- 
aged in accidents in Seattle, Wash., 
350 

Handlon, J. H. Photography as an aid to trial 

attorneys, 310 
Harding, M. E. Reinforcement of splices in 

catenary construction, *684 
Hare, Samuel B. Advantages of the near-side 

stop, *873 

H'arte, Charles Rufus. Use of power-driven 
devices desirable in maintenance work, 

278 

Hemming, R. N. Enamelling vs. painting of 
cars, 1208 

Testing of axles, Anderson, Ind., *1025, n 

1114 

Headlight practice and tests, *1 354 

Henry, Charles L. Attendance at the Toledo 
meeting of the C. E. R. A., 1254; Com- 
ment, 1139 

Industry benefited by public relations work, 

539 

Review of railway conditions and activities 

of A. E. R. A., *756 
Henry, T. N. Safety-first training of school 

children in Tacoma, Wash., *437 
Heulings, W. PI., Jr. Standardization in car 

design, 1371 

Hewes, James E. Use of electric traction in 
time of war, 22 

Hicks, H. L. Tie tamping practice and economy 
of pneumatic machines, *533 

Hild, F. W. Use and value of company pub- 
lications, *787 

Hill, W. V, Jitney situation in California, 
1024 

Hodge, W. H. Interest in selling securities 
to patrons is spreading, 403 

Hoffman, E. A. Arc-welding of track joints, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1244 

Hovey, Albert F. Fireproofing of cables in man- 
holes, 1068 



"Inspector of car equipment." Practical car 
design details often overlooked, 238 

Insull, Samuel. Economies effected by inter- 
connection of power supply systems, 
1160 



Jack, A. G. Precautions against accidents, 1294 
Johnson, A. R. Babbitting practice in Third 
Avenue Ry. shops. New York- City, *237 
Johnson, Frederick W. Safeguarding draw- 
bridges for electric railway operation, 
1339 

Jones, Edw'n F. Future status of the electric 

railway, 1157 
Jones, T. Norman, Jr. Effect of resilience of 

foundation on rail corrugation, *67 
Jones, W. E. Work of the railway company's 

statistician, * 777 



Kasemeier, E. L. Clearing house plan fox 
interline traffic accounts, 1250 

Kealy, Philip J. Overhead charges in valua 
tion work, *762 

Keen, C. G. Unit for comparing track main- 
tenance costs, 682 

Kennedy, H. J. First multiple-unit electric 
locomotives, 1114 

Reminiscences of B. & O. electrification, 26 

Kent, James D. Self-propelled tower wagon 
practice in New York City, *90; Com- 
ment, 89 

Trolley wire performance, Union Ry., New 

York City, *540 

Kimball, C. S. improved yokes for slot track 
construction in Washington, D. C., * 50 1 

King, Clyde L. Relation of national issues to 
local franchises, *797 

Koppel, J. G. Method of drying out motor- 
generator sets, "67 

Kuhn, George W. Method of appraising public 
utility property, *97, *315 



Lambert, Myles B. Motor-size standardization, 
751 

Leach, A. B. Financial development of electric 

railways, 813 
Lee, A. M. Steam railroad claim work, 309 
Lee, Ivy L. Frankness and honesty in publicity 

work, 809 

Legare, B. P. Oxy-acetylene cutting practice 
in San Francisco, Cal., *108 

Le Grand, Nic. Name for the one-man car, 1114 

— — Kepair-part-stock discussion, 1135 

Leisenring, John. Substation maintenance costs 
and keeping of records on Illinois Trac- 
tion System, *352 

Lemon, Dr. Charles H. Medical examination of 
employees, Milwaukee, Wis., 494 

Lewis, E. L. Appreciation of convention issue 
of Electric Railway Journal, 895 

Lindall, John. Activities of American Electric 
Railway Engineering Ass'n, *822. 

Lippincott, J. B. Determination of reasonable 
service rates under municipal owner- 
ship, 1010 

Livers, John L. Name suggested for one-man 
cars, *726 

Loebenstein, Julian. Depreciation and reserve 

fund calculations, * 105 7 
Longergan, F. J. Relation of claim department 

to public, 310. 



M 



McCahill, David I. Legal status of the jitney, 
1248_ 

McCloskey, F. W. Motor design changes neces- 
sitated by closer gear centers, *408 

McGrath, D. J. Investigation of length of 
single-fare rides in American cities, *223 

Relation of investment to traffic density, *58 

Mcllraith, E. J. Bonding experience in Seattle, 
Wash., *938 

McKelway, G. H. Gage for cutting test pieces 
of rubber in cable testing, *983 

Protection of rail bonds from theft, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., *1165 

Trolley suspension bracket arms of unusual 

length, *684 

Trolley trough switch for Brooklyn (N. Y.) 

Bridge, *237 

Trolley wire maintenance inspection, 1026 

Mackall, K. W. Theory of illumination in head- 
light construction, * 1 1 5 1 

Maize, F. P. Fan ventilation of old-type motors 
in Portland, Ore., *284 

Miller, F. A. System of keeping maintenance 
costs in Oakland, Cal., *312 

Mills, J. S. Electric tractor for handling roll- 
ing stock in yards and shops, *1209 

Method of reclaiming button-end axles in 

Long Island RR. shops, *193 

Mitchell, L. A. Track maintenance unit for 
comparing costs, 403 

Moore, Edward T. Dallas, Tex., interurban 
terminal building, *525; Correction, 713 

Mullett, H. A. Sealed fuse cabinet on cars, *29' 



N 



Newton, E. G. Theory and application of light- 
ning protection, 1246 

Nicholl, H. A. Activities of Transportation & 
Traffic Association, *837 



o 



'Observer." Encouragement in Bay State 
Street Ry. fare case decision, 683 



Parsons, R. H. Installation and maintenance 
of car lightning arresters, *502 

Water heating attachment on babbitting 

furnace, *406 

Payne, George Henry. Publicity and the ills of 
street railways, 1290 

Phillips, F. R. Improvements in work of the 
Engineering Association, 1115 

Phillips, Victor B. Steam flow meters; Apnlica- 
tion to reciprocating engines in Cleve- 
land, O., *728 



Potter, Sylvester. Method of unloading new 
cars in Detroit, Mich., *236 



Quereau, C. 11. Mechanical design of electric 
locomotives, 1203 



R 



Ransom, E. D. Lamp and fuse test board for 

storerooms, *455 

Method of labeling fuses, "897 

Reynolds, John I. Advantages of the near-side 

stop, *872 ' 
Rice, Cecil G. Claim work fundamentals, *878 
Roundey, E. P. Unit for track maintenance 

costs, 500 

Rumney, Nathan. Freight and express traffic 
on electric railways, 1150 



Shaw, Carroll H. Rebuilt cars for rush-hour 

service in Sheboygan, Wis, *194 
Shonts, Theodore P. Relations between public 

service corporations and employees, 1237 
Smith, R. J. Electric-welded joint practice in 

Davenport, la., *68 
Spahr, Boyd Lee. Taxation of different forms 

in Pennsylvania, 1245 
Sprague, Frank J. Engineering development of 

the electric railway, * 77 1 
Squier, C. W. Development of sheet-steel gear 

cases, * 1 1 66 

Squires, L H. Blasting pole holes in clay, *29 
Steuart, "William M. Growth of the electrical 

industries, *779 
Stillwell, L. B. Development of the truss-side 

construction for steel cars, * 1 1 12, 1208 
Strauss, J. B. Safety car-stopping device, * 1210 
Swartz, A. Characteristic features of Toledo 

(O.) & Western RR., *1055 
Track conditions on Doherty properties 717 



Tanis, G. B. Current collecting carriage for 
supplying current to third-rail equip- 
ments in yards and shops, *939 

Fastening of feeder pipes to vertical col- 
umns, Brooklyn, N. Y., *1257 

Safety devices for switchboards, *283 

Taurman, A. Operation of crossing protective 
device of Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. with 
block signals, 1161 

Thayer, G. R., Lamp for tunnel inspection work, 
-1117 

Thompson, Walter S. Railway publicity, 1346 

Throop, H. G. Light weight automobile tower 
wagon, Utica, N. Y., *364 

Twining, William S. Philadelphia subway track 
maintenance record, *481 

Twyford, H, B. Standard specifications in pur- 
chase of railway supplies, *973 

Tynan, Leonard J. New Tersey's compensation 
law, 870 



V 



Van Brunt, John. Modern practice in mechani- 
cal boiler stoking, 1255 

"Vulcan" Gear case maintenance experiences 
in England, 1116 

■ Machining of tires, * 1 08 

Shop workmen should know relative cost of 

available material, 321 



w 



Wakelee, Edmund W. Public relations im- 
proved by proper attitude of company, 
1095 

Walch, E. P. Claim work principles, *877 
"Way Engineer." Welding manganese steel, 
*27 

Wells, Charles B. Supreme Court upholds fare 
granted to Denver & South Platte Rv., 
96 

Werth, W. F. M. Home-made electric water 
heater, *364 

West, Edward A. Unit for comparing track 
maintenance costs, 500 

Weston, George. Fundamentals of industrial 
democracy, 1205 

Wheelwrieht, G. S. Company publications of 
Virginia Ry. & Pr. <"o., *789 

White, J. G. Efficiency in military and indus- 
trial preparedness, c 106 

Whitmore, George. Claim department of Illi- 
nois Traction System, 1159 

Whittaker, C. C. Regenerative d.c. locomotives 
of Lake Erie & Northern Ry., *730 

Wilcoxon, K. L. Rigid car inspection methods, 
Michigan City, Ind., *1305 

Wildman, Tohn R. Accounting and modern in- 
dustry, *793 

Williams, Timothy S. Prediction of future 
transit developments, n 1032 

Wilson, H. L. Co-operation in remedying ac- 
counting faults, 1024 

Winsor, H. G. Prevention of collisions with 
vehicles, *874 

Wright, E. Pull-in truck in use in Fort Smith, 
Ark., *148 

Wurzbach, H. E. Ventilation of railway motors 
for summer service, Ogden, Utah, *238 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



XVIII 



INDEX 



[Vol. XLVIII 



PERSONAL 



Acworth, W. M., 1224 
Adams, James L., * 1274 
Ahearn, Thomas, 997 
Alexander, George, 1132 
Alexander, Roy, 209 
Alexander, Walter, 421 
Allen, Horace E., 470 
Allen, J. Walter, 1368 
Anderson, Samuel, 252 
Ashe, Peter, 1273 
Asher, Ernest, 556 
Armstrong, W. R., *252 
Atkins, J. W., 421 
Atkinson, John M., 104.' 
Avery, W. S., 1032 



Bache, Leigh Stanley, 748 
Baker, A. W., 954 
Bamberger, Simon, 470, 1132 
Banker, Carleton, 1314 
Barnes, Tames P., *41 
Barnes, John W.. 1133 
Barrington, Charles, Jr., 124 
Basnier, T. A., 378 
Belding, Walter, 1368 
Bennett, Josiah Ouincy, 1224 
Berry, C. F., 470 
Billhardt, F. E., 1041 
Billings. Hex D., 1320 
Blaine, E. F., 337 
Blinn, A. C, 1180 
Bogue, Virgil Gav, 913 
Bonfield, T. T., 40 
Boylan, M. R.. *847 
Brackett, W. S., 40 
Bradley, Luke C, 848, 1180 
Brassill, T. K., 209 
Brendel, Wallace W., 295 
Brewton, W. R.. 209 
Brown, A. R., 470 
Brown. H. L., 858 
Brown, Rohert C., 1273 
Brumbv. William V.. 912 
Budd, Britton I.. 422 
Buebee, George L., 1082 
Bullock, George, 997 
Bullock. TTarrv A.. 1273 
Bulpin, Thomas, 124 
Burdick, E. J., *82, 124 



Callaghan. W. C., 251 
Callery, James D., 1224 
Carithers, James Y., 1369 
Carr, Tames G., 3Z~ 
Carroll, R. G., 124 
Carter, C. R., 912 
Chapman, George A., 251 
Childers, W. R.. 209 
Choate, T. K., 1368 
Christy, "Will, 295, 337 
Chur, "Walter, 422 
Clark, Tames S., 251 
Clark, Roy, 556 
Clay, Tohn A., 748 
Cobb,"B. C, 1082, 1132 
Coleman, E. P., 295 
Collins, Toseoh F., 1224, 1320 
Connette, Edward G., *997 
Connolly, William H., 1274 
Conway. G. R. G., 912 
Corev, H. H., 41 
Corliss, Cyrus. 1368 
Craven, Alfred, 912, 954 
Crawford. Norman McD., 1082 
Cuntz, William C, 997 
Currie, Charles, 1180 



Daggett, George F., 124 
Dailey, S. H., 1132 
Dav^s, W. L... 124 
De Neale. William N., 82 
Denniston, Tames M., 470 
Donald, T. C., *41 
Downs. V.. K., 1321 
Drew, Charles A., 41 
Drexler, N. E., 41 



Driscoll, William A., 1132 
Duffy, C. Nesbitt, 164 
Duvall, J. B., 470 



Emery, C. F., 1041 
Emmons, C. D., 40 
Empey, J. R., 556 
Everett, Henry A., 1082 



Fallon, B. T., 748 
Feion, M. T., 748 
Fillmore, W. J., 1224 
Finigan, Thomas, *847 
Fisher. Dan G., 470 
Fitts, Clarke C, 136f 
Franklin, C. F., 1224 
Frazer, W. D., 1224 
Frueauff, Harry D., 470, 700 



Gagne, Edward H., 1133 
Gannon, Frank A., *1321 
Garrison, N. I., 1368 
Garrett, Edward, 164 
Gauthier, Joseph O., 997 
Gillette, V. A., 40 
Goldthwait, G. E., 1273 
Gonzenbach, Ernest, 421 
Gordon, L. O., 1041, 1132 
Grady, Tames, 997 
Gray, E. LL, 41 
Gray, L. D., 378 
Green, Alston, 858 
Green, D. C, 700, 1321 
Green, Fred J., 1224 
Greenland, Sam W., 700 
Gribben, Harry H., 954 
Griffin, Tames H., 1273 
Guckel, Charles H., 1133 
Guernsey, R. T., 421 

H 

Haas, Exum JVL, 858 
Haley, George S., 1274 
Hammett, Edward, 1082 
Hammond, C. B., 748 
Hammond, Frank, 516 
Hardaway, Frank, 516 
Hardy, F. I., 40, '125 
Harms, C, 209 
Harris, Norman Wait, 164 
Harris, R. W. ( 1180 
Harrison, Raymond H., 125 
Hart, George H., 997 
Harvey, John, 1224 
Hathaway, E. C, 1273, M321 
Hawks, S. S., 164 
LTawkins, E. E., 700 
Hemans, Lawton T., 1131 
Keener, William, 470 
Llenderson, C. A., 124 
Henning, J. F., 748 
Hill, George E., 748 
Hill, Minot T., 470 
H'incber, William Ward, 954 
Hole, Charles B., 700 
Hodson, Homer, 1320 
Hollar, L. E., 40 
Llotchkiss, Charles Wilcox, 997 

I 

Insull, Samuel, 422 
Irelan, S. B., 516, 748 



Tackson, Lawrence W., 470 

Jeffries, G. K., 1132 

Johnstone, Charles, 82 

Jones, Joseph T., 1274 

Tones, Richard, 164 

Jones, T. Norman, Jr., 1273, *1369 

K 

Kealy, Philip J., 82, 421, 1273 

Kelly, R. E., 1041 

Kelly, T. G„ 251 

Kemp. T. T., 82 

Kirschke, Max T., Sr., 209 

Kuhrts, George, 124 

Kurtz, Otto, 1082 



Lamar, R. W., 378 
Langdon, A. L., 748 
Leary, J. H'., 251 
Leisenring, John, 1132 
Lenhart, C. E., 556 
Leslie, James A., 422, 701 
Lockett, J. H'., 1082 
Lord, George Lakey, 378 
Lord, Irving P., 700 
Low, Fenwick E., 954 
Lumsden, James, 748 
Lynch, B. W., 912 

M 

McAllister, L., 337 
McCann, W. R., 2£_ 
McClellan, William, 378 
McDougall, R. E., 848 
McGovern, William A., 209 
McGrath, D. J., 954 
McGraw, W. J., 164 
McHenry, W. H., 1132 
MacKeen, David, 1133 
McKinley, William B., 1082 
McMurray, E. T., 209 
Macy, V. Everit, 912 
Mange, John I., *251 
Manning, H. S., 252 
Marchant, R. B., 1320 
Mai ler, H. O., 1041 
Martin, B. L., 209 
Merry, R. H., 1273 
Miller, T. L., 470, 516 
Miller, W. C, 378 
Miser, W. B., 40 
Moore, Edward T., 337 
Morse, Edwin K., 1224 
Munro, David A., 1132 
Murphy, James H'., 510 
Murray, William S., 1273 
Musgrove, C. 1'"., 40 

N 



Neilson, Trevor C, 1224 
Neville, W. P., 700 
Newton, B. P., 1132 
Nixon, D. T., 556 



o 



Osborn, J. W., 1224 
Ostrander, Edward, 40 



Palmer, L. H., 1041 
Pascoe, W. F., 1274 
Patterson, W. R., 204 
Pease, Louis A., 470 
Pedler, E. K., 295 
Penick, J. M., 1368 
Penney, Thomas, 748 
Peoples, Williajn, 378 
Perrine, William, 378 
Pfennig, William F., 470 
Phair, James, 1224 
Phillips, F. R., *847 
Phillips, T. G., 556 
Phillips, John P., 470 
Pierce, Ralph, 378 
Porter, Gilcert E., 1320 
Potter, H. Bertram, *701 
Pratt, Frederick S., 470 
Pratt, Mason D., 912 
Prill, Max, Sr., 337 



Quain, Redmond, 1082 

R 

Rankine, Richard F., 164 
Reed, Frederic H., 1274 
Reiss, J. P., 209 
Relf, H. K., 378 
Reynolds, S. W., 40 
Rhodes, A. E., 700 
Rice, John P., 556 
Ristine, Irwin M., 40 
Robinson, D. H., 912 



Rodger, W. S., 209 

Rogers, S. C, 1320 

RoFston, W. E., 1320 

Ross, H. B., 516 

Ross, I. W., 912 

Rowray, J. B., 295 

Rudd, Lafayette G., 1273, 1321 

Rust, Marshall, 1082 



Sadler, Wilbur Fisk, Jr., 1082 

Sallee, John D., 41 

Sarvis, Arthur H., 997 

Savage, M. W., 125 

Schaue, J. C, 1224 

Schley, j. L., 954 

Seeley, W. D., 125 

Severson, S. B., 337 

Shaw, James F., 1368 

Small, Oren A., *1274 

Smalley, William W., 1369 

Smith, Edwin V., 164 

Smith, George A., 421, 470 

Smith, James M., 40 

Smith, Kayinond H., 1041, 1321 

Smollin, Charles F., 124 

Snodgrass, C. O., 1082 

Squire, C. N., 913 

Stanley, Albert H., *1273, 1368 

Stannard, C. N., 421 

Stewart, Joseph, 1132 

Storrs, L. S., *847 

Stott, Henry G., 124 

Strait, E. N., 470 

Swain, J. G., 1273 

Swoboda, H. O., 858 



Taylor, John T., 164 
Thomas, Charles E., 556 
Thomas, E. C, 1041 
Thompson, Millard F., 1224 
Thrasher, Charles S., 556 
Tipton, J. W., 124 
Tone, S. L., 1274 
Townsend, Alfred F., 421 
Treat, Dean, 858 
Trimingham, J. H., 82 



u 



Underwood, E. W., 556 



Vaughan, Tohn F., 421 
Voth, W. B., 421, *700 
Vreeland, H. H., 209 



w 

Walker, James Blaine, 1273 
Walmsley, Walter N., 40 
Walters, H. C, 556, 700 
WarnocK, F'red J., 1320 
Weeks, George K., 556 
Weigel, John, 41 
Wells, Joseph S., 1041 
Werber, C. A., 295 
Werth, F. M., 124 
West, Joseph A., 209 
Westermeyer, August, 1082 
Whalen, Bernard, 164 
Whitaker, Tames H., 1133 
White, George, 1274 
White, I. B., 1273 
White, Pope Y., 912 
Whiteman, H. B., 700 
Whitmore, G. R., 40 
Wilcox, J. A., 556 
Wilcoxon, Karl L., 1180 
Willcox, William R., 41 
Williams, John G., 1041 
Wilson, G. H., 209 
Woodland, W. Stanley, 470 
Woodroofe, W. T., 913 
Wray, James G., 858 
Wuster, W. L., 748 



Zinsmeister, W. H., 1320 



^Denotes portrait 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 



Consolidation of Street Railway Journal- and Ki.ectrjc Railway Review 



P A 





/. — : 








Vol. XL VIII 


NEW YORK SATURDAY, JULY 1? 1916 

T ' 


- 




No. 1 



MANUFACTURERS If one can judge from the 
AND THE enthusiasm of those who were in 

ASSOCIATION attendance at the committee meet- 

ings of the American Electric Railway Association in 
Atlantic City last week, the October convention will be 
a great success. A gratifying number of manufacturers 
have joined the association under the new membership 
plan. There are still many who have not joined, but 
the proper committees are enthusiastically busy in the 
work of building up the membership. While many man- 
ufacturers were disappointed at the disruption of their 
association as it had been in the past, it will be more 
and more apparent as time goes on that full member- 
ship for manufacturers in the parent association will 
mean much more to them than simple membership in 
the old Manufacturers' Association. In this connection, 
however, it should be remembered that a strong commit- 
tee of manufacturers was appointed to consider the per- 
petuation of some sort of a manufacturers' association, 
and this committee, no doubt, will report in the fall. If 
it appears that there is work to be done, no doubt a man- 
ufacturers' association can be perpetuated or the manu- 
facturers who join the parent association can apply for 
a charter similar to that enjoyed by the Engineering 
and other affiliated associations. At any rate there is a 
definite plan before us, and that plan calls for the united 
membership of all those manufacturing companies who 
have the welfare of the electric railway industry at 
heart. 



ELASTIC 

LIMIT 

DEFINED 



A feature of the convention of the 
American Society for Testing Ma- 
terials this week was the plan for 
defining that decidedly indefinite property of ferrous 
metals, elastic limit. This came with a recommenda- 
tion from the committee on steel to revise its several 
existing specifications covering carbon-steel and alloy- 
steel forgings by the elaboration of the present clause 
which refers to this point and which states merely 
that elastic limit shall be determined by an extensom- 
eter. Naturally, this wording leaves a wide opening 
for the influence of the personal equation of the ob- 
server ; so much so, in fact, that the term "elastic limit" 
has become almost meaningless. The substitute clause, 
on the other hand, provides for use of an extensometer 
which reads to 0.0002 in. This must be attached to the 
specimen at the gage marks, and not to the shoulders 
of the specimen nor to any part of the testing machine. 
The machine must then be operated so as to increase the 
load on the specimen at a uniform rate, and the observer 
is to note "the load at which the rate of elongation 



shows a sudden increase." This load is the elastic 
limit of the tested material. The elaboration furnishes 
at least the improvement of increased definiteness, but 
unfortunately, with the practical disappearance of 
wrought iron, the cases where the change in the rate of 
elongation is really sudden are rare, so that, after all, 
the personal element of observation is still the dominat- 
ing feature in the determination of this important 
quality of wrought steel. 



CITY PARALLEL 
TO "EXCLUSIVE 
FRANCHISE" 



The city of San Francisco and the 
United Railroads are again enter- 
ing upon legal procedure over 
franchise matters, this time with a fair prospect of 
carrying the case to the Supreme Court. Last year, in 
the legal battle over the Market Street loop, apparent 
victory rested alternately with each side, but there was 
never a clear and final decision on the matter. Perhaps 
the most regrettable feature of this case was that all 
the trouble and agitation of public opinion could have 
been avoided, and the dispute settled out of court, if the 
disputants could have gotten together and frankly dis- 
cussed the problem. President Lilienthal expressed that 
thought at the beginning, and it was that spirit and 
not a court ruling which eventually closed the matter. 
The new disagreement, which has been mentioned in our 
news columns, over the right of the city to parallel the 
tracks of a company to which it has given an exclusive 
franchise, is an entirely different matter, however, and 
there is no likelihood that any solution other than a re- 
sort to the courts could satisfactorily settle it. Such a 
case has never before arisen in this country, and if the 
municipal railway idea is to spread, the importance of 
the final decision in such a case is apparent. Because 
a question of constitutional rights is involved, the United 
Railroads has entered the case in the San Francisco 
District Federal Court, and it is generally agreed that 
an appeal is practically certain whichever way the de- 
cision goes. The decision in the lower court is im- 
portant, however, for if it denies the petition of the 
United Railroads, the city could proceed with the con- 
struction, pending the passing of the case through the 
courts. If a decision adverse to the United Railroads 
should be handed down and be upheld by the higher 
courts, another serious hazard to electric railway prop- 
erties will be created. It is hardly conceivable that 
the ultimate decision will be unfavorable, but assuming 
that the city could legally establish the rights of the 
stand it is taking, the confiscatory nature of the result 
indicates how unfair this course would be. The com- 
pany has built up its system in good faith, believing in 



2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



the protection afforded by its franchise agreements with 
the city, and ever if the city could legally repudiate its 
contracts, manifestly it has not the moral right to do so. 



EVERY DAY LAW— AND DUTY— FOR WOMEN 

We have recently had occasion to speak of the waning 
tendency of popular magazines to publish articles of 
the corporation-baiting and expose type, 'owing to the 
increasing consciousness and dislike by readers of ex- 
aggerated and unfair literature. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, exceptions occasionally still creep into the col- 
umns of even the reputable magazines. For example, 
our attention has been called to an article entitled 
"Every-Day Law for Women," which appeared in the 
June issue of Good Housekeeping. 

In discussing various points of advice to women on 
law, the article recounts in exaggerated but somewhat 
popular journalistic style the inconveniences suffered by 
the subpoenaed witness in accident cases. It then con- 
cludes its remarks on this subject by encouraging the 
feminine reader to withhold her name from the con- 
ductor, in case she should be present at a railway acci- 
dent. In regard to personal injury in a trolley or rail- 
road accident the author advises the injured party to 
refuse to see the claim adjuster but refer him to her 
lawyer. This advice is explained on the ground that 
fair-minded adjusters who are only interested in get- 
ting the facts in order to make a just settlement are 
as rare as "white crows," as the article expresses it; 
that the average claim adjuster generally visits the in- 
jured person when she is still sick and shaken, and by 
false sympathy and other craft persuades her to sign a 
release for a sum which later is often found to be in no 
way commensurate with justice or proportionate to the 
amount which could have been secured by suit or set- 
tlement through a lawyer. 

In warning the injured persons against any inter- 
course with the claim adjuster, the article casts an 
absolutely unwarranted slur upon railway claim de- 
partments and the methods of railways in general. 
But, passing that point, it also excludes the course 
which is not only the most common but is also nearly 
always the most profitable to the injured person. We 
would not find fault with advice which suggests that 
any woman, or man either, who has an important busi- 
ness matter to decide, should talk it over with some 
one on whose business judgment he or she can rely. 
But this suggestion, when given to any one injured in 
an accident, should be coupled with a warning of the 
danger of going to shyster lawyers whose counsel as 
to what to do is certainly not apt to be disinterested. 

The advice to witnesses of an accident to decline to 
give their names and addresses is on a par with that 
to persons injured in accidents, although perhaps more 
dangerous because it is likely to affect a larger num- 
ber of persons. The effect of doing as the writer 
suggests is to prevent the truth from becoming known, 
and if everyone acted on this principle the courts 
would be helpless. We hear a great deal at present 
about "women's rights," but the fact cannot be too 
strongly emphasized that the citizenship of women, 



and of men too, involves certain duties as well as 
rights, and one of these duties is to assist the courts in 
administering justice. It is hard to imagine any more 
pernicious counsel short of actually advocating crime, 
than that of preventing the disclosure of essential facts 
in a case at law. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY PROSPECTS 

The article by Professor Conway, appearing on an- 
other page of this issue, presents a timely discussion 
of factors affecting the electric railway business, par- 
ticularly with reference to the securing of new capital. 
We are now in a period when electric railway gross 
and net earnings are showing, on the whole, a gratify- 
ing increase, and an analysis of what this situation 
means is important. If the benefit is to be perma- 
nent, capital to build extensions to existing lines and 
to promote new enterprises can be obtained. There 
are a number of adverse conditions, Professor Conway 
frankly admits, but he points out that in several re- 
spects there is a close parallel between the present 
situation and that after the business revival in 1907, 
when the electric railways had an important period of 
growth. Personally, we are not inclined to take quite 
as sanguine a view of the immediate future as the 
author of the article. The present increases in earn- 
ings are gratifying, but, as we pointed out recently, 
there is a certain "lag" in electric railway operation be- 
tween greater expenses from higher unit costs of ma- 
terial and labor and higher earnings so that, in the 
interim, the net earnings will be better than they will 
be when the higher operating costs begin to be reflected 
in the monthly report. Another adverse condition which 
did not exist eight years ago is more stringent regula- 
tion and service conditions, and another is higher taxes. 

On the other hand, there are a number of favorable 
conditions. One of them is greater efficiency of appa- 
ratus, brought about by the development of the art, and 
another is the regulation already mentioned, which, 
while it brings certain burdens, also puts electric rail- 
roading on a firmer business basis and gives greater 
security for at least the principal invested in the busi- 
ness as well as greater assurance that some return, even 
if it is not a large return, will be allowed on the in- 
vestment. Professor Conway, of course, recognizes and 
refers to all of these factors in his article, but we 
mention them in a slightly different relationship so as 
to emphasize the character of the different conditions. 
Broadly speaking, we believe that those factors men- 
tioned above as favorable are of a more permanent na- 
ture than those which are adverse. Electric railways 
are necessary to welfare of the community, and the 
fact is becoming better recognized that they must re- 
ceive encouragement to develop according to the needs 
of the public. Several important problems confront the 
industry, and one of the most important of them is the 
best form of making an increased charge for trans- 
portation or otherwise increasing the return to capital. 
But the fundamental conditions are sound, and notice- 
able advance has been made in solving the question of 
greater net earnings. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



a 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN PREPAREDNESS 

The program of the thirty-fourth annual convention 
of the New York Electric Railway Association held in 
Niagara Falls this week was unusual in that it dealt with 
no technical phases of transportation. Almost the sole 
topic discussed was the utilization of the electric rail- 
ways of the state in mobilizing troops and supplies. 
The interest which such a subject would always excite 
was naturally accentuated by the tension over the Mexi- 
can situation, and it crystallized in the determination to 
form a committee on military service which should con- 
serve the results of the preliminary work. 

The program on preparedness presented at the meet- 
ing was largely the result of two months of effort on 
the part of a specially-appointed committee which dis- 
charged its duty by systematically gathering, compil- 
ing and interpreting the fundamental data of the sub- 
ject, namely, the numbers of men and amounts of ma- 
terial to be mobilized, and the electric railway facilities 
available for mobilizing them. The committee report, 
which is abstracted elsewhere in this issue, is a model 
of directness, meatiness and brevity. It will undoubtedly 
prove suggestive to other associations. In a perspec- 
tive, or more accurately, a birdseye view of this report 
and the accompanying papers and discussion, several 
points project conspicuously. First, there is evident a 
desire on the part of railway men as citizens to place 
their services at the disposal of their country with the 
hope that their hard-won skill in transportation lines 
will be utilized directly or indirectly. Further, grant- 
ing that mobility of men and supplies is in importance 
second only to intelligent planning, it follows that the 
flexibility, transporting capacity and availability of the 
electric railway qualify it as a most useful adjunct to 
the steam railroad in the national defense. And the 
skill developed by men in handling electric railway traf- 
fic is available in other transportation problems outside 
this immediate field, such as dispatching road traffic in 
military operations. 

Of course, the patriotic service of electric railway 
companies and of their personnel does not end here. The 
railways are employers of large numbers of men above 
the average in physical condition, and it is gratifying 
to note the number of railway men who have joined their 
commands in the National Guard now at points of 
mobilization in the different states or on their way to 
the Border. It is equally satisfactory to note that many 
electric railway companies have announced their deci- 
sion to continue the payment of regular salaries to those 
of its employees who are thus called to military duty. 
The McGraw Publishing Company has issued such a 
notice and the ruling applies not only to the Electric 
Railway Journal editorial and business staffs but to 
all of the papers issued by the McGraw Publishing Com- 
pany — Engineering Record, Electrical World, Metal- 
lurgical and Chemical Engineering and the new paper, 
Electrical Merchandizing , which will make its initial 
appearance next week. Members of this organization 
affected by this order will, insofar as possible, be re- 



tained on the payroll and returned to the positions they 
now occupy when the need for their military services 
has ceased. 

AMMUNITION FOR PUBLICITY CAMPAIGNS 
The surest way to reach the public is through the 
newspapers and popular magazines. The advertising 
pages of these are good, but the editorial pages are in- 
finitely better. To obtain admittance to the editorial 
pages, however, an article or news note must appeal to 
the editor as having news value, that is, it must tell 
something that a considerable portion of his readers 
want to know. The criminal element in the community 
produces an inordinate proportion of the news, and it 
is discouraging to a legitimate news producer like the 
railway to have to compete with the underworld for 
space in the public print. It is vital to the future of 
the industry, however, that it successfully compete be- 
cause its welfare will depend on the popular understand- 
ing of its problems and just treatment at the hands of 
the representatives of public sentiment. It needs no ar- 
gument to prove that the electric railways, with a few 
notable exceptions, have hardly made a start in securing 
the co-operation of the newspapers of their respective 
communities. There are at least two perfectly obvious 
reasons for this, namely, absorption in the difficult prob- 
lems of administration and the non-sensational character 
of railway events. A murder case bristles with news. 
Every word that anyone who has had any connection 
with the case says about it is of interest to the public, 
or is supposed to be so in the newspaper office. The fact 
that the local railway company is trying out a new form 
of car designed better to serve the public and to decrease 
the operating ratio is not thought by the average editor 
to be so inherently interesting, although it touches the 
people much more closely than the murder does. 

The problem of the railway management to-day is 
therefore to impress on the people through the editors, 
and to a limited extent through advertising, the really 
significant things about the transportation business. 
This is far from easy, but it must be done. The rail- 
way manager must first develop his "nose for news" in 
his own industry. He must discover the interesting 
things on his own property, and there are plenty of 
them. He must co-operate with the editors with a view 
to informing them of his and the industry's problems 
and getting the editors to study them. One of the func- 
tions of the Electric Railway Journal, and a func- 
tion of no mean importance, is to supply the manage- 
ments of the railways with ammunition for publicity 
campaigns. With its elaborate machinery for gathering 
the news of the industry, it is able to indicate the ten- 
dencies of the time and to illustrate these with number- 
less news items. Surely every railway manager can find 
something each week which has news value in his com- 
munity and which, properly co-ordinated with the local 
circumstances, would appeal forcefully co the editors of 
the community. It is the man on the job who can use 
this ammunition most effectively. Why not try the ex- 
periment this week? 



4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL (Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Electrification of an English 
Freight Line 

Electric Operation of Freight Trains Has Been Introduced on the Shildon-Newport Branch 
of the North Eastern Railway in England — Locomotives of 74 Tons Weight Are Used, 
Direct Current at 1500 Volts Being Supplied From an Overhead Catenary System 

In addition to the usual considerations affecting the 



CONSIDERABLE historical interest attaches to the 
electrification of the Shildon-Newport freight line 
of the North Eastern Railway in England. The track 
extends over a portion of the original right-of-way of 
the first public railway on which steam locomotives were 
used for conveying passengers and freight, the line 
having been opened in the year 1825. Interest attaches 
to the installation also because it is the first application 
of electric traction in England to heavy freight haulage, 
and here it may be said that this is the second time that 
the North Eastern Railway has acted as a pioneer in 
the use of electric operation, inasmuch as the company 
made its first electrification in 1904 in connection with 
suburban traffic. 

The Shildon-Newport route is an important freight 
line dealing almost exclusively with heavy coal and ore 
traffic, and it has been electrified as an experiment in 
connection with a decision of the company's general 
manager, Sir A. Kaye Butterworth, to consider generally 
the possibility of electrification on the North Eastern 
Railway System. Construction work was begun sub- 
sequent to a visit of the railway company's chief 
mechanical engineer, Vincent H. Raven, and Charles H. 
Merz of Merz & McLellan, the company's consulting 
electrical engineers, to the United States in 1911. Elec- 
tric operation was inaugurated on July 1, 1915, with a 
limited number of trains, as the overhead construction 
was not then completed, the service having been grad- 
ually extended since that time. 



decision to apply electric traction to the line, there was 
a special factor which differentiated the division from 
others in the United Kingdom. This was because the 
production and distribution of electric power has been 
developed upon a larger scale on the northeastern coast 
of England than in any other part of the country, and 
a large proportion of the energy derived from electric 
generating stations which use as fuel the waste heat 
and gases derived from coke ovens and blast furnaces 
in the Durham and Cleveland districts. An ample sup- 
ply of cheap electrical energy was, therefore, available 
from the systems of existing power companies, and this 
fact, obviating as it did the necessity for a large capital 
expenditure by the railway company on a power station, 
had an important bearing upon the whole scheme. 

The electrified line has a route approximating 19 
miles in length, and it connects the freight terminal at 
Shildon, one of the largest classification yards in Great 
Britain, with the Newport yards near the town of Mid- 
dleborough. The sidings at both ends of the line are 
electrified in part, so that altogether about 50 miles 
of single track are equipped for electric operation. The 
line carries a heavy coal and ore traffic from the South- 
west Durham coal fields to the Middleborough district, 
supplying a large number of blast furnaces and iron 
works concentrated there. The general gradient of the 
line is in favor of the laden traffic, the ruling grade 
being about 1 per cent. On the return journey the load 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION — TYPICAL OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION ON TANGENT TRACK 



V 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION — SIDE VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE 



consists mainly of empty cars that are being returned 
to the yards at Shildon. 

Locomotives 

The locomotives are designed to haul trains weighing 
1400 tons at a speed of not less than 25 m.p.h. on the 
level. They were designed and built at the railroad 
company's shop, the electrical equipment having been 
installed by Siemens Brothers' Dynamo Works, Ltd., 
Stafford. The construction is of the articulated-truck 
type, the trucks being connected by means of a buffer 
coupling arranged for lateral movement with vertical 
rigidity. The trucks are held together by a drawbar 
and spring, which can be adjusted for tension, but 
which cannot be subjected to excessive compression, as 
a portion of the coupling between trucks receives the 
buffing stresses directly through the truck frames. The 
cab is at the center of the engine, and sloping ends are 
provided to contain the resistance, contactors, switches 
and all high-tension electrical apparatus. The panto- 
graphs on the cab roof are raised by compressed air, 
and an arrangement is made whereby the doors to the 
sloping ends of the cab can be opened only when the 
air is released and the pantographs are not in contact 
with the overhead wire. The dimensions and weights 
of the various parts of the locomotive are as follows: 



Weight of electrical equipment. 

48,500 lb. 
Weight of mechanical parts. 

100,300 lb. 

Total weight 148,800 1b. 

Approximate height, center 
of gravity 4 ft. 6 in. 

Length of motor over wind- 
ings 24 13/16 in. 

Length over core. . . .11 11/16 in. 

Diameter of armature. . .21% in. 

Diameter of commutator, 

18 7/64 in. 



Length of commutator. . .7% in. 

Number of segments 195 

Width of air gap 15/64 in. 

Normal speed of locomotive, 

25 m.p.h. 

Speed of motor 787 r.p.m. 

Length of locomotive over 

buffers 39 ft. 4 in. 

Width over footplate ... 8 ft. 4 in. 

Total wheelbase 27 ft. in. 

Truck wheelbase 8 ft. 9 in. 

Truck centers 18 ft. 3 in. 

Wheel diameter 4 ft. in. 



The main equipment of each engine consists of four 
fully-inclosed motors, each of which drives an axle 
through single-reduction, twin gears with a face dimen- 
sion of 3 15/16 in., the gear ratio being 1 :4.5. The 
motors are wound for 750 volts, the pair on each loco- 
motive truck being connected permanently in series and 
controlled with the usual series-parallel system. Each 
motor is capable of developing 275 hp. at a speed of 20 
m.p.h., with forced ventilation providing for 700 cu. ft. 
of air per minute passed through the motor case. The 
equipment is capable of exerting a torque sufficient to 



slip the wheels under any condition of rail, and can 
exert an average drawbar pull of 28,000 lb. under nor- 
mal conditions of rail. 

The motors are designed to run at a limiting speed 
of 45 m.p.h., but the normal rate on level track is 25 
m.p.h., at which speed a train of 1400 tons can be 
hauled. The locomotive is capable of accelerating to 
normal speed a train of 800 tons on a grade of 1 per 
cent, and in general the design is such that each unit 
-can make four round trips in twelve hours, each trip 
consisting of a run from Shildon to Newport with a 
train of 1400 tons, followed by a run from Newport to 
Shildon with a train of 800 tons, the distance of each 
half trip being about 18 miles. 

Provision is made for either hand or automatic ac- 
celeration, the automatic arrangement consisting of a 
spring, which is wound up by the controller handle so 
that the speed at which the controller drum follows the 
handle can be governed by a step-by-step escapement 
movement. The maximum current taker, at each step 
is controlled by a limit switch, so that when the current 
rises beyond a predetermined limit a magnetic inter- 
lock has its circuit closed and locks the escapement, 
holding the controller drum until the current has fallen 
to the required value. A catch is provided inside of the 
controller which can be lifted when it is desired to 
disconnect the automatic action and to notch up by 
hand. A special acceleration switch is also provided so 
that under unusual circumstances the adjustment of 
the limit switch can be altered by short-circuiting some 
of the turns of an opposing coil, thus allowing the 
passage of a greater accelerating current. 

In general the control contactors are electrically oper- 
ated and are fitted with auxiliary interlocking contacts 
to insure operation in the correct order. The main 
automatic circuit breaker is installed on the cab roof, 
being provided with horn gaps which project through 
the roof, and red and green lamps are installed to indi- 
cate whether it is set or tripped. 

Current for the control circuits, as well as for the 
lighting and heating of the cab, is provided at 750 volts 
by duplicate dynamotors mounted on the cab floor. 
These machines have double-wound armatures fitted 
with two commutators, the control circuit being tapped 
off between the center point and the earth. The shaft 
of each machine is extended and is fitted with a fan to 



6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION SECTIONALIZING SWITCH 

supply ventilating air for the main propulsion motors. 
The rated continuous output of each machine is 4.5 
kw. The locomotive cab contains, also, the usual motor- 
driven air compressor for the brake equipment, and 
there is a hand pump to raise the pantograph when the 
air supply is low. 

Two pantographs are provided on each locomotive, 
and each one has two contact pans fitted with aluminum 
rubbing strips to make contact with the overhead cop- 
per wire. Thus there are four rubbing strips per loco- 
motive, which with the double contact wire makes eight 
points of contact. Each of the two contact pans is 
attached to the pantograph frames by two separate leaf 
springs, so that any small irregularities in the level of 
the contact wire are provided for independently of the 
vertical movement of the pantograph itself. 

Overhead Contact System 

As before mentioned, the locomotives are supplied 
with direct current at 1500 volts through overhead con- 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION — OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION 
AT CURVE 



tact wires, the current supply coming from two rotary- 
converter substations. On the most important portions 
of the track the overhead contact consists of two hard- 
drawn copper conductors each of 0.155 sq. in. section, 
or, say, 200,000 circ. mil, but on sidings where the loads 
are not heavy a single contact wire is used. Two auxil- 
iary stranded copper feeder wires, each of 0.194 sq. 
in. section, or, say, 250,000 circ. mil, are carried on 
the top of the steel structures and are connected in 
parallel with the main contact wires at frequent in- 
tervals. 

The wires are supported by a solid steel auxiliary 
catenary wire to which they are attached by sliding clips. 
This auxiliary catenary is in turn suspended from a 
main stranded steel catenary by means of steel wire 
hangers. The main catenary is supported from steel 
structural bridges of light weight by means of special 
insulators, double insulation being used throughout. 
The normal span between the steel bridges is 110 yd., 
but on curves and sidings they are placed at shorter 
intervals, depending on the existing conditions. 

Normally, the height of contact wire from rail is 16 
ft. 6 in., but at grade crossings this is increased to 18 
ft. 6 in., and under some of the low bridges, of which 
there are a large number on the route, the height from 
the rail level is reduced, the minimum being about 13 
ft. 8 in. 

Each supporting structure carries a pair of steadying 
arms which are pivoted in all directions and are at- 
tached to the contact wires by clips. These fix the posi- 
tion of the contact wire relative to the track in a hori- 
zontal plane, the contact wires being staggered in the 
customary manner to prevent undue wear at the panto- 
graph shoes. On curves, a center strut steadied by steel 
tie rods is added, the steadying arm on the mast at the 
inside of the curve being removed and fixed to the center 
strut so as to place the steadying arm in tension. 

In special cases on sharp curves independent pull-off 
masts have been installed. Also, some of the structures 
are arranged to cover four tracks of which only two 
are provided with contact wires, and in this case a strut 
is provided in the center to carry the steadying arm 
and avoid the use of a center mast. Some cantilever 
constructions for bridges have been adopted in places 
where it was impossible to erect two masts, and in a 
few cases wooden poles have been used, but the latter 
were introduced largely for experimental purposes. 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION — BRIDGE WITH AUTOMATIC 
TENSIONING DEVICE 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 





' ' 1 















4 



BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION TERMINAL FOR CONTACT WIRES IN YARD 



All of the steel structures carrying the overhead track 
equipment are bonded to the running rails by means of 
a hard copper bond of 0.08 sq. in. section, or approxi- 
mately No. 00 wire. Also, any steel structures carry- 
ing signals that are in proximity to the electrical 
equipment, are similarly bonded to the running rails. 

Automatic tensioning has been adopted for the con- 
tact wires to limit as far as possible the sags due to 
temperature variations. The tensioning points are ap- 
proximately 1100 yd. apart, and at these locations two 
structures are installed 65 yd. apart, so that the wires 
from opposite lengths overlap by this amount. The end 
of each contact wire is raised at the tensioning structure 
to which it is fixed to give it a height about 18 in. clear 
of the normal level at that point, so that the locomotive 
pantographs ride gently and without shock from one 
tensioning length to the next. The contact wires are 
anchored to the auxiliary catenary wire at a point two- 
thirds of the distance along each tensioning length in 
the direction of train movement. 

The tensioning structures consist of strong steel 
masts made up of four angle irons with angle-iron brac- 
ing, together with two cross girders and a center 
strut. The tensioning weights are slung at the center 
of the structure by chains passing over pulleys that are 
attached to the contact wire. By this means a normal 
tension of about 2000 lb. is maintained in the double 
contact wires. 

In all cases the auxiliary catenary wire is anchored 
to the lower girder of the tensioning structure, but the 
main catenary is continuous except at tensioning points 
where section switches are installed. At such points 
the main catenary is also anchored to the structure, but 
in this case the top girder is used for the anchor. 

On some of the sidings where only switching work is 
done a single contact wire is used with ordinary trolley 
span-wire construction. For sidings which are not 
equipped throughout their entire length, and which re- 
quire overhead construction only to permit the electric 
locomotive to enter and pick up a train, the wires are 
terminated at bridges as shown in one of the accom- 



panying illustrations. At such points, danger boards 
have been erected, and the electric locomotives are not 
permitted to pass these, although the terminal construc- 
tion is of such a nature that no damage would be done 
to the pantograph or overhead construction in case this 
should happen. 

At some of the low bridges it has been necessary to 
make special provision to obtain the necessary overhead 
contact. In these cases the contact wires, together with 
the auxiliary catenary, are brought toward the center 
of the bridge so that contact is made at the extreme 
edge of the pantograph shoe, the main catenary wire 
being anchored to the bridge. In order to prevent the 
other edge of the pantograph shoe from striking the 
bridge, a guard wire is installed, this being anchored 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION ROTARY CONVERTER IN- 
CLOSED TO MINIMIZE FLASHOVER 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



to the catenary structures on either side of the bridge 
and being made live only while a locomotive is passing 
underneath it. 

The track is sectioned at intervals of about 2^2 miles 
and considerably more frequently on sidings. Section 
points are located in most cases at tensioning points 
so as to avoid the use of section insulators. The type 
of sectionalizing switch that has been adopted is shown 
in one of the illustrations, and from this it will be seen 
that a horn break arrangement has been provided for 
them. They are erected on the top girders of the cate- 
nary structures, and are operated by levers in the 
nearest signal cabin, being connected through pipes and 
bell cranks customarily used on manually-operated in- 
terlocking plants. As the train-control system of work- 
ing is in use on the route, the signal cabins are con- 
nected by telephone with a central control office situated 
at Newport, and the handling of these sectionalizing 
switches is directed from the same point. 

The track rails are bonded at the joints with stranded 
copper bonds fitted under the joint plates, two bonds 
each of 0.109 sq. in. section, or approximately No. 000 
gage, being fixed at each joint. The rails are also cross- 
bonded at intervals of 300 ft., and bonds are installed 
also between the two inner rails of adjacent tracks at 
the same space intervals, but staggered with the cross 
bonds. 

Substations 

The electrified line is fed by two substations, one at 
Erimus, near the Newport end of the route, and the 
other near Aycliffe, at the junction with the main line 



of the North Eastern Railway, which is about 4 miles 
from the Shildon end of the electrified section. Each 
has a separate supply of high-tension power purchased 
from local companies, the voltages being respectively 
20,000 and 11,000. Three-phase current is furnished 
in both cases, and this is converted into direct current 
at 1500 volts by rotary converters connected two to- 
gether to form one unit. Two 800-kw. units are in- 
stalled at Aycliffe and one 800-kw. unit at Erimus, each 
unit consisting of two 400-kw., 800 r.p.m., 750-volt, 40- 
cycle, six-phase, commutating-pole rotaries. 

The machines were designed to operate normally at 
95 per cent leading power factor and to withstand an 
overload of 50 per cent for two hours, 100 per cent for 
ten minutes and 200 per cent momentarily. They were 
required to withstand a high potential test of 5000 volts 
for five minutes, and on account of the high voltage on 
the commutator, they were specially designed to avoid 
damage due to flashovers occasioned by short-circuits 
on the system. Consequently, the operating parts of the 
brush gear were entirely inclosed, and the distance be- 
tween brush arms was made as great as possible, the 
commutator being completely screened by arc-proof in- 
sulating material from the armature and frame of the 
rotary. Severe tests were carried out to determine 
what load could be suddenly thrown on and off without 
causing a flash. Out of five times that full load was 
thrown on no flashes occurred, and out of seven times 
when full load was automatically tripped off with a 
breaker only four were followed by a flashover. These 
machines were furnished by the British Thomson-Hous- 
ton Company, Ltd., of Rugby, and this company is at 





BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION — CROSS-SECTION OF SUBSTATION 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



9 




BRITISH FREIGHT ELECTRIFICATION INTERIOR VIEW OF SU3STATI0N 



present installing at Erimus another set of 1200-kw. 
capacity, consisting of two 600-kw. rotary converters 
coupled in series to form one unit. 

The substations in general are arranged in three sec- 
tions, one for the switch gear, one for the rotaries, 
which on account of the high tension are surrounded by 
screens, and one for the transformers. In connection 
with the latter it may be said that two auxiliary trans- 
formers installed in each substation are connected di- 
rectly across the high-tension terminals of the main 
transformer. They are fitted with a double secondary 
winding, one section being used exclusively for meter- 
ing and the other for supplying lighting and auxiliary 
power in the stations for portable air compressors and 
the like. The transformers were furnished by the 
British Westinghouse Company as sub-contractor to 
the British Thomson-Houston Company, which acted as 
main contractor for the substation plants and their 
equipment. 

Each substation is connected to the overhead contact 
system by four positive feeders consisting of paper in- 
sulated, bitumen-sheathed, single-wire, armored cables 
each of 0.5 sq. in. section, or, say, 600,000 circ. mil, laid 
in a wood trough that is filled with bitumen. At each 
substation there are two negative cables which connect 
the track rails to the negative busbar, these being sim- 
ilar in size and type to those used on the positive side. 



Progress on Large Viaduct in Texas 

The engineering department of Stone & Webster is 
completing work on the Northern Traction Company's 
new large steel and concrete viaduct at the foot of Jef- 
ferson Street, Dallas, Tex. This long structure, which 
will extend from Arlington Street to a point just north 
of the street railway and interurban bridge across the 
Trinity River, will span the cluster of steam railroad 
tracks entering the new Union Basin. It is hoped to 
complete the viaduct by the time the railroad station is 
open for public use. The girders which will rest on the 
concrete form, will be incased in concrete to protect 



them from the destructive gases thrown off from loco- 
motives as they pass the viaduct. Three of these steel 
spans have a total weight of 50 tons. When completed, 
the floor of the viaduct will be of reinforced concrete, on 
which surface will be laid layers of crushed rock sup- 
porting a double tracking. 



Chicago Loop Cleared for Prepared- 
ness Parade 

In order to make way for the military preparedness 
parade, which occurred on June 3, all cars of the Chi- 
cago Surface Lines, as well as all vehicular traffic, were 
turned back outside of the loop district bounded by the 
Chicago River on the north and west, by Harrison 
Street on the south, and by Lake Michigan on the east. 
The Chicago Surface Lines began turning back cars 
before 8.30 a. m. and .they did not enter the loop dis- 
trict again until the entire parade had passed late at 
night. During the progress of the parade, however, 
the elevated railroads continued operation into the loop, 
and in order to handle the crowds expeditiously Brit- 
ton I. Budd, president, personally directed the move- 
ment of trains for a period of twelve hours. At the 
close of the day it was estimated that approximately 
1,200,000 persons had been carried on the elevated 
lines and all past traffic records for this system were 
exceeded, the average being about 560,000 passengers 
handled daily. 

Public utility companies, including the Peoples Gas 
Company, the Commonwealth Edison Company, the 
Chicago Surface Lines and the Chicago Elevated Rail- 
road were represented in the parade by 7876 marchers. 
The representatives of the elevated railroads were 
headed by their own band of fifty pieces, and the em- 
ployees of the surface lines wore continental cocked 
hats. Bion J. Arnold and a number of prominent steam 
railroad engineers headed the engineers' division, which 
was represented by more than 2300 marchers. Gen. 
George H. Harries of Omaha, Neb., led the H. M. 
Byllesby & Company representatives. 



10 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [VOL. XLVIII, No. 1 



Current Tendencies in the Railway 

Business 

Author Discusses Effect of Jitneys on Financing and Earnings — Danger of Jitneys in Strikes 
— According to Analogy Based on 1907, Revival in Gross and 
Net Earnings Is to Be Expected 
By THOMAS CONWAY, Jr., Ph.D. 

Professor of Finance, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



AT a time when the return of business prosperity is 
.bringing a decided increase in service demands 
with the consequent requirements for new capital to 
provide the necessary facilities, it is pertinent to ana- 
lyze some of the factors that have recently affected and 
are now affecting the position of electric railways in the 
security market. 

Effect of Jitneys on Financing and Revenues 

It is beyond question that the electric railways have 
been subject to more adverse influences in the last few 
months than any other class of public utilities. The 
foremost place in these adverse factors must be given to 
the jitney. A year ago, when this sporadic plague was 
in its prime, it was almost impossible for a large pro- 
portion of the electric railways to do any new financing. 
As a matter of fact, however, the demands for new 
capital at that time were small on account of the busi- 
ness depression and the lessened demands for service. 

According to statistics compiled by the New York 
Journal of Commerce and the Commercial & Financial 
Chronicle and published on page 835 of the Electric 
Railway Journal for April 29, the total volume of new 
securities issued and sold by electric railways in 1915 
was $135,423,000. This was a decrease of $56,658,600 
from the amount of securities marketed by such car- 
riers in 1914. That the electric railways were not the 
only utilities to show decreased financing, however, is 
shown by the fact that the total sales for other classes 
of utilities in 1915 aggregated $188,457,100, a decrease 
of $88,700,900 from the amount marketed in 1914. In 
view of the great alarm felt over the threatened in- 
roads of the jitney, the relatively fair showing made 
by the electric railways is encouraging. The explana- 
tion seems simply to be that the jitney did not imperil 
the solvency of the great majority of the electric rail- 
way companies. 

Indeed, nothing is more remarkable than 1915 earn- 
ings of the electric railways, in view of the jitney com- 
petition and other unfavorable factors then prevailing. 
According to the Commericial & Financial Chronicle, as 
noted on page 838 of the Electric Railway Journal 
of April 29, the combined gross earnings of 272 roads 
in 1915 were $513,967,674, a decrease of only $60,728 
or 0.01 per cent. The showing of net earnings was but 
little less remarkable, inasmuch as the net for 1915 
aggregated $194,893,975, a decrease of $2,027,737 or 
1.03 per cent. 

If anyone had declared a year ago that the destruc- 
tive influence of the jitney upon electric railway earn- 
ings would be so slight, he would have been regarded as 
an optimist of the first order. There can be no doubt, 
of course, that the influence of jitney competition was 
neutralized somewhat by the recovery of business in 
the latter months of 1915, the period when jitney com- 
petition was fast dwindling. In fact, the heavy de- 
crease in earnings during the early months of the year 
was offset by the corresponding increase in the autumn 
and winter months. As far as the statistical results 



are concerned, therefore, the electric railway industry 
has not relinquished its proud and unique position of 
remarkable stability of earnings, both gross and net, 
alike through years of prosperity and of depression. 

The effect of jitney competition, and of the European 
war as well, is to be seen, however, not so much in the 
actual decrease of earnings as in the stunting of the 
natural growth of earnings. For the properties re- 
porting gross earnings to the Commercial & Financial 
Chronicle from year to year the normal rate of growth 
each year from 1909 to 1913 inclusive has been about 
$30,000,000 per annum. In 1914 the increase in gross 
earnings over 1913 amounted to only $4,798,944. The 
marked decrease of about $25,000,000 in the normal 
rate of growth was the direct result of the acute busi- 
ness depression which swept over the country after the 
outbreak of the European war, while the change to a 
slight loss in 1915 was caused by the aggravation of the 
general situation through jitney competition. If we 
turn to net earnings, we find that the normal increase 
has ranged from $10,000,000 to $14,000,000 per annum 
from 1910 to 1913 inclusive. In 1914, however, the net 
earnings decreased $1,126,315. In 1915, as has been 
said, a still further decrease was experienced, the result 
being that in 1915 the companies earned about $4,247,- 
545 less than in 1913. Such is the net result of the 
European war and jitney competition. 

The Encouraging Lesson of 1907 

If history repeats itself the next few years should 
hold great prosperity for the electric railways. The 
analogy of the period of depression following the panic 
of 1907 is directly in point. In 1908 the annual in- 
crease in gross earnings fell from a normal level of 
more than $25,000,000 to about $3,000,000 as compared 
with the preceding year. In 1907 the net earnings, 
which had normally been increasing at the rate of $12,- 
500,000 per annum, increased only $4,951,601 over the 
figures for 1906, while in 1908 the increase over 1907 
was only $1,118,204. The situation throughout this 
period was quite similar to that which has prevailed 
since 1913, the difference being that the reduction in 
earnings, as the result of the panic of 1907 and the 
consequent depression, was much less. With the re- 
vival of business activity in 1909, a most interesting 
situation, similar in character to that which has always 
existed in like circumstances, was evident. The gross 
earnings for 1909 were $29,298,657 larger than they 
had been in 1908, while the net earnings showed an 
increase of $19,746,859. In brief, net earnings were 
almost 30 per cent greater than they had been in the 
year preceding the panic of 1907. 

There had been a pause in the growth of business and 
of earnings. Men were out of work or working part 
time. The amount of travel for pleasure and shopping 
was curtailed. This accounted for the shrinkage in the 
rate of growth in the business of the electric railways. 
Population, on the other hand, had been steadily in- 
creasing. Hence, when business prosperity returned 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



11 



and the unemployed secured work, those on part time 
were put on full time, and the larger family budget 
made it possible to renew the former scale of expendi- 
tures. The sudden increase in gross earnings made up 
for the tardy rate of progress in the preceding years. 
If business conditions remain as satisfactory through- 
out 1916 as they are at the present time it seems safe 
to predict that the net earnings of the electric railways 
in 1916 will duplicate the performance of 1909. The 
industry should witness a sharp revival in gross and net 
earnings. 

The Jitney Is Becoming Historic 

An examination of electric railway monthly earnings 
supports the foregoing conclusion. The jitney is pass- 
ing into history. The regulatory legislation passed by 
various State legislatures and city councils stunted 
the jitney industry by eliminating most of the irre- 
sponsible drivers who could not get the necessary in- 
demnity bonds and meet the other requirements im- 
posed. The total number of jitney drivers was still 
further reduced by the general resuscitation of busi- 
ness. The revival of business and the advance of wages 
therein attracted the jitney driver, whose car was wear- 
ing out and who, therefore, was facing a period of lean 
earnings, back to his former employment. The death 
blow to the jitney, however, will be dealt not so much 
by legislation and restrictive municipal regulations as 
by the advance in the cost of gasoline and the higher 
price for tires. The jitneys will run in various places 
for months, and perhaps years, but the plague has run 
its course, and it is apparent to the careful, discerning 
investment banker who studies fundamental conditions 
that the electric railway industry has successfully 
passed through a trying period. 

Remaining Danger of Unfair Use in Strikes 

In the long run, it is very likely that the real danger 
of the jitney will lie not so much in the undermining of 
electric railway earning power, as in its illicit and un- 
fair use in connection with strikes and other labor prob- 
lems. The situation now existing in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
bears directly upon the question. The Wilkes-Barre 
Railway about a year ago was presented with a demand 
from its men for an advance in wages. After negotia- 
tions, the matter was submitted to arbitration and a 
signed agreement was made between the company and 
the men providing that there would be no appeal from 
the findings of the arbitrators. Shortly thereafter, the 
arbitrators were appointed, held hearings and rendered 
a decision. The men were granted an advance in wages. 
The company accepted the award, paid the advanced 
wages from the date specified in the agreement and 
made current payments in connection with the award of 
the board of arbitrators. 

The men, however, were not satisfied with the award, 
and appealed for a reopening of the entire controversy. 
The company pointed to the clause in the agreement 
which specified that the award should be final and not 
subject to appeal. Early last autumn, without any 
warning, the men went out on strike, and rioting and 
disorder prevailed for some weeks. The company has 
taken the position that it has faithfully observed its 
contract with the men and that it must insist that the 
men do likewise. For months a regular running sched- 
ule has been maintained in Wilkes-Barre, the cars being 
manned by local workmen. No disturbances or riots 
have occurred for many weeks, but anyone who visits 
Wilkes-Barre will be impressed by the fact that there is 
an organized and very effective boycott of the street 
cars. 

Wilkes-Barre is situated in the heart of the hard 
coal field — the stronghold of the United Mine Workers 



of America. Through the strong affiliations of the 
labor unions, a large proportion of the regular riders on 
the street cars have been deterred from using them. 
The boycott has been caried into every walk of life. If 
a baker rides on the car, he finds that his customers 
desert him and buy bread elsewhere. Bank cashiers 
have feared to use the trolleys because of the threat 
that the union men will withdraw their savings de- 
posits. This situation, which has continued for more 
than eight months, is very sinister. Such long resist- 
ance would have been impossible were it not for the jit- 
ney. The town is overrun with cheap cars of every de- 
scription, and accidents to vehicles and pedestrians 
have jumped alarmingly — in short, the whole story of 
jitney operation has been repeated. The operation of 
the jitney is made practicable through charging a 
higher fare to most sections of the city than the ordi- 
nary 5-cent rate of the street car. The jitney has been 
the backbone of the union's resistance in carrying on 
what might be termed a war of attrition. 

The Wilkes-Barre situation is not an isolated exam- 
ple. Within the last month a strike occurred on the 
electric railway lines in Trenton, and there sprang up 
over night a swarm of jitneys which carried, in some 
fashion, those who were previously regular street car 
passengers. 

The great force which has compelled the prompt set- 
tlement of labor disputes of electric railways in the past 
has been public sentiment. The public has been impa- 
tient with long delays. The discomfort of walking ex- 
ceeded whatever zeal might exist for a fight to the fin- 
ish between the utility and its employees. But the jit- 
ney, when used in connection with strikes, removes the 
reasons for pressure of public opinion. As it is, the 
struggle is overlong and now the public is invited to 
assist in its prolongation by adopting a substitute 
method of transportation. 

The Model Decision in Rochester 

The public service commissions of the various states 
must come to realize that the jitney should be reduced 
to its permanent and legitimate place. The most en- 
couraging recent development has been the decision of 
the New York Public Service Commission, Second Dis- 
trict, in the so-called Rochester case. This decision 
might well serve as a model for the action of every 
other public service commission. After pointing out 
that the policy of the public service commission 
laws of the State of New York is toward regulated 
monopolies, the commission in its opinion states that 
unrestricted competition between the electric railways 
and the jitney must, as has always been the case in the 
past, inevitably result in disaster to the competitors. 
In this disaster, the public has a paramount interest. 
The time is not yet ripe to abandon the electric railway 
as the standard means of transportation. Yet direct 
competition between the jitney and the electric railway 
would so reduce the revenues and the progress of the 
latter as to induce defective and inadequate service and 
so lead eventually to the death of the older means of 
transportation. 

The commission asked the question, "What, then, is 
the proper function of the jitney?" In answer it said: 
"Except in cases where the existing street railways sys- 
tem obviously cannot or will not supply the reasonable 
requirements of a community, the use of jitneys, for 
the present at least, ought to be confined to streets and 
neighborhoods which now have no electric railway read- 
ily available." The commission refused the applica- 
tions of jitney drivers for certificates of public con- 
venience and necessity, and recommended certain exten- 
sions and improvements in the electric railway service 
which, if not made, might result in another application 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [VOL. XLVIII, No. 1 



for jitney operation meeting with more favorable con- 
sideration by the commission. 

Deterring Influences in New Financing 

Although the general tendency is for public utilities 
to search for new capital, there are certain deterring 
influences in connection with the financing of new con- 
struction, such, for example, as the very high prices 
now prevailing for material and labor of all kinds. With 
copper wire selling in the neighborhood of 32 cents a 
pound and with similar famine prices prevailing for 
other supplies, the cost of new construction is very 
great. Moreover, the situation of the electric railways 
as regards labor is far from satisfactory from the in- 
vestor's standpoint. All labor is receiving unheard-of 
wages, and the supply is less than the demand. The 
unprecedented advance in wages in other industries 
must inevitably be reflected in demands of electric rail- 
way employees for higher wages. Inasmuch as 
about 60 per cent of the operating expenses of an elec- 
tric railway are made up of payments for salaries and 
wages, the importance of the labor situation can be 
realized. Many investment bankers are more concerned 
at the present time about the labor aspect of the elec- 
tric railway situation than thy are with the jitney and 
with commission regulations. 

Although under these circumstances utility managers 
are inclined to postpone all new construction until the 
return of more normal conditions, nevertheless the 
probable increased demand for service will necessitate 
additional cars, generating apparatus and the many 
other forms of property employed in the public service. 
To meet this demand, electric railways must of neces- 
sity secure new capital. It is reasonable to presume, 
therefore, that in the absence of some disturbing influ- 
ence in the financial markets, directly or indirectly re- 
sulting from the European war, the electric railways 
should again appear as seekers for capital. Indeed, the 
movement has already begun. 



Axle-Mounted Armatures 

Discussion of the Master Mechanics' Report on 
Electric Locomotives Centered on the Influence 
of Axle-Mounted Armatures on the Track 

IN LAST week's issue an abstract was published of 
the committee report on electric rolling stock which 
was made before the American Railway Master Me- 
chanics' Association at Atlantic City, and in the follow- 
ing paragraphs the discussion on the report is presented 
in part. 

The discussion was opened by C. H. Quereau, super- 
intendent of electric equipment, New York Central Rail- 
road, who said that this company is using on its electric 
locomotives what is known as the bi-polar gearless 
motor. The motor is mounted directly on the axle of 
the driving wheel, and the drivers can be dropped ex- 
actly as they are from the steam locomotive after the 
side and main rods have been removed. This type of 
motor is frequently considered not to be a good-riding 
design. However, it is thoroughly satisfactory under 
the conditions on the New York Central Lines and 
other trunk lines using a 100-lb. rail on a good roadbed. 
It is true that the locomotive develops a tendency toward 
nosing when a certain amount of lateral motion has ac- 
cumulated, no matter where it may be — in the center, 
in the plates, or in the hub. Everyone will agree that the 
track man, the division engineer or the track foreman 
would be the first to criticise any device which did any 
damage to his track, yet it is the consensus of opinion 
among the track men on the New York Central Railroad 
in the territory in which the locomotives operate, that 
there has been no single case of deformation, distortion 



or damage to the track from these motors. There is 
no difficulty at all in keeping the lateral motion in such 
condition that the engine rides literally like a parlor car. 
In fact, no other design rides so smoothly and quietly 
under the specified conditions of track. The lateral mo- 
tion allowed is about three-quarters of what would be 
considered the limit for steam operation. 

The simplicity of this design makes the maintenance 
cost very low. However, fear of gearing on electrical 
equipment is really unfounded. A common idea is that 
it wears out, breaks and makes all sorts of trouble. 
Nevertheless, the New York Central Railroad has gears 
on its motor cars, which have made 200,000 miles on 
200-hp. motors. With the modern heat-treated steel, 
300,000 miles at 30,000 miles a year may reasonably be 
expected, and then one can forget the gears and pin'ons 
and simply watch them once in a few years. 

Mr. Quereau concluded his remarks by referring the 
delegates to an article on electric locomotive drives in 
the Electric Railway Journal for June 10, by F. H. 
Shepard. He was followed by Frank Rusch, Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, who stated that the 
operation of that company's electric division has been 
successful even beyond expectations. 

G. W. Wildin, New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road, then commented on the operation of locomotives of 
the geared type, saying that the New Haven has about 
sixteen switching locomotives with double pinions, one 
on each end of the armature, and solid gears on the 
drivers. In this case flexible gears would be much more 
satisfactory, because when one puts a new pinion on 
one end of the shaft, leaving the old pinion on the 
opposite end, the new pinion does the major portion of 
the work until it wears down and takes hold. However, 
with flexible gears a new pinion can be run with an old 
one without difficulty. 

The New Haven has had a remarkable record as re- 
gards the operation of these sixteen switching locomo- 
tives, having gone for twenty-six months without de- 
tention to the switching service due to engine failures. 
The company is contemplating the purchase of twenty 
or thirty more with very little change as to size and 
construction, simply strengthening up a number of parts 
which were found to be a little weak in design, but 
nothing that is serious. The company also has thirty- 
six freight locomotives in operation between Harlem 
River Terminal and New Haven, a distance of about 65 
miles. These are hauling 3000-ton trains, two locomo- 
tives being operated in multiple. There are about forty- 
seven passenger locomotives, and between shopping these 
locomotives cover about 110,000 miles, the cost having 
gradually come down so as to compare favorably with 
steam locomotives. These locomotives operate on both 
alternating and direct current, and trouble comes in 
changing from one system to the other, especially in 
the winter. When the engine passes from the third- 
rail to the overhead system, the pantograph is rather 
sluggish, and in the reverse direction the third-rail 
shoe fails to go down properly because snow and sleet 
accumulate on it. 



Pending the issuance of special passes for various 
classes of employees and officers of the Kansas City 
(Mo.) Railways, all who ride on passes are using the 
aluminum badge which in the case of trainmen is at- 
tached to the front of the cap. Recently more than a 
dozen counterfeits of the badge were taken up, all bear- 
ing the same number, 399. The counterfeits were made 
of stiff glazed cardboard set in a tin rim and closely re- 
sembled the badges. The counterfeited number had 
been reported lost several months ago. When the new 
system of passes is in effect the general use of the 
badges will be abandoned. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



13 



B. J. Arnold Reports on Bay State Street 

Railway 

Transportation Expert Concludes That Economies in Operation Amounting to Nearly 
$700,000 Per Year Can Be Attained, But That When All the Savings Estimated Are 
Considered, With an Adequate Depreciation Allowance, the Gross Revenue 
Cannot Return 5 Per Cent on the Property 

AT the request of the board, Bion J. Arnold, con- 
sulting engineer, Chicago, has completed a general 



study of the Bay State Street Railway for the Massa- 
chusetts Public Service Commission in connection with 
the pending fare case of the company. The object of 
the investigation was to determine whether any material 
reduction in operating expenses could be effected. Mr. 
Arnold concludes that from $618,000 to $759,000 a year 
can be saved by resorting to various economies outlined 
below, but states that this saving will be insufficient to 
enable the company to pay 5 per cent upon the value of 
its present property if an adequate allowance is made 
for depreciation. The gross revenue must be increased 
if all the lines of the property are to be continued in 
operation, properly maintained and ultimately placed on 
a paying basis. The fullest co-operation was rendered 
Mr. Arnold by the officers of the company. 

Some parts of the company's territory are served by a 
greater number of lines than the traffic warrants. Mr. 
Arnold finds that the riding habit is less between the 
various towns in eastern Massachusetts than in corre- 
sponding central or western areas. Keen steam railroad 
competition exists on the Bay State system, whose gross 
earnings per capita in 1915 were only $7.02, or $10,000 
per mile of track. The average rate of interurban fare 
is also low on the Bay State system, being about 1.25 
cents per passenger-mile, contrasted with 1.5 to 2 cents 
on Western interurban systems. The company operated 
33,300 car-miles per mile of track in 1915, its service 
density being somewhat less than half that usually found 
in moderate-sized city systems, but perhaps twice that 

35 



zoo 



of normal interurban service. The earnings per mile of 
track are less than half the normal for a city system of 
moderate size. The average return on the investment 
was 3.9 per cent in 1915. Since 1888 the average return 
has been only 5.3 per cent, and full provision has not 
been made for depreciation. Transportation revenue 
totalled 29.49 cents per car-mile in 1915, total operating 
expense, including 
taxes, being 24.07 
cents. The latter com- 
pares with 16.4 cents 
in 1901. 

A portion of the 
gradual increase in 
o p e r ating expenses 
per car-mile between 
1901 and 1915 is at- 
tributable to an in- 
crease in weight of 
the average car of 
about 30 per cent, say 
from 13.5 to 17 tons. 
The whole study indi- 
cates that the ex- 
penses per car-mile 
are about 2 cents higher than might be anticipated. 
There is a 40 per cent seasonal variation in monthly 
earnings on the system. Track conditions in the cities 
and towns are in general very satisfactory, but a large 
amount of rehabilitation is needed on the so-called inter- 
urban lines. The report indicates a shortage in tie re- 




1911 



1913 



015 



1903 BOS 1907 1909 
Year 

ARNOLD BAY STATE REPORT — RECORD 
OF TIE REPLACEMENTS 



O 

■a 
c 



O 



O 





k 




J 






HJ 

V.f 












1 










^^Tota/Qpe 
Expenses 
Taxes 


nclua 


ing 




■SI \ 


^ r\ 


- 

1 ■ 


I v 


(1 



30 



25 



20 



30 



25 



.- ?0 



.2 15 











Ml ^ 






b 






























Stand" 1 






"9 ~~~~~ 


—Vaarauiy- 








p ersons 


Run Donn 








July. Jan. 
1913 



1914 



1315 



1916 



1911 I9IZ 1913 1914 

Year End ing June 30" 



1915 



1902 1904 1906 1908 1910 
Fiscal Year 



1912 1914 1916 



ARNOLD BAY STATE REPORT — SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN INCOME, ENTIRE SYSTEM; INJURIES IN TERMS OF CAR MILEAGE; RECORD 

OF RAIL REPLACEMENTS 



14 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



newals of 144 miles of track in the past twelve years. 
About 150 miles of track should be rebuilt, including 
both rails and ties. The company has set up no de- 
preciation reserve. 

Mr. Arnold states that as long as the direct-current 
plants of the company (serving the lines north of Bos- 
ton) are operated at their present efficiency it would 
appear that no decrease in cost of direct-current power 
delivered to the lines can be effected by abandoning them 
in favor of a more modern system when both operating 
expenses and additional interest charges are considered. 
The average operating cost of twelve direct-current sta- 
tions in 1914 was 
0.871 cents per kilo- 
watt-hour for a total 
capacity of 28,930 kw. 
On the lines south of 
Boston an alternat- 
ing-current generat- 
ing station at Quincy 
Point furnishes most 
of the power at an 
operating cost of 
0.577 cents per kilo- 
watt-hour, the station 
rating being 10,000 
kw. Including fixed 
charges the total costs 
of direct current and 
alternating c u r r ent 
average 1.375 cents 
and 0.926 cents per 
kilowatt-hour respect- 
ively at the stations. 
The cost of substation 
operation is 0.062 cent 
per kilowatt -hour, and 
the operation of the 
transmission system amounts to 0.027 cent, or a total 
generating expense for transmission and conver- 
sion of 0.089 cent per kilowatt-hour. The corresponding 
fixed charges on the substation equipment and trans- 
mission system amount to 0.152 cent and 0.197 cent re- 
spectively, or a total of 0.349 cent, which, when added 
to the operating costs, gives a total of 0.438 cent. Tak- 
ing all costs into consideration, the alternating current 
system generates, transmits, converts and delivers en- 
ergy to the direct current substation buses at 1.538 cents 
per kilowatt-hour, estimating transmission and conver- 
sion losses at 16 per cent. The transmission voltage of 
13,200 appears low for the distances involved. 




ARNOLD BAY STATE REPORT — OPERAT- 
ING EXPENSES IN PER CENT OF 
REVENUE 



It is probable that a material decrease in the power 
requirements can be secured by the installation of addi- 
tional feeder capacity. Tests indicate an excess loss of 
about 14 per cent and on several lines the voltage is 
abnormally low. The addition of feeders costing $850,- 
000 would reduce the average direct-current transmis- 
sion loss 10 or 12 per cent and save the company about 
$85,000 a year. 

The report discusses the company's rolling stock re- 
quirements in great detail, emphasizing the difficulties 
of standardizing cars for all the service requirements. 
If rapid transit entrance into Boston can be secured, and 
through interurban routes outside established, a dis- 
tinctly new type of car should be developed. It would 
then be desirable to standardize equipment as far as 
possible along three lines: First, high-speed interur- 
bans; second, large city equipment; third, light one-man 
cars, the two last named being prepayment and semi- 
convertible. Abandonment of open-bench car service is 
advisable. The drop steps recently installed on summer 
equipment have increased rather than decreased the 
menace from accidents and the difficulties of operation 
through congested streets, due to the increased width 
and overhang of the steps on curves. The new closed 
car is a good example of the usefulness of the converti- 
ble type. Outside of the Chelsea district the articulated 
type of car would be of no advantage to the company. 
The company's estimate for lengthening the old 25-ft. 
double-truck car bodies into a long double-truck body 
with a 10-ft. drop section, folding doors and steps, pre- 
pay, center entrance, is about $1,200 or over per car, 
exclusive of overhauling and secondary accessories. 
Such a rebuilt car would seat thirty-six passengers. A 
new car body of similar class could probably be pur- 
chased for $2,500. The application of trailers is also 
limited to the congested entrance into Boston. 

The company has about sixty-seven carhouses to care 
for 2594 cars of all types. The number of cars per 
repairman varies from 2.9 in a thirty-six-car house to 
four in a ninety-car house. The report points out that 
the large number of houses is convenient to routes 
operated, but far from efficient from the standpoints of 
maintenance and inspection. Storing in larger houses 
and inspection and maintenance in larger groups is 
recommended. The need of adequate shop facilities is 
strongly set forth, in connection with comments upon 
the depreciated condition of the older rolling stock. With 
an outlay for proper facilities it is estimated that a 
saving of not less than $100,000 a year could be effected 
in equipment maintenance. The use of open cars in- 
creases the cost of maintenance. 




ARNOLD BAY STATE REPORT — COST OF POWER AT GENERATING STATIONS; COST OF MAINTENANCE OF TRACK AND ROADWAY J 

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF LARGE AND SMALL CARHOUSES 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



Considerable attention is paid in the report to the 
problems of car operation, emphasis being laid upon the 
severe handicap of the low schedule speed (8.35 m.p.h.). 
If this could be increased 10 per cent, to 9.2 m.p.h., the 
saving in platform wages would be about $200,000 a 
year. Such an increase in speed could only be attained 
after the vast number of unnecessary stops on the sys- 
tem have been eliminated and the power supply bettered, 
and by making very radical changes in location of 
track, double-tracking, standardization of equipment 
by a more energetic handling of the cars by platform 
men. Slow speed is due in part to the location of lines 
in highways often hilly and crooked. Near-side stops 
are favored. Low acceleration and braking are also 
handicaps, as are the large amount cf single-track line 
in use. The company lost 1798 car-hours by setbacks in 
a recent typical week. 

At present a large number of lines are being operated 
with the longest practicable headway to provide any 
reasonable service and yet they are unprofitable. In 
such cases, particularly for short lines in suburban ter- 
ritory, the use of the one-man car is recommended dur- 
ing at least the greater part of the day. Such cars 
should be designed to be readily convertible into full- 
crew service for periods of heaviest traffic. It is prob- 
ably not feasible to attempt the use of one-man cars on 
lines operating over tracks already carrying service on 
close headway on account of probable delay to the latter. 
From a group of sixteen to twenty-one low-earning 
routes it appeared that a saving of from 90,000 to 
140,000 car-hours could be effected, or between $25,000 
and $39,000. 

It is estimated that a saving of from $82,000 to 
$133,000 per year can be attained by rearranging the 
car service to cut down over-service, etc. By concentra- 
tion of carhouse work a saving of $43,000 per year could 
be effected, in the author's opinion, and a saving of 
$125,000 per year in general expenses is considered 
feasible by him. 

Increased revenue appears to be possible from the 
use of prepayment cars, attraction of traffic through 
higher schedule speed, increase of interurban fares to 
1.5 or 1.75 cents per mile, and more extended develop- 
ment of the express and freight business need of in- 
creased gross revenue is unquestionable. 



Relations of the N. Y. E. R. A. to the 
Problems of the Industry 

President of New York Electric Railway Association 
Shows Why Railway Operation Is Becoming 
Increasingly More Expensive 

BY J. J. DEMPSEY 

Superintendent of Elevated Transportation, Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company 

IN his presidential address delivered before the New 
York Electric Railway Association at the Niagara 
Falls meeting this week, Mr. Dempsey, after referring 
to the history of the association since its organization 
in 1893, discussed the changes which have taken place 
in the meantime. He said in substance as follows: 

The problem of obsolescense alone is one which as- 
sumes staggering proportions on any system where the 
growth of traffic has produced a demand for larger cars, 
larger units of power production and general increases 
in capacity of all other equipment. On the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit system there are today seven power gen- 
erating stations, the smallest of which used to produce 
about 4000 kw., while the largest today has a capacity 
of 126,000 kw. Three of the seven stations are now in 
operation, and one is in reserve. Three are unused, not 



because they are worn out or even necessarily obsolete, 
but because the increased power demand has made them 
uneconomical as operating units. There is hardly an 
electric road operated which has not a similar condition. 
What is to be done with the capital honestly invested 
in facilities rendered obsolete by the advance in the art 
of transportation and the increasing demand for electric 
railway service? 

At the same moment that we confront this question we 
also face the equally threatening problems of higher cost 
of labor and materials and the demand for lower fares 
or their equivalent in improved or extended service. At 
the same time the cost of public supervision is piling 
up. For example, the present system of reports re- 
quired by the present commission of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company costs about $20,000 per year more than 
that required by the previous commission. 

To secure fair treatment for the electric railways, to 
secure for them half a chance to devote their energies to 
the solution of their problems, is the most important 
task confronting our association. 

We have come to a political era when, to a large ex- 
tent, the former control of legislation and public ad- 
ministration by party organizations has been done away 
with, and for it has been substituted a theory of direct 
responsibility of elected and appointed public officials to 
the public. The change came about through public in- 
dignation over the admitted evils of the old system. But 
is not the new condition producing evils quite as serious 
to those responsible for the use of capital invested in 
electric railways, to the security of the investment itself, 
and to the public? 

In many instances officials refuse to be guided either 
by common sense or simple arithmetic in dealing with 
electric railway problems, because of some popular agita- 
tion based upon misunderstanding or misrepresentation. 
The public mind is open to any condemnatory or destruc- 
tive idea but refuses to be interested in constructive 
undertakings. 

Much of the agitation for decreased fares and ex- 
tension of service beyond the economic possibilities of 
the case proceeds upon the theory that the capital in- 
volved cannot escape and can, therefore, be made to work 
for any or no return. What we must impress upon the 
public mind, and through it upon the official mind, is 
that while this may sometimes be true with capital 
already invested, no such condition exists in respect to 
the new capital which must be brought into the business. 

The City of New York discovered that money is a 
free agent when it undertook to work out its rapid 
transit problem. Proceeding on the theory that a uni- 
versal 5-cent fare and the extension of rapid transit into 
the outlying sections were necessary for proper city de- 
velopment, the city had ultimately to realize that the 
unprofitable operation involved could only be undertaken 
if supported by the credit and taxing power of the com- 
munity. Accordingly the companies' investment was 
given priority over the city's investment because the 
city could raise money by taxation to pay interest which 
the operation of the system would not earn for years, 
whereas the companies could face such a contingency 
only with the sacrifice of credit and ultimate insolvency. 

The relation between revenue and expenditure in the 
street railway business has about reached the breaking 
point. If the public, through its representatives, insists 
upon stretching it until it at last snaps, the public will 
in the end be the worst sufferer. It remains for our as- 
sociation to bring this fact home to the people of our 
communities. If we fail we can hardly expect anything 
but disaster for our joint enterprise. If we succeed, 
we shall be doing immeasurable service to the entire 
people of the State. 



16 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Electric Railways and Mobilization 

An Army Officer and Railway Managers Present Concrete Plans for Electric Railway Co-op- 
eration in Military Mobilization at Annual Meeting of New York Electric Railway 
Association This Week — Other Topics Considered Included Standardization 



THE thirty-fourth annual meeting of the New York 
Electric Railway Association was held in the Inter- 
national Hotel, Niagara Falls, on June 27 and 28, 1916. 
The principal topic was "The Electric Railways in Na- 
tional Defense." Two hundred members and guests 
were in attendance. 

Tuesday Morning Session 

President J. J. Dempsey, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, read an address on "The Relation of the Associa- 
tion to the Problems of the Industry" at the Tuesday 
morning session. This is abstracted elsewhere in the 
present issue. The Secretary-Treasurer, William F. 
Stanton, Schenectady Railway, in his annual report 
showed the association to be in a flourishing condition, 
with a growing membership and bank balance. The 
membership committee also reported a very satisfactory 
year's work, the following having joined during the year : 

Active Members : 

The Third Avenue Railway Company, New York. 

Richmond Light and Railroad Company, New Brighton, N. Y. 

Binghamton Railway Company. Binghamton, N. Y. 

Glen Cove Railroad Company, Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y. 
Allied Members : 

Railway Specialties Company, New York. 

Electric Cable Company, New York. 

Harry DeSteese, New York. 

Cooper Heater Company, Carlisle, Pa. 

More- Jones Brass & Metal Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John W. Masury & Son, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Railway Improvement Company, New York. 
The Q. & C. Company, New York. 

The committee added that but one active member had 
resigned from the association during the year. This 
resignation was tendered not on account of any dissatis- 
faction with the association, but due to financial condi- 
tions, and with the promise that as soon as conditions 
permitted the company will again become a member. 



Only three allied members had resigned. One company's 
resignation was tendered on account of its withdrawal 
from the manufacture of electric railway equipment, 
and another was due to a receivership. The third was 
for some unknown reason. 

For the committee on workmen's compensation, J. P. 
Barnes, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, pre- 
sented a comprehensive report showing the status of 
compensation insurance in the state. This report will 
be abstracted later. In moving the acceptance of the 
report, Frank Hedley, Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, asked for the continuation of the committee with 
the request that it investigate and report upon such in- 
justices as have come about through the operation of the 
compensation act. He showed, for example, that a com- 
pany could be held for compensation in case of death by 
suicide. He called attention also to the fact that ordin- 
arily men with few dependents would be selected for 
hazardous jobs, but when labor was scarce this was im- 
practicable and this imposed a hardship upon the em- 
ployer. 

In seconding Mr. Hedley's motion, E. A. Maher, Jr., 
Third Avenue Railway, New York, suggested that the 
committee investigate the relative treatment received by 
self-insurers and companies insured in the State fund, 
when compensation cases are being adjusted by the 
commission. Mr. Maher believed that employees should 
be held responsible for statements made in applying for 
employment, and gave an example of the effects of 
failure along this line. In the case cited a man had 
given false information as to name, previous employ- 
ment and number of dependents. After four days' work 
he was killed and the employer has a widow and four 
children to take care of. 




MEMBERS OF NEW YORK ELECTRIC ASSC 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 



Mr. Hedley's motion was then passed and President 
Dempsey said that the suggestions would be referred to 
next year's committee. 

Discussion On Mobilization 

Wilbur C. Fisk, Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, New 
York, next reported for a special committee which the 
president had appointed April 5, 1916, to study the move- 
ment of troops by electric lines, consisting of W. H. Col- 
lins, Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad; J. E. 
Hewes, Albany Southern Railroad ; J. P. Barnes, Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester Railway ; George D. Snyder, Hud- 
son & Manhattan Railroad, and himself, chairman. An 
abstract of this report appears elsewhere in the present 
issue. Following this, two papers which had been 
solicited by the committee were read. One was by J. 
E. Hewes, Albany Southern Railroad, on "The Advan- 
tage of Electric Traction in Time of War," read by him- 
self. The other was by Col. J. B. Bellinger, U. S. A., on 
"The Use of Electric Railways in the Military Service," 
read in the author's absence by the secretary. Since he 
prepared the paper Colonel Bellinger had been assigned 
to important duties in the National Guard mobilization. 

In the discussion of the subject, H. G. Grier, General 
Electric Company, told of experience in France where, 
in preparation for using an electric railway for military 
purposes, turnouts had been installed 15 in. below grade 
and buried. These had proved useful in the present war. 

Mr. Hewes showed that the transportation conditions 
at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War were dis- 
graceful, and illustrated this from personal experience. 
He stated that by filling two gaps of about 35 miles each, 
it would be possible to have a continuous electric railway 
from New York to Erie, which could be used to supple- 
ment the steam lines. The success of Germany and 
Austria in their drive against the Russians last year was 
due partly to the possession of transportation facilities, 
which the Russians lacked. Much of the fighting was 
done at points selected by the Germans and fortified, 
temporary electric railways being used to bring up am- 
munition. 

Mr. Barnes said that this general subject has been 
considered for some months. Electric railways have 



interesting transportation problems not yet generally 
recognized. While long moves must be handled by the 
steam lines, in the collection of individual units the 
electric railway has an important place. Its organiza- 
tion is such that the work of handling troops could be 
accomplished like snow fighting. Only a pre-arranged 
organization and signal are necessary. Snow fighting is 
part of the everyday business of the electric railway — 
there is nothing novel about it. 

Mr. Barnes also pointed out that the handling of 
small units prepares electric railway men to do the 
same on the state railways and roads.. Systems of dis- 
patching, telephone stations, etc., could easily be ar- 
ranged. These men could work in on a system to utilize 
their own equipment and the state highways effectively. 
All that is required is a preliminary study to show 
what must be done in time of emergency. 

In closing the discussion Mr. Barnes offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was passed enthusiastically : 
"That a committee of five on military service be ap- 
pointed with instructions to study the problem of mili- 
tary service in New York State, co-operating with the 
military authorities of the State and the United States 
in the preparation of plans for movements of troops, 
munitions and supplies." 

On the Non-Use of A. E. R. A. Standards 

On behalf of the American Association committee on 
the use of association standards, W. G. Gove, Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company, made a plea for more atten- 
tion to the work of the standards committee. A com- 
mittee had been appointed at Mr. Gove's suggestion to 
answer the question as to why the standards are not 
more generally used. The trouble, he said, may be with 
the manner in which the standards are prepared or with 
the member companies which pay the expenses of the 
committees but are not willing to utilize the results of 
their work. 

Among the reasons for the wider use of standards Mr. 
Gove called attention to the large stocks of supplies re- 
quired with few standards, and to the space needed in 
storing these stocks. Each year new parts are being 
added to the stock lists. The manufacturers are glad to 




ON IN ATTENDANCE AT NIAGARA FALLS CONVENTION 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. i 



Flertric Railways and Mobilization 

IMC ^ U. l ^ nn crete Plans for Electric Railway Co-op. 

An Army Officer and Railway Managers Pr« ntC° ^ ^ R 



itKA Niagara Falls on June 2 an B 1916. 

were in attendance. 

Tuesday Morning Session 
President J. J. Dempsey, Brooklyn Rapid ,Tr«,sit Com 
„n nHilress on "The Re ation of the Associa 
rn y 'to re the a p "oTthe Industry" at the Tuesday 
horning session. This is abstracted elsewhere » the 
present issue. The Secretary-Treasurer, William r . 
Stanton, Schenectady Railway, in his annua] report 
showed the association to be m a flourishing condition 
with a growing membership and bank balance I he 
membership committee also reported a very satisfactory 
year's work, the following having joined during the year. 

Active Members : 

The Third Ave nut- Railway I'omii.iny. New York. 

Rfchmoml L..h. a.nl Ka.1,.,,.1 New Brighton. N. Y. 

Biimliaml.'ii Railway Company, KnmlianUon. N. \. 

Glen Cove Railroad Company. Glen Cove, Long Island, N. 1. 
Allied Members: 

Ratlwav Sin-cialli.-s Comi-any. New \ork. 

Electri' 1 Calile Company. New lorK. 

Harry DeSt^-si*. N\w York. 

i •■iuIh-v M< iti' i' i '"ini'aiiv, < 'ai li.-"le. 1 a. 

More-.lniits Brass & U'etal Company, ] 'hikuMphia, Pa. 
John W. Masury & Son, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Railwav Improv-meni Contrail v. New \ork. 
The Q. & C. Company, New York. 

The committee added that but one active member had 
resigned from the association during the year. This 
resignation was tendered not on account of any dissatis- 
faction with the association, but due to financial condi- 
tions, and with the promise that as soon as conditions 
permitted the company will again become a member. 



Onlv three allied members had resigned. One company's 
resignation was tendered on account of its withdrawal 
from the manufacture of electric railway equipment, 
and another was due to a receivership. The third was 
for some unknown reason. 

For the committee on workmen s compensation, J. p, 
Barnes Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, pre . 
sented a comprehensive report showing the status of 
compensation insurance in the state. This report will 
be abstracted later. In moving the acceptance of the 
report Frank Hedley, Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany asked for the continuation of the committee with 
the "request that it investigate and report upon such in- 
justices as have come about through the operation of the 
compensation act. He showed, for example, that a com- 
pany could be held for compensation in case of death by 
suicide. He called attention also to the fact that ordin- 
arily men with few dependents would be selected for 
hazardous jobs, but when labor was scarce this was im- 
practicable and this imposed a hardship upon the em- 
ployer. 

In seconding Mr. Hedley's motion, E. A. Maher, Jr., 
Third Avenue Railway, New York, suggested that the 
committee investigate the relative treatment received by 
self-insurers and companies insured in the State fund, 
when compensation cases are being adjusted by the 
commission. Mr. Maher believed that employees should 
be held responsible for statements made in applying for 
employment, and gave an example of the effects of 
failure along this line. In the case cited a man had 
given false information as to name, previous employ- 
ment and number of dependents. After four days' work 
he was killed and the employer has a widow and four 
children to take care of. 




MEMBERS OF NEW YORK 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWA * JOURNAL 



17 



Mr. Hedley's motion was then passed and President 
Dempsey said that the suggestions would be referred to 
next year's committee. 

Discussion On Mobilization 
Wilbur C. Fisk, Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, New 
York, next reported for a special committee which the 
president had appointed April 5, 1916, to study the move- 
ment of troops by electric lines, consisting of W. H. Col- 
lins, Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad; J. E. 
Hewes, Albany Southern Railroad; J. P. Barnes, Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester Railway; George D. Snyder, Hud- 
son & Manhattan Railroad, and himself, chairman. An 
abstract of this report appears elsewhere in the present 
issue. Following this, two papers which had been 
solicited by the committee were read. One was by J. 
E. Hewes, Albany Southern Railroad, on "The Advan- 
tage of Electric Traction in Time of War," read by him- 
self. The other was by Col. J. B. Bellinger, U. S. A., on 
"The Use of Electric Railways in the Military Service," 
read in the author's absence by the secretary. Since he 
prepared the paper Colonel Bellinger had been assigned 
to important duties in the National Guard mobilization. 

In the discussion of the subject, H. G. Grier, General 
Electric Company, told of experience in France where, 
in preparation for using an electric railway for military 
purposes, turnouts had been installed 15 in. below grade 
and buried. These had proved useful in the present war. 

Mr. Hewes showed that the transportation conditions 
at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War were dis- 
graceful, and illustrated this from personal experience. 
He stated that by filling two gaps of about 35 miles each, 
it would be possible to have a continuous electric railway 
from New York to Erie, which could be used to supple- 
ment the steam lines. The success of Germany and 
Austria in their drive against the Russians last year was 
due partly to the possession of transportation facilities, 
which the Russians lacked. Much of the fighting was 
done at points selected by the Germans and fortified, 
temporary electric railways being used to bring up am- 
munition. 

Mr. Barnes said that this general subject has been 
considered for some months. Electric railways have 



interesting transportation problems not yet generally 
recognized. While long moves must be handled by the 
steam lines, in the collection of individual units the 
electric railway has an important place. Its organiza- 
tion is such that the work of handling troops could be 
accomplished like snow fighting. Only a pre-arranged 
organization and signal are necessary. Snow fighting is 
part of the everyday business of the electric railway — 
there is nothing novel about it. 

Mr. Barnes also pointed out that the handling of 
small units prepares electric railway men to do the 
same on the state railways and roads. Systems of dis- 
patching, telephone stations, etc., could easily be ar- 
ranged. These men could work in on a system to utilize 
their own equipment and the state highways effectively. 
All that is required is a preliminary study to show 
what must be done in time of emergency. 

In closing the discussion Mr. Barnes offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was passed enthusiastically: 
"That a committee of five on military service be ap- 
pointed with instructions to study the problem of mili- 
tary service in New York State, co-operating with the 
military authorities of the State and the United States 
in the preparation of plans for movements of troops, 
munitions and supplies." 

On the Non-Use of A. E. R. A. Standards 
On behalf of the American Association committee on 
the use of association standards, W. G. Gove, Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company, made a plea for more atten- 
tion to the work of the standards committee. A com- 
mittee had been appointed at Mr. Gove's suggestion to 
answer the question as to why the standards are not 
more generally used. The trouble, he said, may be with 
the manner in which the standards are prepared or with 
the member companies which pay the expenses of the 
committees but are not willing to utilize the results of 
their work. 

Among the reasons for the wider use of standards Mr. 
Gove called attention to the large stocks of supplies re- 
quired with few standards, and to the space needed in 
storing these stocks. Each year new parts are being 
added to the stock lists. The manufacturers are glad to 




IN ATTENDANCE AT NIAGARA FALLS CONVENTION 



18 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



co-operate in this work, but the initiative seems lack- 
ing. Certain standards already adopted have proved of 
value to purchaser and manufacturer, and none is effec- 
tive without the approval of the latter. The tendency 
toward standardization results in scientific investment. 

To illustrate how the standards are not being used, 
Mr. Gove cited the case of the standard rail, of which 
but 10,000 tons have been rolled. On the other hand, 
wheel standards have been of great use to electric rail- 
ways. While he did not believe in the unqualified use of 
standards, many of them could be used, for example, 
wheels and axles. The average railway is not making 
an effort to furnish its technical staff with information 
regarding the standards. 

Mr. Gove also said a good word for the Engineering 
Manual, and suggested that the distribution of revisions 
of the Manual should be simplified and cheapened. 

Mr. Barnes supported Mr. Gove, stating that he knew 
from experience how carefully these standards are pre- 
pared. Each has real work behind it, and competent 
criticism has been secured in formulating it. While the 
standards need not always be adopted, they should always 
be considered. The New York State Association form- 
erly paid much attention to standards, but had not done 
much lately. He moved the appointment of a commit- 
tee to study the subject, and such was ordered. 

J. H. Pardee, J. G. White Management Corporation, 
said that standards are not adopted because engineers do 
not agree. The Pennsylvania Railroad would not adopt 
New York Central standards. The committee should 
not be discouraged, and the New York Association com- 
mittee should co-operate with the national association. 

Mr. Gove said further that the method of standards 
exploitation was at fault. The money available for 
committee activity was limited. Further, in appointing 
a committee qualifications rather than geographical lo- 
cation should govern. Standardization must be ap- 
proached in a broad way, and standards cannot be 
adopted wholesale. The companies must look for return 
from committee work and abandon their apathetic at- 
titude toward standards. 

Mr. Pardee amplified his earlier statements by stating 
that the adoption of standards, while one test of their 
quality, is not the only test. They produce results even 
if not actually adopted. 

In closing the discussion Mr. Dempsey said that Mr. 
Gove's suggestions would be followed in the appointment 
of the committee. He also announced as the nominating 
committee, Messrs. Pardee, Hedley, W. H. Collins, 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, and James 
F. Hamilton, Schenectady Railway. 

Wednesday Morning Session 

On Wednesday, June 28, a short business session was 
held in the morning. The committee on nominations 
presented the names of the following men for the offices 
named, and they were unanimously elected: For presi- 
dent, James P. Barnes, general manager Buffalo, Lock- 
port & Rochester Railway, Rochester; for vice-presi- 
dents, Wilbur C. Fisk, president Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad, New York, and C. F. Hewitt, general man- 
ager United Traction Company, Albany; for secretary- 
treasurer, William F. Stanton, assistant to the general 
manager Schenectady Railway ; for members of the ex- 
ecutive committee, E. J. Dickson, 'vice-president Inter- 
national Railway, Buffalo; James E. Hewes, general 
manager Albany Southern Railroad, Albany; E. A. 
Maher, Jr., assistant general manager Third Avenue 
Railway, New York; and W. 0. Wood, president New 
York & Queens County Railway, Long Island City. 

Mr. Barnes was then escorted to the chair by a com- 
mittee, and in a few fitting words accepted the honor 
and responsibility laid upon him by the association. 



On motion of W. H. Collins, Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad, resolutions were passed paying 
tribute to the memory of the late W. B. Rockwell, for- 
merly an active member of the association. Resolutions 
of thanks to those responsible for the success of the 
meeting were also passed. W. O. Wood suggested that 
the members follow the jitney situation, urging upon 
their respective assemblymen the desirability of enact- 
ing regulatory measures. 

The Banquet 

The general topic of the banquet held on Tuesday eve- 
ning, June 27, was "Preparedness." Mr. Dempsey 
acted as toastmaster and introduced successively O. E. 
Carr, city manager Niagara Falls; James H. Callanan, 
editor Schnectady Union-Star, and Dudley Field Malone, 
Collector of the Port of New York. 

Mr. Carr, on behalf of the Mayor of Niagara Falls, 
welcomed the visitors and reminded them of the extent 
to which Niagara power is used for car propulsion. 

Mr. Callanan, after defining the newspaper as the 
greatest charity organization in the country, compli- 
mented the railways upon their humanitarian work in 
reducing accidents, especially of the boarding and alight- 
ing type. The importance of this work is now gen- 
erally recognized. He then took up the topic "Leader- 
ship and Demagogy," defining the demagogue as "one 
who can entertain a crowd without letting it know what 
he thinks," and the "high-brow" as "one educated be- 
yond his capacity." His idea was that "the middleman 
of poise makes for the world's best progress," and that 
"the umpire is the type of man needed, for he makes his 
decisions upon the merits of the case." He then applied 
these principles to the need for a large navy and to the 
Mexican situation. 

Mr. Malone told some dialect stories in an inimitable 
fashion and then launched into the general subject of 
the evening's discussion. In this connection he said 
that first of all there must be preparedness in spirit. 
We cannot achieve a patriotic spirit among the great 
mass of working people unless we are willing to do 
social service of an honorable and practical kind. Mr. 
Malone also indorsed the spirit behind citizens' training 
camps, such as that at Plattsburgh, where he had had 
experience last year. 

Other Entertainment 

The members were delightfully entertained during 
the meeting under the guidance of a committee headed 
by H. N. Ransom, Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, New York. Music for the banquet and 
dancing was provided liberally and golfing, luncheons, 
and pleasure trips filled in all of the time of the ladies 
and the spare time of the men. 

Electric Railways in Military Service* 

BY COL. J. B. BELLINGER, U.S.A. 

Every citizen of a country owes a duty to his coun- 
try, and every citizen of a country is entitled to be 
furnished by his country with the facilities for per- 
forming that duty. It is because of my belief in the 
obligation and right of every citizen to render service 
of some kind to his country that I permitted myself to 
be beguiled into indicating to your organization, in a 
general manner, the use to which electric railways 
might be placed in the military service. This paper 
must not be construed as being intended to indicate a 
solution of the general problem of the use of electric 
railways in the military service. The details of their 

♦Copyright, 1916, by Col. J. B. Bellinger. Abstract of a paper. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



19 



organization for this purpose is, to my mind, a function 
of the federal government in the solution of the gen- 
eral problem of preparing the country for its proper 
development and for its protection from harm, internal 
or external. 

After a personal experience with military transporta- 
tion problems which were large at that time, though 
they sink into microscopic insignificance when compared 
with the problems of military transportation which have 
developed and have been solved during the past two 
years in Europe, I evolved an expression the correctness 
of which has certainly been proved by recent events in 
Europe. It is that transportation is the keystone to the 
arch, both military and civil. With the application of 
this principle always in mind, all transportation facili- 
ties in a country should be organized so as to insure 
their rendering the maximum obtainable results. 

Of the many forms of transportation which exist, 
electric railways are most important, but, for military 
purposes, they will always render their maximum re- 
sults as auxiliaries. This fact is due to the location of 
their lines and to the amount and class of equipment 
necessary for performing the daily service for which 
they are constructed. 

The urban railways can render great service, particu- 
larly in large cities, in moving troops, constabulary 
forces and citizens' municipal protective organizations, 
readily and rapidly to points of local disorder, as well 
as to points from which they would be moved for con- 
centration at other points beyond the limits of the 
municipalities. They can also be used for the trans- 
portation of supplies and material between localities 
within the municipality at which they are to be used and 
to points therein from which they are to be transported 
beyond the limits of the municipality. It is believed, 
however, that the use of urban electric railways for the 
transporting of supplies would not be as effective as mo- 
tor trucks, due to their lack of flexibility, but that they 
would be most effective for the rapid movement of 
troc p 3 about the city. 

Rural electric railways can be most effectively and 
efficiently utilized as auxiliaries to steam railways on 
the one hand, and to motor truck, animal transportation 
and marching on the other hand. In other words, the 
use of the interurban electric railways for military 
transportation service falls between the use of the steam 
railway which can transport personnel and material in 
large quantities per trainload for great distances and 
the use of the motor truck, animal transport and march- 
ing which would transport personnel and material in 
smaller quantities for shorter distances. 

Where existing trolley lines have physical connection 
for passing the cars from one line to another and thus 
obtaining a continuous movement without transfer of 
passengers and freight, their military effectiveness is 
increased until the maximum effectiveness is reached 
for any locality. The maximum distance over which 
they can be used efficiently is determined by the num- 
ber of men or quantity of supplies which can be handled 
per car or per train over this distance in some unit of 
time fixed by the necessity of the occasion. 

Just as troops in and about Paris are reported to have 
been moved by motorbuses, motor trucks and automo- 
biles to reinforce the troops of the Allies which were 
falling back before Von Kluck's army, so rural electric 
railways could be utilized for transporting troops and 
supplies between points along their lines. 

Development of Lines 

In order that the federal government may at all times 
obtain for military service, in peace or in war, the maxi- 
mum effective results from the electrical railway sys- 



tems now existing or which may be built in the future, 
I recommend that your association form a committee 
to be known as the Committee on Military Service, 
whose duty it will be to make a careful study of the 
location and equipment of the roads represented by this 
association, formulate plans for constructing lines, as 
soon as it is considered that they will be paying com- 
mercial enterprises, to fill in the gaps which may now 
exist between lines and obtain continuous movement 
between extreme points of the lines thus connected and 
for standardizing the equipment as the present equip- 
ment is replaced. 

The passenger cars of this standard equipment should, 
if practicable, be arranged on the basis of transporting 
complete units or complete fractional parts of units. 
For example, a war strength company of infantry being 
150 men, the standard passenger coach should be able to 
seat fifty-five or eighty persons, thus making one-third 
or one-half of an infantry company with the equipment 
carried on the person of the soldier, in each coach. 

Stock cars should carry twenty animals, which would 
be five four-mule teams. 

Flat cars should carry two escort wagons or two am- 
bulances or a field gun, limber and caisson. 

The minimum capacity of the baggage cars should be 
the field equipment of a battalion of infantry, and the 
maximum should be whatever might be determined to 
be best for commercial purposes. 

A standard of equipment having been established and 
a definite plan for development of new lines having been 
agreed upon, the railways should work toward the exe- 
cution of these standards and plans on the basis of 
obtaining a proper return on the investment from com- 
mercial business as the government of the United States 
has not yet reached the point of developing the indus- 
tries of the country by government aid because of the 
government's ultimate need of the industry. 

Purposes of Committee on Military Service 

Assuming the organization of the Committee on Mili- 
tary Service to have been made, this committee should, 
at the same time that it is working on the questions of 
the further construction of lines and the standardiza- 
tion of equipment of the members of this organization, 
plan to have this organization communicate with sim- 
ilar organizations throughout the country with a view 
of having each of the organizations creating similar 
committees on military service. 

Assuming that every association of this character in 
the country has established a committee on military 
service, these committees should form from their mem- 
bership a general committee on military service which 
should represent all of the electric railway associations 
throughout the country, and the work of this general 
committee should be that of co-ordinating the building 
of new lines and the standardization of new equipment, 
on the basis previously indicated, throughout the entire 
country. 

It should also be the business of this general com- 
mittee to focus the power of the electric railway asso- 
ciations throughout the country in such a manner on 
the authorities of the federal government as to insure 
their aiding the accomplishment of the proper develop- 
ment of the electric railways throughout the country in 
a manner which will result in service from them for the 
benefit of the federal government. 

It must be thoroughly understood that the efforts of 
the individuals and of the organizations throughout the 
country to place themselves and their facilities at the 
disposal of the federal government can never effectively 
materialize until the federal government through its 
agencies co-ordinates the efforts of the individuals and 



20 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



of the organizations in such manner as to obtain the 
benefit of their accumulative effort. 

When the federal government finally realizes the im- 
portance to the country of seriously undertaking this 
problem of mobilizing the industrial resources of the 
country, it will obtain maximum efficiency only by utiliz- 
ing the personnel of the industries as federal agents 
when the government takes over the control of the in- 
dustry for its needs. 

For example, the personnel of every industry would 
be organized in such a manner as to continue the trans- 
action of its business under its own officials who would 
become local federal officials working under a centrally 
located permanent federal official, who would simply 
indicate to the proper local federal official of the fed- 
eralized industrial personnel what was to be accom- 
plished and when. The details of accomplishment would 
be executed under the immediate direction of the fed- 
eralized officials of the industry previously vested with 
the execution of the orders of the permanent federal 
official. 

Electric Railways Used for Military Service 

It will probably interest you to know that I have per- 
sonally had occasion to utilize, in a small but most 
effective way, electric railways for military transporta- 
tion. I will cite the cases. 

In May and June, 1898, I personally suggested the 
use of the electric railway at Tampa, Fla., for military 
transport and succeeded in having the electric railway 
officials there use their road most effectively for the 
military service. The siege artillery camp was on the 
hills in the vicinity of Ybor City, Fla., and to reach 
the camp by wagon road necessitated the hauling of 
heavy siege pieces through very deep sand. Large 
Percheron horses had been supplied for drawing these 
siege pieces, but these animals refused to pull the pieces 
through the sand. This difficulty was promptly over- 
come by placing mules on the work, which was then per- 
formed but in too slow and inconvenient a manner. I 
then arranged with the electric railway officials to make 
physical connection with the 
steam railroad track and use 
their electric cars to pull the 
railroad freight cars containing 
the heavy gun equipment over 
their tracks to the artillery 
camp, where we built an unload- 
ing platform for handling it 
from the cars. 

Soon after reporting for duty 
at Governor's Island in April, 
1912, General Fred Grant died, 
and his funeral escort was con- 
centrated at the Battery to 
march from there to West 
Forty-second Street Ferry and 
then to be returned to their 
posts. These troops were taken 
from Governor's Island, Fort 
Wadsworth, S. I., Fort Han- 
cock at Sandy Hook, N. J., Fort 
Hamilton in Brooklyn and Fort 
Totten at Whitestone, L. I. 

The concentration of these 
troops at the Battery in New 
York City and the returning of 

them to their posts after the cortege had reached the 
foot of West Forty-second Street was worked out by 
me so as to use the electric railways to their maximum 
as auxiliaries to the steamboat service which it was 
necessary to use in concentrating the troops at the Bat- 
tery. 



The troops at Fort Hamilton were brought by march- 
ing and electric railway to Thirty-ninth Street Ferry, 
Brooklyn, and by it brought over to New York City. 
Those from Fort Totten, Fort Hancock, Fort Wads- 
worth and Governor's Island were brought to New York 
City by boat. 

The Governor's Island troops were returned by the 
Ninth Avenue Elevated Railway to South Ferry and 
by ferryboat to Governor's Island. The Fort Hamilton 
troops were returned by the Ninth Avenue Elevated to 
South Ferry, by Thirty-ninth Street Ferry to Brooklyn, 
and then by electric railway to a point as near as possi- 
ble to the post of Fort Hamilton. The Fort Hancock 
and Fort Wadsworth troops were returned by boat from 
the pier at West Forty-fifth Street, and the Fort Totten 
troops by boat on the East River after marching across 
town. 

In closing, I strongly recommend that you "get busy," 
for everything that you do in the way of organizing on 
the general lines indicated will be primarily for the 
benefit of our country and secondarily for the benefit 
of your properties. 

Report of Committee on Movement 
of Troops 

The report of this special committee, referred to 
elsewhere in the running report of the association meet- 
ing, comprised a resume of the committee's work and 
appendices containing data of the equipment of rail- 
ways, location and sizes of companies making up the 
several regiments, etc. 




ELECTRIC LINES AND TROOP STATIONS IN NEW YORK IN 1916 



From Maj.-Gen. John F. O'Ryan data as to the peace 
and war strengths of the State Guard were secured and 
with these as a basis maps and tables were prepared. 
Appendix I of the report is reproduced as Table I here- 
with, and the accompanying map, also from the report, 
shows the locations of the National Guard centers re- 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



21 



Table I — Data Regarding the N. G. N. Y. and the Electric Railways 

WAR FOOTING 



Vehicles 



Animals 



Organization 
Headquarters Division . 



. New York City , 



Location 



lBt Battalion, Signal Corps . 
22nd Corps of Engineers. . . 



1st Cavalry. 



. 1 Co. Brooklyn 

1 Co. Manhattan 
. New York City 

1 Pioneer Batt. 4 Co.... 
1 Pontoon Batt. 4 Co.. . 
.Hdq., 5 troops. Brooklyn . 
1 troop, Alabny . . . 



1 troop, Syracuse. 



Squadron "A" 
1st Field Artillery . 



1 troop, West Brighton . . . 

1 troop, Utica 

1 troop, Rochester 

1 troop, Buffalo 

1 troop, Ashantee (Avon) . 

. New Y'ork — Headquarters 

4troops,M.G.T 

. Headquarters — New Y'ork 

4 batteries, New York 

1 battery, Syracuse 

1 battery, Binghamton 



Men 
27 



170 



585 
l(tt 

103 

103 

103 
103 
103 
103 
1300 

488 

842 
170 
170 



2nd Field Artillery , 



Armored Motor Battalion. 

8th Coast Defense 

9th Coast Defense 



13th Coast Defense. 
1st Infantry 



. Headquarters — Brooklyn 

3 batteries, Brooklyn 044 

3 batteries, BroiL\ 550 

.New York 100 

.11 Cos., New York 1753 

. 10 Cos., New York 1000 

.12 Cos., Brooklyn 1900 



Hdq. 



1 Co., Binghamton . 

2 Cos., Utica 

1 Co., Watertown. . 

1 Co., Ogdeusburg . . 

2 Cos., Newburg. . . 
1 Co., Walton 

Oneouta 

Middletown. 

Malone 

Mohawk. . . . 



1 Co., 
1 Co., 
1 Co., 
1 Co., 



2nd Infantry Hdq. 



3 Cos., Troy 

1 Co., Cohoes 

2 Cos., Schenectady. 
1 Co., Gloversville . 



3rd Infantry Hdq. 



1 Co., Amsterdam . . 

1 Co., Whitehall. . 
1 Co., Glens Falls.. 
1 Co., Saratoga. . . . 
1 Co., Hoosic Falls. 
3 Cos., Rochester. . 
1 Co., Geneva 



1 Co., Syracuse 

1 Co., Oswego 

1 Co., Niagara Falls . 

1 Co., Medina 

1 Co., Olean 



1 Co., Hornell. 
1 Co., Elmira. 



1 Co., Auburn . 

7th Infantry New Y'ork City 

10th Infantry Hdq., 4 Cos., Albany. 



1 Co., Catskill 

1 Co., Hudson 

1 Co., Y'onkers 

1 Co., Mt. Vernon. . 

1 Co., Flushing 

1 Co., Poughkeepsie . 

1 Co., White Plains.. 



1 Co., Ivingston. 

12th Infantry New Y'ork City 



232 
300 
153 
153 
300 
153 
153 
153 
153 
153 

538 
153 
300 
153 

153 

153 
153 
153 
153 
538 
153 

153 

153 
153 
153 
153 

153 
153 

153 

1915 

091 

153 
153 
153 
153 
153 
153 

153 

153 
1915 



14th Infantry Brooklyn 1915 

23rdlnfantrv Brooklyn 1915 

47th Infantry Brooklyn 1915 

05th Infantry Hdq., 11 Cos., Buffalo 1762 

1 Co., Jamestown 153 

69th Infantry New York. 

71st Infantry New Y'ork. 

74th Infantry 



1 Co., Tonawanda. 
1st Field Hosp New Y'ork. . . 

2nd Field Hosp Albany 

1st Ambulance Co Binghamton. 

2nd Ambulance Co Rochester. . . 

3rd Ambulance Co New Y'ork. . . 



1915 

1915 

.Hdq., 11 Cos., Buffalo 1762 

153 

73 



4th Ambulance Co Syracuse 

1st Brigade Hdq., New York. 



2nd Brigade Hdq., Brooklyn. 

3rd Brigade Hdq., Albany. . . 

4tlBrigade Hdq., Buffalo... 



84 
84 
84 

84 

15 

15 
15 
15 



Number 
3 



12 
137 
10 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

23 



102 
37 
37 

123 
113 

' ' 20 ' 
19 

21 
11 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

13 
1 

2 
1 



1 

22 

22 
22 
22 
21 
1 
22 



15 
15 
15 

15 

1 

1 
1 
1 



Weight, 
Lbs. Number 
0,120 37 



22,400 



19,200 
595,11)4 
32.640 
2,040 

2,040 

2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2.0411 
2,040 
40,920 

8,160 

59,422 
59,422 

191,216 
180,010 



40,200 
38,160 

42,840 
22,440 
4,080 
2,040 
2,040 
4.080 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 

26.520 
2,040 
4,080 
2,040 

2,040 

2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
26,520 
2,040 

2,040 

2,040 
2.040 
2,040 
2,040 

2,040 
2,040 

2,040 

44,880 

28,560 

2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 
2,040 

2,040 

2,040 
44,880 

44.8S0 
44,880 
44,880 
42,840 
2,040 
44,880 

44,880 

42,840 
2,040 
16,320 

16,320 

25,620 
25,620 
25,020 

25,620 

2,040 

2,040 
2,040 
2,040 



208 



193 
845 
707 
104 

104 

104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
1435 

553 

792 
157 
157 

611 

495 

' 157 ' 
153 

101 

143 
8 
4 
4 
8 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 

151 

4 
8 
4 



4 

4 
4 
4 
151 
4 



4 
4 
4 
4 

4 
4 

4 

187 

139 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



4 
187 

187 
187 
187 
183 
4 
187 

187 

183 
4 
48 

48 

82 
82 
82 



16 
16 
16 



Weight, Baggage, Electric Railway Serving. Locality 
Lbs. 
43,055 



Lbs. 
1,000 



Brooklyn Rapid Transit, Interborough Rapid 
Transit, Hudson k Manhattan Railroad., 



244,987 6,000 Brooklyn Rapid Transit, Interborough Rap.d 
Transit, Hudson & Manhattan RailropJ. 



22,000 4,000 

990,000 4,000 

815,252 5,600 

120,274 800 



120,274 

120,274 
120,274 
120,274 
120,274 
120,274 
1,057,170 



800 

800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
11,200 



Interborough Rapid Transit. 

Interborough Rapid Transit. 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit. 

Albany Southern (All), United Traction (Men 
and Baggage). 

N. Y. State Railways, Empire United Rail- 
ways. 

N.Y. State Railways. 
N Y. State Railways. 
International Railway. 
Erie Railroad (All). 



049,251 4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit. 

928,374 5,000 Interborough Rapid Transit. 

204,035 1,000 New York State Railways. 

204,035 1,000 Binghamton Railway 



. 879 
580,505 



100,040 
155,310 

164,764 
128,544 
9,448 
4,724 
4,724 
9,448 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 



4,000 
3,000 

12,000 
12,000 

14,000 
3,000 
2,000 
1,000 
1.000 
2,000 
1.000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Interborough Rapid Transit. 
Interborough Rapid Transit. 
Interborough Rapid Transit. 
Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. 
Binghamton Railway 
New York State Railways. 
Black River Traction. 
Ogdeusburg Street Railway. 
Orange County Traction Company. 

Otsego <4 Herkimer (All). 
Wallkill Transit. 



Otsego & Herkimer (All), N. Y. State Rail- 
ways. 

137,942 5,000 United Traction (Men and Baggage). 
4,724 1,000 United Traction (Men and Baggage). 
9,448 2,000 Schenectady Railway. 
4,794 1,000 Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railway 
(All). 

4,794 1,000 Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railway 
(All). 



4,794 
4,794 
4,794 
4,794 
137,992 
4,724 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
1,000 



4,724 1,000 



4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 

4,724 
4,724 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

1,000 
1,000 



4,724 1,000 
180,508 14,000 
142,716 6,000 



4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 
4,724 

4,724 

4,724 
180,508 

180,508 
180,508 
180,508 
175,784 
4,724 
180,508 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

1,000 

1,000 
14,000 

14,000 
14,000 
14,000 
13,000 
1,000 
14,000 



180, 50S 14,000 



175,784 
4,724 
50,272 



13,000 
1,000 
10,593 



50,272 16,593 



95,598 
95,598 
95,598 

95,598 

18,584 

18,584 
18,584 
18,584 



4,223 
4,223 
4,223 

4,223 

1,000 

1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Hudson Valley. 

Hudson Valley, Schenectady Ry. 

Berkshire Street Railway. 

New York State Railways. 

Geneva, Seneca Falls & Auburn and N. Y. 
State Railways. 

N. Y. State Railways and Empire United 
Railways. 

Empire United Railways. 

International Railway. 

Buffalo, Lockport and Rochester Railway. 

Western New York and Pennsylvania Trac- 
tion. 

Hornell Traction. 

Elmira & Seneca Lake, Elmira, Corning and 
Waverly. 

Auburn & Syracuse Railway, Empire United 
Railways. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad. 

Albany Southern (All), United Traction (Men- 
and Baggage). 

Catskill Traction. 

Albany Southern (All). 

Yonkers Railroad. 

Westchester Street Railroad. 

Long Island Railroad. 

Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers Falls Elec- 
tric Ry. 

N. Y., Westchester & Boston, Westchester 

Street R. R. 
Kingston Consolidated R. R. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R.R. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. 
International Railway 
Chautauqua Traction. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R. 

International Railway. 

International Railway. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man - 

hattan R. R. 
Albany Southern (All), United Traction (Men 

and Baggage). 
Binghamton Railwav. 
N. Y. State Railways. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R. 

N. Y. State Railways, Empire United Rail- 
ways. 

Interborough Rapid Transit, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. 
United Traction and Albany Southern. 
International Railway. 



22 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



ferred to in Table I, together with the traction lines 
mentioned. On the original map some of the troops 
data given in the table were shown also. 

Appendix II of the report contained data of regi- 
mental concentration. Sample data from this appendix 
are given in Table II for the purpose of indicating their 
Kgiure and the form of presentation. The tables showed 
thai of the 18,700 troops in the State, but 1270 cannot 
be inoved from their home stations by electric lines, al- 
though local electric railway service exists at all of 
these stations. 

The committee found that the function of the electric 
railways is supplemental to that of the steam railways 
in the following particulars: 

1. In the event of sudden mobilization the electric 
railways can assist in bringing individual soldiers from 
their homes or places of business to the armories, and 
when such a call comes at night on lines where an all- 
night service is not maintained, such lines can readily 
arrange to continue service during the night. 



Table II — Regimental Concentration, Infantry, N. G. N. Y. 
(Sample Entries) 

1st Regiment 

Headquarters, Binghamton 
Cos. A and B, Utiea. Co. C, Watertown Co. D, Ogdensburg 

Cos. E and L, Newburg Co. F, Walton Co. G, Oneonta 

Co. H, Binghamton Co. I, Middletown Co. K, Malone 

Co. M, Mohawk 

Cos. A and B (Utica), M (Mohawk) and G (Oneonta) can be concentrated 
by using the Otsego & Herkimer Railroad and the New York State Railways. 

2nd Regiment 

Headquarters, Troy 
Cos. A, C and D, Troy Co. B, Cohoes Cos. E and F, Schenectady 

Co. G, Gloversville Co. H, Amsterdam Co. I, Whitehall 

Co. K, Glens Falls Co. L, Saratoga Co. M, Hoosic Falls 

All the companies, with the exception of Co. I (Whitehall) and Co. M (Hoosic 
Falls), can be concentrated by the various electric railways, etc. 

2. To assist in assembling the different elements of a 
command in cases where they are stationed at different 
points, so that the complete organization can entrain at 
one point for a concentration camp or other destination. 
The companies of some regiments are stationed at 
widely separated points and the electric roads can in 
many cases advantageously transport these elements to 
a central point. 

3. To transport troops within the larger cities ; from 
armories to steam railway terminals, or from armories 
to strategic points in case of riot or disorder; or from 
armories to suburbs or open country for maneuvers or 
field training. 

4. As alternate or supplemental routes when the 
steam railways are temporarily blocked or disabled, or 
congested with other more important business, such as 
munitions, food or supplies. 

As most of the electric lines are primarily passenger 
railroads, the problem of transporting the vehicles, ani- 
mals and bulky equipment cannot be solved in all cases. 
The committee, therefore, collected data showing the 
rolling stock, capacity, running time, etc., on a number 
of roads in the State and arranged these in tabular 
form. In concluding its report the committee said as 
follows : 

"The training and organization of the staffs of the 
electric lines are such that they can assist in the move- 
ment of troops even when these are not moved over 
their lines ; for instance, in the regular loading and dis- 
patching of motor cars from terminal points. 

"The attention of the military authorities of the na- 
tion and the State is called to the fact that the electric 
railway officers are always ready to confer and co-oper- 
ate with them in peace or war to further the develop- 
ment of the country's defensive power, as it is felt that 
the resources in men and material of these transporta- 
tion lines are elements that will assist greatly in the 
solution of the problem." 



Use of Electric Traction in Time of War 

In introducing the discussion on this subject, James 
E. Hewes, Albany Southern Railroad, presented a paper 
prepared as part of the program of the special commit- 
tee appointed to study the movement of troops by elec- 
tric lines. Mr. Hewes had been an officer in the engi- 
neering department of the United States Army during 
the Spanish-American war, and he first gave a resume 
of the transportation conditions during that period. In 
stating the position of the New York Association he 
said: "We as members of the New York Electric Rail- 
way Association desire to place ourselves in a position 
before the government as being willing to co-operate 
with the government in order to offer what facilities we 
have in time of war. To that end we must lay before 
the government some definite plan pointing out clearly 
just how far we can be of service and by what specific 
methods." Continuing, he said in part as follows: 

"I hope that this move on our part may lead to fur- 
ther development of present electric railway systems, 
which development has been sadly lacking in the past 
few years, and that a way may be found by which the 
missing links now existing between the terminals of 
our interurban lines may be supplied. This will result 
in more rapid development and may be the means of 
enabling us to reorganize our present systems into 
larger units. 

"The government and the State are liberally encour- 
aging the development of State roads. Commissions 
have been appointed to consider the increasing of the 
strength of bridges on these roads, as many of them 
cannot sustain loads of 10 tons. The average electric 
railway bridges can support loaded cars equal in weight 
to steam equipment, and this is one facility which we 
can offer the government in the transportation of heavy 
loads." 

Mr. Hewes then gave the results of study of condi- 
tions during the present war in Europe, showing that 
transportation has had much to do with the successes in 
several campaigns. He said that the German trenches 
are supplied by means of electric railways, having their 
bases at the nearest points of contact with a steam 
railroad. In some cases the electric road was merely 
a narrow tramway made up of sections using steel ties. 
All structural features of the tramway were supplied 
from the steam road base. Electric lighting in the 
trenches and current for searchlights were supplied 
from the source of supply of the electric road. He then 
went into details concerning the military features of the 
situation with a view to impressing the problems im- 
posed by the transportation of vast quantities of am- 
munition. 

Applying the results of his study to the immediate 
problem in hand, Mr. Hewes said : 

"When vast bodies of troops and supplies are moving 
it is necessary, in order to avoid confusion, to have 
a complete system of dispatching. Highways and rail- 
roads can be controlled by men having railroad experi- 
ence. It is quite within our power to lend valuable aid 
in this way. 

"During the Civil War railroad men were appointed 
to handle the movement of troops, not as officers, but as 
dispatchers, and railroad men were appointed to take 
charge of the movement of troops on the steam roads. 
At times the Pennsylvania and B. & O. systems were 
turned over to and operated by the government, the 
operation being under the direction of railroad men. 

"The value of electric railway facilities lies, first, in 
the personnel, our men who are capable of dispatching 
transportation. Second, an electric road can be built 
over an irregular country where grades that a steam 



July l, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



23 



locomotive cannot surmount can be negotiated. Third, 
we have a vast number of cars with standard equipment 
that can be placed in service on short notice. Fourth, 
the electric road is not handicapped by the necessity of 
transporting coal and water as is the steam road. It 
is only necessary for us to put up a trolley wire and the 
source of energy supply is established. Fifth, there 
are probably more electric car crews available than 
chauffeurs or locomotive and train crews. Sixth, the 
source of power supply can be power houses located in 
nearly any city with a population over 15,000, and such 
cities are located within reasonable transmission dis- 
tances of each other. 

"I think that it would be fitting at this time to con- 
sider the organization of our members into a trans- 
portation unit to be available in time of war, to co- 
operate with the government along the lines indicated." 

Wheel and Tire Specifications Revised 

American Society for Testing Materials Recommends 
Changes in Connection with Tolerances 

AT THE nineteenth annual meeting of the American 
Society for Testing Materials, held in Atlantic City 
on June 27-30, 1916, the committee on steel recom- 
mended a number of revisions of existing standards. 
Among these is a suggested change in the standard 
specifications for solid wrought-carbon steel wheels for 
electric railway service. By these changes the wheels 
are classified so that rolled wheels would become class 
A, and machined wheels class B. The requirement as to 
rotundity for class B wheels is to be changed so that 
the opening between the tread and the ring gage shall 
not exceed 1-64 in. instead of 1-32 in. The present re- 
quirement as to permissible variation 'in the tape sizes 
(six tapes over, or four tapes under the size specified) 
are made to apply only to wheels with treads less than 
3 in. in width. For wheels with treads of 3 in. or over, 
the permissible variations are nine tapes over, or five 
tapes under the size specified. The requirement as to 
thickness of plate is to be changed to agree with those 
of the specification for wheels for steam railway service. 
Also, the permissible variation of the diameter of hub 
over that specified is to be changed from % in. to % 
in., and the requirement as to projection of front plate 
of hub has been omitted. The requirement that the pro- 
jection of the back plate of hub from the gage line shall 
not vary more than 1-32 in. over nor more than 1-16 in. 
under that specified, is to be changed to read that the 
projection of the hub beyond the back plate of the rim 
shall not vary more than 1-16 in. from that specified. 
Changes in marking are also included in the recom- 
mended revisions. 

Revisions of the standard specification for steel tires 
are recommended in connection with the chemical prop- 
erties and tests. The drop test is to be omitted, and 
the tension test is required only if specified by the pur- 
chaser. The requirement as to the permissible varia- 
tion in inside diameter is to be modified so as always 
to permit a variation of % in. less than the diameter 
specified. The present specifications base a variation 
on the finished diameter, allowing % in. less than this 
diameter, and as a consequence, when tires are ordered 
rough bored x /4 in. less than the finished inside diameter, 
the available variation is only Vs in. below the variation 
specified. Permissible variations are also specified in 
the outside diameter amounting to V 2 in. over for tires 
less than 54 in. in diameter. 

The committee announced that it would take up, next 
year, in addition to other matters, the subject of speci- 
fications for steel ties. 



Boat Trip of C. E. R. A. 

Four Days' Cruise Was Successfully Begun — Im- 
promptu Talks Were Given Wednesday 
Morning — Special Cars Were Run 
to Place of Embarkation 

(By Telegram from Mackinac Island) 

THREE hundred members, their families and guests 
of the Central Electric Railway Association sailed 
from Toledo on Tuesday morning, June 27, on the 
steamer South American for the four days' cruise on the 
Upper Great Lakes. The weather has been fair and warm 
up to the time of filing this telegram at Mackinac Is- 
land, Michigan, and already plans are well under way for 
another boat trip next year. On Tuesday afternoon a 
stop of one hour was made at Detroit, where other 
members joined the boat party. The evening was spent 
in viewing the scenery along the shores of Lake St. 
Clair, the St. Clair River and Lake Huron, in dancing 
and in a musical program. 

The only association meeting was held on Wednesday 
morning, with President A. Benham in the chair. After 
the usual preliminaries E. B. Peck, vice-president Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, chair- 
man of the joint folder committee, reported the progress 
it had made in obtaining subscriptions from member 
companies. He said that the work of this committee had 
started about three years ago, but the committee had 
not received full authority to act until November, 1915. 
The details of the folder have been worked out, and bids 
have been received from publishers for the printing. 
He said forms of contracts for the member companies 
had also been prepared and mailed, but the response had 
not been very encouraging. Only fourteen contracts 
out of fifty-eight sent out had been returned signed. 

Mr. Peck then said that the cost of the interline 
folders was $21.30 per thousand, and that no railway's 
timetable would appear in the folder unless it subscribed 
and was a member of the association. The benefits to 
be derived from such a folder were apparent, and it was 
of just as much value to the smaller companies as to 
the large ones. He said that there was no question but 
that the public's lack of information concerning inter- 
line schedules and connections lost the member com- 
panies a large amount of passenger traffic annually. If 
all companies would subscribe, the folder could be made 
to cover 8000 miles of electric railways. It would be 
placed in 668 folder racks, and it was intended to issue 
10,000 folders monthly under the contract to be made 
with the printers. -The cost will vary with the market 
price of paper, and with the quantity of folders printed. 
The number of member companies which had subscribed 
up to the time of the meeting was just sufficient to make 
the first issue of the folder possible. 

Mr. Peck then urged other member companies to sub- 
scribe. He said that the Traffic Association had issued an 
interline passenger traffic tariff which had been dis- 
tributed to all member companies. With this the cost of 
a trip could be determined, but the time and connections 
could not. The committee also decided that the folders 
should not contain any outside advertisements to detract 
from its value. If any railway, however, cared to adver- 
tise its service, that would be permitted. In conclusion, 
he said that the association map had been one of the 
most creditable things the association had done in a 
traffic way, but that the interline folder was needed to 
give the map value as a traffic stimulator. 

Charles L. Henry then moved that the association 
approve the acts of the committee and recommended that 
it diligently push the work of obtaining signatures to 
contracts. This motion was adopted. 

President Benham then read a telegram he had re- 



24 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



ceived from J. J. Dempsey, president of the New York 
Electric Railway Association, which was also holding a 
meeting at Niagara Falls, extending its best wishes for 
a successful meeting. Upon motion, the president was 
authorized to respond with greetings and best wishes 
by wireless telegraph. 

President Benham then introduced F. D. Carpenter, 
president Western Ohio Railway, who spoke of the dif- 
ficulties encountered in the early days of the association 
and told of its growth and work. He believed that the 
Central Electric Railway Association was of more value 
to the members than the American Electric Railway 
Association, because the latter devoted its work to a 
larger sphere and not to local problems. He then an- 
nounced that the executive committee, which had held 
a meeting on the boat Tuesday afternoon, had decided 
to hold the next meeting of the association in Toledo 
on Nov. 23 and 24. At this point, Secretary Neereamer 
read the names of five applicants for membership, and 
announced that this brought the total supply men mem- 
bership up to 151, or the largest number in the history 
of the association. 

The remainder of the session was given over to ex- 
temporaneous speeches, which were opened by J. H. 
Drew, president Drew Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Hugh M. Wilson, vice-president McGraw Pub- 
lishing Company, followed with a few complimentary 
remarks about the work of the Central Electric Railway 
Association. He said he was particularly impressed 
by its endeavor to humanize the business. This policy 
helped to solve many business problems and was a step 
toward improving relations with the public. S. D. 
Hutchins, Westinghouse Traction Brake Company, 
emphasized Mr. Wilson's thought, and as chairman of 
the Supply Men's committee which arranged the trip, he 
called attention to its work, and thanked the members, 
the press, and particularly John Benham, who had done 
most of the work. John Benham responded fittingly, 
and then urged the members to support the interline 
folder committee in its program. 

J. A. McGowan, secretary and treasurer Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, then re- 
minded the members of the great strides made in modes 
of transportation, and predicted a bright future for the 
association and electric railways. Frank Garland, di- 
rector of the welfare department, Dayton, Ohio, out- 
lined the Dayton plan of government and the work of 
his department in particular. He urged the humanizing 
of business and government as a means of increasing 
efficiency and to meet the crisis which he predicted would 
follow the ending of the European war. A. Swartz, 
Cities Service Company, Toledo, closed the addresses 
with a few well-chosen remarks. Mr. Henry then read 
a telegram of greeting from L. S. Storrs, vice-president 
of the American Electric Railway Association, and E. 
B. Burritt, its secretary. President Benham then read 
a letter from J. F. Collins, vice-president and general 
manager Michigan Railway, inviting all those who in- 
tended to return to Toledo to accept the use of his pri- 
vate car from Holland, Mich., to Grand Rapids, Jackson, 
Detroit, and Toledo. C. K. Minary, president Benton 
Harbor-St. Joe Railway, also invited the association to 
take lunch with him at the "House of David," a religious 
colony at St. Joseph, Mich. 

Prior to the trip special cars to Toledo were run from 
Indianapolis by way of Fort Wayne and by way of 
Dayton. S. W. Greenland, general manager Fort Wayne 
& Northern Indiana Traction Company, served a tent 
lunch at Fort Wayne for one party, and R. A. Crume, 
general manager Dayton & Troy Electric Railway, served 
a box lunch at Dayton for the other party. There were 
forty-seven passengers on the car that ran by way of 
Fort Wayne, and the 263-mile run was made in nine 



hours and thirty-seven minutes. The trip by way of 
Dayton was made in the same time, although the total 
run was 11 miles further. 



Third Avenue Railway Coasting 
Contest 

Recently an argument arose between Inspector Mc- 
Elroy and Chief Inspector Broderick of the Third 
Avenue Railway System, New York, as to relative coast- 
ing ability of the day and relief men on the 145th Street 
Broadway line. The men made a wager for new hats, 
Mr. Broderick backing the relief crews and Mr. McElroy 
the day crews. The contest resulted as follows: 

Day Men. Motormen 



Cunniff, No. 668 47.0 per cent 

O'Brein, No. 785 41.4 per cent 

Gillespie, No. 504 41.0 per cent 

McBride, No. 865 38.4 per cent 

Newman, No. 859 36.4 percent 

Westhausen, No. 878 36.0 percent 



Average for week ending June 7 40.0 per cent 

Relief Men, Motormen 

Heaney, No. 896 56.5 per cent 

Foley, No. 799 54.0 per cent 

Sheehan, No. 802 44.0 per cent 

Henry, No. 781 43.3 per cent 

McConnell, No. 845 42.0 per cent 

McDonough, Nc. 543 36.6 per cent 



Average for week ending June 7 43.3 percent 

Average number of passengers carried daily 7,705 

Average daily mileage 988 

Average speed, miles per hour 8.52 

Average mileage per crew per day 82 

Total hours for week 799 

Total number of hours in which motormen operated their 

cars with the controller on off position 333 out of 799 



It may be added that the relief men work from 11 
a. m. to 1 p. m. and then from 5 p. m. onward. In both 
classes the evening rush is included. Therefore the 
running conditions were fairly comparable. 



New Haven's Efforts for Automatic 
Train Control 

The New Haven Railroad, the better to handle its 
investigation of automatic train control, has appointed 
F. H. Nicholson assistant engineer. Mr. Nicholson will 
devote his whole time to this important subject. The 
appointment is to come under the jurisdiction of Signal 
Engineer Morrison's office. It is the intention of the 
New Haven management to conduct further experiments 
and tests on its own lines ; to make thorough investiga- 
tion of trial installations on other roads, and to continue 
the examination of train control devices brought to its 
attention by inventors and others. The investigation 
will be directed in an effort to determine the degree of 
practicability of each scheme measured by conditions on 
the New Haven Railroad. During the past four years 
the New Haven has examined a large number of plans 
of automatic stops, and has conducted tests of two 
trial installations on its own lines. The examination of 
these plans, more than 4000 in number, has convinced 
its engineering and operating officials that automatic 
train control has not reached the degree of development 
that would eliminate introduction of other and greater 
hazards, and warrant either universal or limited adop- 
tion by the New Haven. It is recognized, however, that 
a great deal of persistent and intelligent effort is being 
directed to the solution of the problem involved in the 
automatic control of trains, and the appointment of Mr. 
Nicholson to follow this work is in line with the pur- 
pose of the management to keep itself thoroughly and 
promptly informed of progress in the development of 
automatic train control. 



July l, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



25 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION NEWS 



Committee Meetings of the Week 

Meetings of two association committees were held 
during the current week. The sub-committee on prop- 
erty ledger of the joint engineering-accounting commit- 
tee met in New York, June 28, to complete its report. 
Those present were: F. H. Sillick, New York; J. C. 
Collins, Rochester, N. Y., and Harold Bates, New Haven, 
Conn. There was also a meeting of the joint committee 
on claims-transportation at Buffalo on June 26. 

Hearing on Clearance and Hours of 
Service Bill 

At the request of the committee on federal relations 
of the American Electric Railway Association, a sub- 
committee of the United States House Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce held a hearing on the 
morning of June 21 to hear any objections which elec- 
tric railway companies might wish to make to the 
"clearance" bill and the "hours of service" bill now be- 
fore Congress. These were the bills to which the com- 
mittee on federal relations recently called the attention 
of the member companies of the association, as men- 
tioned on page 1044 of the issue of this paper for June 
3. The clearance bill (H. R. 9047) specifies that car 
clearances should not be less than 3 ft., except at sta- 
tions or freight house platforms, and that the overhead 
clearance should be not less than 6 ft. The hours of 
service bill (H. R. 9216) amends the hours of service 
act by reducing from nine to eight the hours of service 
of signal and switch operators, but the bill is so worded 
as to include motormen and conductors of interurban 
roads engaged in interstate commerce by classifying 
them with dispatchers in case they receive or report 
orders by telephone. 

Those electric railway managers present at the hear- 
ing were: Arthur W. Brady, Anderson, Ind. ; W. P. 
Megaree, Philadelphia; A. V. Brown, Sandusky, Ohio; 
M. S. Morgan, Springfield, Ohio; John L. O'Toole, 
Newark, N. J. ; H. S. Lyons, Boston ; B. F. Weadock, 
Detroit; E. C. Foster, Manchester, N. H., and R. I. Todd, 
Indianapolis. Others in attendance at the meeting in- 
cluded the national officers from four of the steam rail- 
road employees' associations, representing the conduc- 
tors, engineers, firemen and trainmen. The principal 
argument in behalf of the electric railway interests was 
made by Arthur W. Brady, chairman committee on fed- 
eral relations. The members of the sub-committee mani- 
fested a close interest in the points brought out by 
Mr. Brady, and asked a number of questions of him 
and of some of the other electric railway representatives 
in attendance. After some discussion, in which the 
labor representatives in attendance participated, the 
latter withdrew any objections they might have had to 
an amendment to the bill to exempt from its provisions 
all interurban and city railways that were operated 
entirely by electricity. As that was the object for which 
the hearing was held, the chairman requested that the 
official stenographer make a note of the fact that the 
proponents of the bill had agreed to exempt from its 
provisions electric street railway companies. The hear- 
ing was declared closed without any further discussion 
on that subject. 

On the following day a hearing was held by the full 
committee on commerce on the hours of service bill. 
Practically every member was present, and the hearing 
was continued for about two hours, Mr. Brady giving 
the principal testimony and presenting a proposed 



amendment exempting electric railways from the pro- 
visions of the act. The committee took the stand that 
the proposed amendment was so broad that it repealed 
the present hours of labor law, and requested the electric 
railway representatives to draw up another amendment 
which would meet the ideas of the committee, indicating 
that such an amendment would be acceptable. Mr. Brady 
agreed to do this, and the meeting then closed. 



Rowdyism on Interurban Cars 

Placards Calling Attention to Various Sections of 
Ohio Laws Have Desired Effect in 
Reducing This Evil 

THE Northwestern Ohio Railway & Power Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio, which connects Toledo, Genoa, 
Port Clinton and Oak Harbor, has for some time had 
considerable difficulty with rowdyism on its cars. This 
arose from the fact that a very large part of the riding 
public consists of foreign passengers from the lime- 
stone quarries and gypsum mines in the company's ter- 
ritory. Recently, however, the company had printed a 
placard (7 in. x 11 in.), as shown in the accompanying 
illustration, calling attention to various sections of the 
Ohio laws concerning the police rights and duties of the 
conductors on interurban cars. Two of these cards 
were framed and placed in each car, one in the smoking 
compartment and one in the other part of the car, and 
some were also placed in stations and at other points 
within easy view of the public. Since these cards 



PLACARD CALLING ATTENTION TO OHIO STATUTE PROVISIONS 
CONFERRING POLICE RIGHTS ON CONDUCTORS 



The Northwestern Ohio Railway & Power Co 

Attention of Passengers is called to the following Sections 
of the Ohio Laws concerning Police Rights and 
Duties of Conductors on Interurban Cars 

sec. 34.i.s. [When a passenger conductor is a policeman.] 

The conductor of every train carrying passengers within this state and the 
conductor of the car or cars of every interurban railroad carrying pas- 
sengers within this state, is hereby invested with all of the powers, duties 
and responsibilities of police officers, while on duly on his train or on said 
car or cars, and said conductor may w ear the badge of a special policeman 
173 v. 100. § 1; 97 v. 84.] 

sec. .3434. [When conductor may eject a passenger.] when 

a passenger is guilty of disorderly conduct, or uses any obscene language, 
or plays any game of cards or chance for money or any other thing of value, 
upon any passenger train or upon the car or cars of any interurban rail- 
road carrying passengers within this state, the conductor of sucli train or 
car or cars of such interurban railroad shall stop his train or said car or 
cars at the place where such offense is committed, or at the next stopping 
place of such train or of such car or cars, and eject such passenger from 
the train or from said car or cars, using only such force as may be 
necessary to accomplish such removal; and the conductor may com- 
mand the assistance of the employees of the company, person, firm or 
corporation owning or operating such road or roads and of the pas- 
sengers on such train or on such car or cars to assist in such removal: but 
before doing so he shall tender to such passenger such proportion of the 
fare he paid as the distance he then is from the place to which he has paid 
fare bears to the whole distance for which his fare is paid. [73 v 166 §2" 
07 v. 84.] 

sec. 3435. [When a conductor may arrest a passenger.) 

When a passenger is guilty of any offense upon a passenger train or upon 
the car or cars of any interurban railroad carrying passengers within this 
state, the conductor of such train or of such cars may arrest him and take 
him before any magistrate having cognizance of such offense, in any county 
m this state in which such train or car or cars of any interurban railroad 
runs, and fde an affidavit before such magistrate, charging him with such 
offense; but in no case shall the liability of a railroad company for dam- 
ages caused by the conduct of its conductor be affected by the provisions 
of this and the next preceding section. [73 v. 166, § 3; 97" v. 84.] 

sec. 3436. [Penalies against conductors for violations of two 

preceding Sections.] A conductor having charge of a passenger train or 
of the car or cars of any interurban railroad carrying passengers within this 
state, who wilfully neglects his duty as required bv the two preceding sec- 
tions, or fails to use all the means in his power to carry out the require- 
ments of such sections, shall be deemed guilty of negligence of official duty, 
and on conviction thereof, before any court having competent jurisdiction, 
shall be fined not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars T73 v 
166. § 4; 97 v. 85.] 

THE NORTHWESTERN OHIO RAILWAY & POWER CO. 

E. A. BURRILL, Gen. Mgr. 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



were posted there has been a perceptible decrease in 
rowdyism, until now it is the exception rather than the 
rule. 



COMMUNICATION 



B. & O. Belt Line Electrification 
Reminiscences 

New York, June 26, 1916. 

To the Editors : 

I wish to add a few comments to the article on "Op- 
eration on the Baltimore & Ohio Electrification," ap- 
pearing at page 1074 in the issue of the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for June 10. Considerable of my early 
experience in electric traction work was obtained dur- 
ing the several years I was connected with this com- 
pany, and, because of holding a leading position in con- 
nection with the changing from overhead conductor sys- 
tem to third-rail, I have an intimate knowledge of the 
difficulties experienced and the methods of solution 
adopted. It would be possible to make several articles 
of the interesting experiences had in this early work; 
however, for obvious reasons I don't expect to make 
them. Erroneous ideas could very readily become cur- 
rent regarding the history of this matter, and it is well 
to take the opportune time to place on record some of 
the leading facts. 

I will first refer to an article in the Street Railway 
Journal, of March 14, 1903, pages 398 to 405, under 
the name of W. D. Young, which makes a plain state- 
ment of the conditions encountered at that time, al- 
though the caption of the cut at top of page 401 should 
read "Crossing at North Avenue" and not "Huntingdon 
Avenue." The following facts are worthy of note: 

In the Belt Line tunnel, live steam locomotives were 
frequently passing. Those going up-hill gave out a 
certain amount of gases even though not working un- 
der steam. Those going down-hill gave out still more 
gas when accelerating trains at the entrance of the tun- 
nel, after a passenger or block signal stop. For some 
time previous to the receipt of the 1903 type of electric 
locomotive, the conditions in the tunnel were pretty bad 
because the steam locomotives going up-hill with the 
throttles open, due to the inability of the 1894 type of 
locomotives to handle the heavier freight trains without 
working steam. The chief difficulty with the overhead 
structure, therefore, was one of the worst cases of cor- 
rosion I have ever seen, due to the gases and dampness. 
The tunnel was later grouted with cement to make it 
drier, there being springs in the surrounding ground in 
places. 

I will not here go over again the difficulties of con- 
structing a third-rail in a long tunnel with trains in 
constant operation, neither the tunnel nor the right-of- 
way generally, nor the locomotives themselves, having 
been designed for third-rail operation. The results of 
our work were quite satisfactory; although doubtless 
capable of some further improvement, as many years of 
experience have demonstrated. In comparing this in- 
stallation with the third-rail systems installed by the 
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, and by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, it is to be remembered that 
the New York Central tunnel was entirely recon- 
structed, and the Pennsylvania tunnels were entirely 
new, both being built with a view to third-rail opera- 
tion, and both installations were subsequent to ours and 
the designers had the benefit of our experience. 

The third-rail shoe rigging designed for the 1894- 



type locomotive and illustrated at page 403, Street 
Railway Journal, March 14, 1903, operated quite sat- 
isfactorily, and was retained in use until these loco- 
motives were retired from service. The 1903-type loco- 
motive illustrated on page 1077 of the issue for June 
10 was designed for third-rail operation, and a differ- 
ent type of shoe rigging was furnished with it. The 
same is true of the so-called "1910 type." The point I 
make is: The equipment designed by us in 1902 per- 
fectly met the conditions of overhang, clearance, good 
contact, etc., and was retained on the locomotives until 
they were retired. The movable third-rail equipment 
designed by us is still in operation. The changes in 
third-rail support and protection are not great. The 
type illustrated on page 1078 does not differ greatly 
from the type illustrated on page 400, March 14, 1903. 
W. D. Young, electrical engineer, and the writer as 
assistant electrical engineer, were both with the com- 
pany for some years after the completion of this third- 
rail work, since our territory covered the whole system 
from the Atlantic Coast to Chicago. 

I am pleased to see the Baltimore Belt Line given 
the attention its importance merits. To illustrate how 
readily erroneous impressions are obtained, I will add 
an anecdote. During the work of third-rail installation, 
I found myself one day in the cab at the head of a 
freight train, awaiting the Royal Limited to clear the 
track ahead. The observation car of the latter had 
stopped alongside the locomotive out of the window of 
which I was looking. A gentleman with the appearance 
of a prosperous traveling salesman, seated on the ob- 
servation platform, asked a few questions about the 
electrical equipment and incidentally brought out the 
fact that he thought the Belt Line tunnel went under 
the Chesapeake Bay. I explained to him that before its 
construction, trains to Philadelphia had been ferried 
across Baltimore harbor by a car ferry, but this harbor 
was some miles from the Bay although the Patapsco 
River is very wide between the city and the bay, and 
only an expert can tell where river ends and bay begins. 
Probably many persons have traveled between New 
York and Washington with the idea that they passed 
through a tunnel under the Chesapeake Bay. It is in 
the hope of correcting other possible errors in engi- 
neering circles just as far from the truth as that of the 
traveler mentioned, that I have added the foregoing 
notes to the article in the issue of June 10, 1916. 

H. J. Kennedy, M. E., 
Electric Railway and Industrial Plant Engineer. 



Electrical Week Local Committeemen 
Appointed 

Every city with a population of 20,000 or more will 
have a committee in charge of local arrangements for 
the America's Electrical Week campaign this fall. The 
national executive committee in charge of the move- 
ment, of which Gerard Swope, vice-president of the 
Western Electric Company, is chairman, recently an- 
nounced its appointments of chairmen and local com- 
mitteemen. More than 1200 representative electrical 
men have been appointed. The executive committee, 
through the Society for Electrical Development, Inc., 
made every effort to have the list representative of the 
different electrical interests, the Jovian Order, the Ro- 
tary Clubs and civic associations where they rendered 
co-operation during the electrical prosperity week cam- 
paign. The committee list is most imposing. It con- 
tains the names of many nationally prominent men who 
have accepted the chairmanship of local committees, and 
who have pledged their support. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



27 



EQUIPMENT AND ITS MAINTENANCE 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical Practices 
in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for at Special Rates. \ 



Recording Second-Hand Special Work 

BY C. BENHAM, JR. 
Assistant Engineer Maintenance of Way New York State Rail- 
ways-Rochester Lines 

Owing to the rapid growth of our cities, and with it 
the constant demand for increased transportation facili- 
ties, changes are frequently made in special-work lay- 
outs on electric railway properties. These are due to 
the necessity for additional tracks to facilitate operation, 
revisions to obtain clearance for new and larger equip- 
ment, double-tracking, extensions and the like. As a 
result of the above a number of switches, mates and 
frogs, which are not completely worn out, are removed 
from the track. These pieces may be used again, not 
only in emergency repairs but in regular replacement, 
and if only slightly worn they can be used in the design 
of new layouts. In this manner full use is made of 
expensive material. It is also advantageous to use these 
pieces in layouts which will be changed in the near 
future so that the entire layout will wear out and re- 
quire replacement at the same time, as it is desirable 
to eliminate the removal of partially worn pieces as 
much as possible. 

It is of the utmost importance that an accurate record 
be kept in order that it may be utilized to its full extent. 
A few years ago this company had collected odds and 
ends of special work at various yards in the city. With 
the idea of cleaning up, all these pieces were taken to 
our main storage yard. The locations from which these 
pieces came were forgotten and the plans misplaced. 
Other pieces were removed from the track and were kept 
at the main storage yard, but no systematic effort was 
used to make these pieces available for regular use. 
Occasionally in an emergency a foreman would go to the 
yard and search among the scrap with the hope of find- 
ing a piece to fit one that had been broken in the track. 
In order to make more use of this material the following 
method was worked out and has been successfully used 
on the New York State Railways, Rochester Lines. 

As soon as the pieces are removed from the track they 
are sent to the company's storage yard, and are marked 
with a piece number. To facilitate numbering these 
pieces, Roman numerals were adopted as these can be cut 
with an ordinary cold chisel. Those for which there 
are no manufacturers' special-work plans on file, are 
measured and the information entered on the accompany- 
ing form. In the first column is noted the piece number, 
in the second column the kind of piece, that is, whether 



it be a switch, mate, frog or piece of rail. Then, in 
order, are noted the manufacturer, the manufacturer's 
drawing number, the location for which the piece was 
ordered and the manufacturer's piece number as noted 
on his drawing. These last four columns are filled in at 
the office. In the column headed "Value" is noted the 
second-hand value as estimated at the time of removal. 

The frogs are measured by taking the spread every 
2 ft. from the point, the over-all lengths and the middle 
ordinate for 5 ft. on the curved arms. In measuring the 
switches and mates, the location of the 2-in. spread is 
found and the spread is measured again 4 ft. from this 
point toward the heel. A glance at the table will show 
the radius very closely. The over-all lengths are also 
measured as is the distance from the point of the 2-in. 
spread to the end. The same method is used for meas- 
uring the worn-out pieces to be renewed so that the 
measurements are readily comparable with second-hand 
pieces in stock. After making the special-work inspec- 
tion, or at any time when a piece of special work in the 
track is reported as needing renewal, the stock sheet is 
gone over and the location at which any second-hand 
piece can be used is noted in the column headed "Loca- 
tion to be used," and in the following column is noted 
the date when the piece is placed. The next three col- 
umns are used in case the piece is removed and used 
again, although this rarely happens. 

Keeping this second-hand stock sheet up to date and 
closely scrutinizing it before ordering new pieces result 
in a large saving of money as well as a great deal of time 
in case of an emergency. 



Welding Manganese Steel 

BY A WAY ENGINEER 

The article on a new process of welding manganese 
steel by P. A. E. Armstrong in the Electric Railway 
Journal for June 17 brings out some of the inherent 
difficulties which must be overcome to make successful 
autogenous welds on this metal. While a large per- 
centage of successes has attended repairs made by vari- 
ous welding outfits where extraordinary care was exer- 
cised, the lack of scientific information coupled with 
careless workmanship, due largely to inexperience, has 
resulted in a number of defective welds. There are 
usually two classes of defective welds, as mentioned in 
the article ; either a bond has not been obtained between 
the welded metal and the old casting, or, where the cast- 




FORM USED FOR RECORDING MISCELLANEOUS SPECIAL-WORK PIECES 



28 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



ing is subjected to heavy impacts, the manganese stee! 
surrounding the weld chatters. 

Since welds to heat-treated steel are regarded with 
disfavor by metallurgists, particularly when the work is 
done in the field, little or no scientific information has 
been available, which will account for the large per- 
centage of successes. In order to obtain the best in- 
formation available on this subject a number of authori- 
ties were consulted and their suggestions are incor- 
porated in this article. Perhaps the paper by W. S. 
Potter, president of the Alloy Steel Forging Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., in the April, 1915, Bulletin of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, is as authori- 
tative as any available at this time. In this article Mr. 
Potter presents data showing the relation of heat treat- 
ment to the tensile properties of rolled manganese steel. 
The result of the author's experiments is quite clearly 
shown in the diagram accompanying this article. Al- 
though the method of manufacture of rolled manganese 
steel differs from cast manganese steel, the chemical 
analysis is practically the same for both, and the effect 



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EFFECT OF HEAT ON BREAKING STRAIN OF MANGANESE 

of heat treatment is very similar. Since the publication 
of this article Mr. Potter has been consulted, and he 
bears out the foregoing statement. 

To obtain the points on the two curves shown in the 
accompanying diagram, Mr. Potter had tested a large 
number of %-in. round rods, the chemical analysis being 
as follows: Manganese, 13 per cent, and carbon, 1.02 
per cent. These rods were of rolled manganese steel, 
quenched as it came from the heat of rolling. The rela- 
tion of heat treatment to the tensile property was ob- 
tained from twenty-five lots of test rods containing ten 
each. Each lot of rods was reheated for one hour at 
the various temperatures shown, and then water- 
quenched. In other words, the various tests produced a 
cycle of changes in the physical properties somewhat 
similar to those through which the manganese steel sur- 
rounding the weld passes when water-quenched following 
the welding operation. 

Reference to Mr. Potter's diagram shows that a 
marked drop in the breaking strain or per cent of 
elongation occurs between 600 deg. and 700 deg. Fahr., 
and, after reaching the low point, this condition obtains 
until the rods are reheated above 1300 deg. Fahr. At 
this point the breaking strain and per cent of elonga- 



tion rise rapidly until a temperature of 1600 deg. Fahr. 
is reached. As the rods were reheated and quenched at 
temperatures above this point, both the breaking strain 
and the elongation per cent dropped off, but not as rap- 
idly as they did at 600 deg. Fahr. 

As a result of these tests the author found that there 
were two temperature regions where the effect of re- 
heating the metal was about uniform. The first region 
was after water-quenching the rods from the heat of 
rolling to a point where they were reheated to a tem- 
perature exceeding 600 deg. Fahr. and quenched. In 
other words, if the temperature was maintained below 
this maximum, the characteristics of the reheated and 
quenched metal were not changed appreciably. The 
second region, giving approximately uniform properties, 
was between 1550 deg. Fahr. and 1750 deg. Fahr. Be- 
tween these two regions the metal was found to be weak 
and brittle, and beyond the second region, namely, 1750 
deg., the specimen when bent or stretched cracked gen- 
erally between grains, showing a very low grain of 
adhesion. 

The foregoing information, when applied to welds 
made on manganese steel special work in the field, largely 
explains the vagaries of the metal and the causes of the 
defective welds. If the temperature of the heat-treated 
manganese steel adjacent to the point of the weld could 
be maintained below 600 deg. Fahr. doubtless the welds 
would be successful. Welds in which the temperature 
of the surrounding heat-treated steel is raised to a point 
between 1550 and 1750 deg., after which the heated 
areas are promptly quenched, should also result in suc- 
cessful welds. However, it is impossible to weld at the 
lower temperature, and to control any temperature to 
such a nicety is a very delicate operation, because it is 
impossible to retard radiation from the welded zone. 
It is not so difficult to restrict the heated area and main- 
tain low temperatures in them, hence it appears that 
this is about the only practical solution of the problem, 
and the one which welders should follow. Low tem- 
peratures in the body casting may be maintained by 
frequent quenching or by building on small portions of 
welded metal at one time. In other words, natural 
radiation keeps the temperature down within the welded 
region. This minimizes the damage to the casting, and 
no doubt accounts for the large per cent of successful 
welds obtained by those who build on slowly and quench 
frequently. Another method might be suggested, 
namely, that of fixing the relation between the size of 
the metal electrode and the radiation characteristics 
of manganese steel so that the rate of building on the 
new metal would be practically equal to the rate at 
which the heat is radiated or dissipated from the main 
casting. Experiments along this line might be pro- 
ductive of results very advantageous to operators in 
obtaining a larger number of successful welds. 

Undoubtedly the variation in results obtained by dif- 
ferent operators in making repairs by welding on man- 
ganese steel special work may be attributed as largely 
due either to inexperience or lack of authoritative in- 
formation. The conclusion to be drawn from the results 
of Mr. Potter's tests as well as Mr. Armstrong's article 
is that a thorough knowledge of the subject accompanied 
by scientific methods should be attended by a larger 
number of successful welds. Lack of this information, 
however, has made cut and try methods necessary to 
obtain satisfactory results. Perhaps more extended tests 
along the lines suggested in these articles would also 
be very instructive, particularly if the relation of the 
welding temperature and rate of heat radiation of the 
manganese steel were known. With this information 
operators could control their work by timing it rather 
than by using a thermometer. 



July 1, 1916] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 29 




3 



3 



METHOD OP LOADING TO BLAST 
DEEP POLE HOLE — LATH WITH 
DYNAMITE CHARGES 



Blasting Pole Holes in Clay 

BY J. H. SQUIRES, M.S., PH.D. 

The use of dynamite for digging deep pole holes in 
hard clay is a new development that is proving effective 
in saving time and expense. It is also reducing the 
number of laborers required for hole digging. The old 
method of using small charges of dynamite to loosen 
the ground to make digging easier is well known and 

has been in use for a long 
time. After an extended 
series of tests, a method 
has been perfected for 
blasting deep holes. In 
brief, this method is as 
follows : 

A hole from 6 in. to 10 
in. deep to the full diam- 
eter of the desired hole is 
dug. This shallow hole 
has the effect of relieving 
the pressure on the soil 
that is to be excavated 
and assists in preventing 
excessive shattering of 
the sides. 

A small bore or loading 
hole is put down in the 
middle of this shallow 
hole to the desired depth. 
This is done by means of 
augers, bars, drills or 
churn drill, depending on 
the nature of the ground 
and personal preference 
of the worker. 
The charge is made up by tying small pieces of dyna- 
mite to a light lath. The charge intended for the bot- 
tom of the hole is placed at the end of the lath. The 
other charges, which may be from one-fourth to a full 
cartridge of dynamite, are spaced along the lath at in- 
tervals of from 6 in. to 24 in., depending on the hardness 
of the ground and the size of the hole desired. The 
top piece of dynamite is primed with a blasting cap and 
fuse or with an electric blasting cap. This primer 
charge is so placed on the lath as to be from 20 in. to 
25 in. below the surface when the charge is loaded into 
the bore hole. The two accompanying sketches show 
the general method. In the larger drawing the dotted 
line shows the size and shape of the blasted hole. 

The long charge is loaded into the bore hole, cap end 
up. The explosion of the top charge will fire the others. 
Care must be taken to keep clods of earth and stones 
from falling in the hole, as these may interfere with 
the loading or firing. Frequently no tamping is used 
in the top of the hole. In some soils a few inches of 
tamping will materially help the blast. Tamping 
should never be permitted to go below the top charge, 
as it will interfere with the explosion of the bottom 
charges. From this method of loading the following 
results were obtained. 

All holes mentioned below were 4% ft. deep. The 
soils varied from hard, dry clays to wet, compacted 
clays with some shale. In all cases the ground was of 
such a nature that the use of digging bar or chisel was 
necessary when hand labor was employed. 

1. One-half cartridge low freezing extra 40 per cent 
dynamite in bottom of hole, untamped, results poor; 
large cavity blown in bottom of hole about 30 in. in 
diameter; earth for 2^2 ft. below the surface thor- 
oughly disturbed. 

2. One-third cartridge straight 60 per cent dynamite 



in the bottom of the hole; one-third cartridge of same 
8 in. from bottom; half cartridge 40 per cent low freez- 
ing extra 20 in. below surface; cap in the top, untamped, 
results good. Hole clean and open. 

3. One cartridge straight 60 per cent dynamite at 
bottom; same 12 in. up; same 12 in. up; cap in top, un- 
tamped; results same as 2, except more earth was 
thrown out of the hole. 

4. Five quarter cartridges straight 60 per cent dyna- 
mite, evenly distributed about 6 in. apart, beginning at 
bottom of hole, untamped, cap at top. Results good, 
hole uniform in size, top and bottom, dirt blown out. 

5. Four quarter cartridges low freezing extra 40 
per cent dynamite, distributed same as 4. Results good, 
same as 4 with not so much dirt blown out of hole. 

Additional tests over a variety of soil conditions gave 
the same results. 

From the above it will be learned that a few trial 
shots may be needed to determine the exact loading re- 
quired. Better holes can be blasted in moist than in 
dry clay. All of the dirt is not blasted out of the hole, 
as much of it is packed tightly into the sides of the 
holes. Sometimes a plug or bridge of earth is left in 
the top of well-blasted holes after the blast. This is 
not objectionable, as it can be easily shoveled out. This 
leaving of the plug in the top frequently is a necessary 
safeguard to prevent excessive shattering or loosening 
at the top of the hole. A little hand finish is always re- 
quired for blasted holes. This usually requires from 
two to six minutes of work. Good blasting does not 
injure the sides of the holes to such an extent as to 
interfere with good tamping. 

The explosives used in the work as cited above are 
low freezing extra, 40 per cent or stronger, dynamite 
for cold weather. This can also be used in warm 
weather, but as the straight dynamites are more sensi- 
tive and quicker in their action they are frequently 
found more satisfactory in warm weather. 



Sealed Fuse Cabinet Guarantees 
Supply 

BY H. A. MULLETT 

Superintendent of Rolling Stock Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Occasionally delays in service may be attributed to 
the fact that an insufficient quantity of fuses for re- 
placements have not been made a part of a car's equip- 
ment. In order to obviate any possibility of delays be- 
ing charged to this account, the mechanical department 
of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, 




SEALED FUSE CABINET ON MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC RAILWAY CARS 



30 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Milwaukee, Wis., has installed suitable sealed fuse 
cabinets in all of its cars. Experience has demonstrated 
that this method of carrying the fuses guarantees that 
the standard quantity will be carried on all cars. 

Each car is provided wih a small compartment over 
the center sash of the vestibule, which is locked with a 
meter seal. In case a fuse blows in service, the motor- 
man breaks the seal and uses the fuse required. As he 
is not able to reseal the box the fact that the seal is 
broken is a notification to the repair force that the 
full quota of fuses is probably not in the cabinet. In 
that case it is the inspector's duty to check all the fuses 
and supply the proper number, after which the cabinet 
is again sealed. This method of handling fuses not 
only insures the presence of the proper quantity, but 
eliminates all delays to service which might be attributed 
to the fact that the car did not have extra fuses in good 
condition. 

Renewal of Collector Rings on 400-Kw. 
Rotary Converters 

BY JAMES W. BROWN 
Superintendent of Shops Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Railway and 
Lehigh Traction Company. 

It is seldom necessary to renew collector rings on 
rotary converters, but occasionally one or more of the 
rings will wear down until the available thickness is 
such that a new ring will be required, or if one ring has 
worn thin and is perhaps % in. to 3/16 in. smaller than 
the other rings it must either be renewed or built up. 
As renewals are expensive, the following plans for re- 
building these rings to their original diameter have 
been used. The first instance is a converter which had 
been in service for about ten years and necessitated a 
renewal or rebuilding of all three rings. 

The armature of this rotary, a 400-kw one, was 
taken out and placed in an engine lathe and a cut was 
taken on the ring of smallest diameter to true it up. 
In this case the ring was next to the d.c. winding. The 
next ring was similarly trued up except that it was made 
1/64 in. smaller in diameter. The next or outside ring 
was trued up 1/64 in. smaller than the second ring. A 
bronze ring-band was then shrunk onto the ring next to 
the winding, it being 1/64 in. larger than the second ring 
and 1/32 in. larger than the outside ring. 

The ring-bands were made of a bronze shell casting 
and were easily trued up to the proper inside and out- 
side dimensions. The casting from which all three ring- 
bands were made was placed in a lathe and a cut taken 
on the outside, which left about 1/32 in. of metal to true 
up the rings after they had been shrunk on. It was 
then bored to the proper inside dimensions to fit the 
three rings respectively, and the ring-bands were cut 
off to the proper width. The inside ring-band, being 
of the largest inside diameter, was slipped over the two 
outside rings and shrunk on, in the same manner the 
middle ring-band was slipped over the outside ring and 
shrunk onto the middle ring. The outside ring-band 
was then shrunk onto the outside ring. Four ^4-in. 
holes were drilled through the ring into the spider arm. 
These were tapped and ^4-in. brass screws with twenty- 
four threads to the inch were put in. A single finishing 
cut was then taken on all these rings, after which they 
were sanded and polished. The armature was then re- 
placed, and the rings were in such shape that they will 
probably outlast the usefulness of the machine. 

In another instance, on one of our 400-kw. rotary 
converters the inside ring was worn down until it was 
5/16 in. smaller in diameter than the other two rings. 
The problem was, therefore, to add a bronze ring about 
% in. thick to the inside ring so it would true up 1/64 



in. larger than the middle ring and 1/32 in. larger than 
the outside ring. This was accomplished in the following 
manner: A cut was taken off the inside ring, then a 
ring-band was made so that the outside diameter would 
true up 1/64 in. and 1/32 in. larger than that of two 
other rings respectively. The inside diameter of the 
ring-band was bored to the same diameter that the 
inside ring had been previously trued up to. This ring- 
band was then cut off the proper width and a cut was 
taken through it on a 45 deg. angle with a hack saw. 
This ring-band was spread and slipped over the two 
larger rings. An iron band 3/16 in. thick by 2 in. wide 
with flanges turned back to take a %-in. bolt was then 
slipped over the ring-band, which was in position on the 
inside ring. Four x /4-in. holes were drilled in this iron 
band opposite the spider arms. The %-in. bolt was 
tightened up, which caused the ring-band to be drawn 
tight to the ring and thus made a perfect fit. Holes 
were drilled in the ring and spider arms and tapped to 
take i/i-in. brass screws with twenty-four threads to 
the inch. The screws were then put in, the iron band 
removed, and the joint made by the hack saw was 
soldered and filed. A finishing cut was taken to bring 
the ring to the proper diameter, so that bands could be 
shrunk on, as previously described in this article. 

These machines have been running for several years 
since the bands were shrunk on and have given excellent 
results. The cost of doing this work was very small, as 
the scrap turnings and borings were sold for a price 
that went a great way toward reducing the cost of re- 
newing the collector rings. 



Rail-Grinding Practice of the Bay State 
Street Railway 

The practice of the Bay State Street Railway in build- 
ing up rail joints for the last two years has been greatly 
improved by the use of Seymour portable electric rail 
grinders and Indianapolis portable electric welders. 
One of the grinders is shown in an accompanying illus- 
tration. By this means track which would otherwise 
have required costly repairs has been put in good condi- 
tion at a small cost. 

A hard-center frog, built up with the welder, has 
been ground 3/16 in. to the true surface of the rail 




TYPE OF PORTABLE RAIL GRINDER USED BY BAY STATE STREET 
RAILWAY 



over a length of 12 in. in about fifteen minutes. An 
average depression of 3/16 in. caused by battered and 
pounded joints has been removed in about the same 
length of time by grinding 24 in. on either side of the 
joint. 

The average cost of grinding a repaired joint which 
is 12 in. long and % in. above the surface of the rail has 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



31 



been 25 cents. As many as twenty-eight rail joints, 8 
to 20 in. long, built up with manganese steel, have been 
ground to the required level in a single working day. 

These Seymour grinders are now used on the follow- 
ing divisions of this road: Lowell, Lawrence, Lynn, 
Salem, Chelsea, Fall River and Brockton. This grinder 
was perfected and patented by E. P. Seymour, road- 
master of the Lowell division of the Bay State Street 
Railway system. 



Steel Terminal Casing Increases 
Strength of Rail Bond 

Increased mechanical strength in conjunction with a 
reduction in weight without a proportionate decrease in 
electrical conductivity, has been obtained in a rail bond 
by the substitution of a copper terminal incased in a 
steel sleeve for the usual all-copper terminal. The Sim- 
plex rail bond recently .put on the market by the Hart- 
man Electrical Mfg. Company, Mansfield, Ohio, conforms 
to these claims, and it is designed to be attached to 
the ball of the rail by the gas-weld or oxy-acetylene 
process. 

The advantage of applying bonds by this process is the 
low initial cost of the equipment required and the ease 
with which it may be transported. To further increase 
portability this company has built a special carriage de- 
signed on the wheelbarrow principle, which reduces the 
weight to a minimum. The application of the steel sleeve 
as a substitute for the copper bar at the bond terminal 
reduces the weight of this No. 0000 bond to approxi- 
mately 1 2 lb. The average welder, after some experi- 
ence, is able to install these bonds at an approximate 
price of 25 cents each, or at a total cost of 59 cents per 
bond for all material and labor. The labor cost in this 
instance was figured on a basis of two men receiving 
$2.50 per day each. 

Increased mechanical strength in this bond is ob- 
tained through the split-steel sleeve which incases the 
compressed ends of the bond cable. This casing is pro- 
vided with a ledge or table at a point about % in. from 
the end of the bond, and immediately above and below 
this ledge the steel casing tightly grips the compressed 
copper cable. The casing is flared where the bond cable 
emerges in order to absorb service vibrations without in- 
juring the cable. In case of an attempt at theft the 
split sleeve tends to open when the cable is raised to- 
ward a horizontal position, thus reducing the leverage 
and making the bond more difficult to remove. The 
features of this bond are shown in the accompanying 
illustrations. 

In applying the bond to the rail it is held in posi- 
tion by a spring clamp fastened to one bond terminal 
while the other is being welded. The oxy-acetylene 
flame is directed against the rail and the terminal until 




TRUCK WITH COMPLETE WELDING EQUIPMENT 

both are heated to a welding temperature, at which 
time the filling' metal, in rod form, is inserted in the 
flame and melted. The molten metal welds to the rail 
and to the steel casing of the bond, as well as to the 
exposed ends of the compressed copper strand. The 
welding operation is continued until the filling metal is 
built up from the ledge of casing over the bond terminal. 
The mechanical strength of this bond is thereby in- 
creased by the weld between the filling metal and the 
rail, and the filling metal and the steel sleeve. At the 
same time the bond conductivity is maintained by the 
weld between the filling metal and the rail and the 
filling metal and the exposed end of the copper cable 
in the steel casing. In connection with this bond, it is 
also of interest to call attention to the electrical ad- 
vantages of the short bond over the long one. The 
conductivity of copper cable of No. 0000 capacity in a 
7-in. bond is equivalent to 24 in. of 70-lb. rail, whereas 
a 10-in No. 0000 bond is equivalent to 34% in. of 70- 
in. rail, and a 36-in. No. 0000 bond is equivalent to 
123% in. of 70-lb. rail. In other words, the advantage 
in any type of bond is in favor of the short bond as 
opposed to the long one. 



The Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New 
Jersey, Trenton, N. J., has issued Volumes II and III of 
its proceedings for the' period from June 9, 1913, to May 
12, 1914, and from May 12, 1914, to July 12, 1915. These 
volumes contain only the opinions and decisions of the 
board and are distinct from the annual reports made to 
the Governor. The board has also issued under date 
of 1916 an index to Volume I of its proceedings for the 
period from May 1, 1911, to June 1, 1913. 




SIMPLEX RAIL EOND WITH STEEL CASING SHOWING SECTION THROUGH WELDED TERMINAL AND INSTALLED EOND 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



LONDON LETTER 
Woman Conductor Acceptable — Increase in Glasgow Traffic 
— Paper Shortage Becomes a Problem — Cars Used 
in Barricade in Dublin Uprising 

(From Our Regular Correspondent) 

The woman conductor continues to arouse the admiration 
of all who come in contact with her, and officials of the big 
cities are unanimous in singing her praises. The woman 
conductor on the London omnibus has also proved a great 
success, even though her work is, to a certain extent, more 
arduous than that of her sister on the tramway, involving, 
as it does, climbing the stairs of a moving vehicle the top 
of which is open. The women conductors have to work 
practically the same hours as the men. They continue uni- 
formly courteous, persevering and patient even in the face 
of annoyances. Many managers of tramways, indeed, go so 
far as to say that the women make fewer mistakes than 
the men, and collect more fares, and that there are fewer 
complaints against them. The woman conductor, therefore, 
has become popular not only with the traveling public, but 
also with her employers, both municipal and company. It 
might be interesting to state the number of women em- 
ployed in a few of the largest cities. Glasgow, for instance, 
employs 1200; Birmingham, 700; Liverpool, 300; Sheffield, 
600; Leeds, 400; while Salford, Aberdeen and Manchester 
each employs between 200 or 300. In Leeds there will soon 
be not more than fifty men conductors left, and as the aver- 
age weekly wage earned by the women is now in the vicin- 
ity of 30s. there are still plenty of applicants for vacancies. 
While the women drivers in Glasgow continue to prove suc- 
cessful, it is not likely that women will be employed to run 
cars on the London tramways, as the chief commissioner of 
police has stated that he is not satisfied that women can 
safely be licensed to drive a tramcar or a motor bus in the 
metropolis. He previously refused to allow women conduct- 
ors to be employed until pressure became too great for him. 

The returns for the financial year of the Glasgow Corpo- 
ration tramway department show an increase in the traffic 
receipts of £78,570, the total income from this source being 
£1,149,264. In the number of passengers there was an in- 
crease of 26,110,706, and the total carried is returned at 
362,371,464. The car mileage run was 24,963,309, which was 
greater than that of the previous year by 748,849. The traf- 
fic receipts per car-mile work out at 11.049d., an advance of 
0.437d. There is a decrease of 0.003d. in the receipts per 
passenger, which are given at 0.761d. There were 14.516 
passengers carried per car-mile, representing an increase of 
0.629. The average track mileage open during the year 
(single) was 196 1 /4. There are eight different fares in 
operation on the system, and it is remarkable that last year 
there was a large increase in the number of passengers car- 
ried in each of the stages. The most striking was in the 
case of the long journeys, for which the fare is 4d. In this 
section the number of passengers rose to 192,956, compared 
with 153,270 in the previous year. At the other end of the 
scale the number carried at the %d. fare was 232,871,360, 
almost 20,000,000 more than last year. The numbers of 
passengers dealt with at the other fares were as follows: 
Id., 93,768,671, against 89,890,042 in the previous year; 
iy 2 d., 22,712,943, against 21,384,305; 2d., 6,913,560, against 
6,410,027; 2V 2 d., 3,075,567, against 2,834,795; 3d., 1,453,771, 
against 1,285,605; and 3V 2 d., 1,382,636, against 1,136,895. 
Since the corporation took over the tramways on July 1, 
1894, to May 31 last the number of passengers carried was 
4,417,319,065, the mileage run was 361,006,250, and the car 
traffic revenue amounted to £16,060,483. 

The rebellion of the Sinn Fein organization in Dublin re- 
sulted in the suspension of the service of the Dublin United 
Tramways from April 24 until May 4. While a few cars 
used by the rebels to entrench themselves were completely 
destroyed the damage done to the tramway system as a 
whole was not nearely so great as at first reported, and 
in a comparatively short time the power station and the 
distributing station were working normally. 

The North-Eastern Railway, one of the pioneers in the 
electrification of passenger lines, has inaugurated the first 
electrically operated heavy goods railway in Great Britain. 
Electric locomotives, using current at 1500 volts, and each 
capable of hauling a 1400-ton train at a normal speed of 



25 m.p.h. on the level, are now at work on the Shildon- 
Newport route, which is used to carry mineral between the 
coalfields of Southwest Durham and the blast-furnaces and 
iron works of the Middlesborough district. Particulars of 
the installation are published elsewhere in this issue. 

The success which has attended the electrification of the 
North Manchester suburban line, has induced the Lancashire 
& Yorkshire Railway to augment the electric service be- 
tween Manchester, Prestwich and Bury. 

The Tramways & Light Railways Association recently 
made application to the Royal Commission on Paper that 
licenses be granted to paper manufacturers so as to insure 
to tramways and other bodies the full amount of their 
normal requirements in tickets. A reply has been received 
from the commission stating that it is unable to license a 
greater import on account of tramway tickets than two- 
thirds of the quantity of pulp imported in 1914. It adds 
that it can see no special need for discrimination, and that 
there are obvious methods of economizing in the production 
of such tickets. The council of the association has ap- 
pointed a committee to deal with the matter further, and, 
in the meantime, recommends that wherever possible the 
size of tickets should be curtailed. 

Owing to the paper shortage and in order to effect econo- 
mies during the continuance of the war, the Underground 
Electric Railways, London, will discontinue the printing of 
pictorial posters for exhibition on its stations. This will 
mean that the many new and striking posters which 
adorned the stations will no longer be a familiar feature *of 
the tubes, and the spaces originally occupied by these bills 
will in many cases remain blank. For some time past it has 
been increasingly difficult to spare members of the staff to 
do the necessary posting. For the present only essential 
notices relating to the working of the trains will be ex- 
hibited at the stations. 

The increased workmen's fares on the Newcastle Corpora- 
tion tramcars have come into operation. The increase has 
been put on the books of coupons, and in future all work- 
men and workwomen who do not tender coupon tickets will 
have to pay the full ordinary fare for the journey. With 
this regulation all cars hitherto labeled "workmen's car" 
will be abolished. The increase is 3d. on the shilling and 
18d. books, and 2d. on the 6d. books. 

The excellence of the management of the Liverpool Cor- 
poration tramways department is shown in statistics which 
have just been issued. From these it would appear that 
during May the receipts increased by £3,057, compared with 
the corresponding period of last year. The number of pas- 
sengers carried shows an increase of 454,508. For the four 
and a half months since Jan. 1 the receipts increased £13,100, 
and the number of passengers increased 2,126,826, while the 
mileage run, by which a large saving has been effected, de- 
creased by 55,636 car-miles. 

Some time ago the Ilkeston Corporation received an of- 
fer from the Notts & Derbyshire Power Company, Ltd., to 
take over the tramways and electricity undertakings on cer- 
tain terms. The tramways and electricity committee has 
passed a resolution recommending that the Town Council 
accept the terms offered. The Council, as a general pur- 
poses committee, after considering the matter in detail, has 
decided to sell the undertakings. The tramways were pub- 
licly opened in May, 1903. During that time there has been 
an annual loss of from £2,000 to £3,000, equal to a rate of 
from 6d. to 9d. in the pound. It is also recognized that a 
considerable expenditure is needed to put the track in better 
order, and that provision must be made for new cars. 

The report of the British Electric Traction Company, Ltd., 
which owns and controls the majority of tramway compa- 
nies operating in Great Britain, says that in view of the war 
and the increase in the cost of material and wages, and the 
difficulty of obtaining labor, the directors consider the im- 
provement in revenue derived from investments is satis- 
factory. The general conditions have prevented the com- 
pany from entering to any large extent upon new enterprises. 
The balance sheet this year is based on the scheme of reduc- 
tion and rearrangement of capital which was recently adopt- 
ed, and confirmed by the court, and which is put into effect 
in the accounts. The net profit of the company approaches 
£200,000, after paying debenture interest. The company was 
able to pay the 6 per cent on the preference stock and 3 per 
cent on the ordinary shares. A. C. S. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



33 



NEWS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



RAILWAY MEN QUICK TO MUSTER IN 
Six Companies Lose 565 Men — Mr. Kealy Uses a Motorcycle 
and a Bugler in the Call to Arms 

Electric railway men will share equally with their brothers 
from other walks of life in the work in Mexico if the antici- 
pated break should come. Men from all departments of electric 
railway corporate life have prepared to leave for the front. 
A canvas of the entire industry in so short a time as that 
intervening between the order for mobilization and the pub- 
lication of this article was obviously impossible, but the data 
so far secured with regard to the probable number of men 
from this industry and the attitude of the corporations em- 
ploying them indicate a ready response and unusual willing- 
ness on their part to shoulder the burden, which in some 
instances required the quick readjustment of official duties 
and involved no small sacrifices. To cite a few instances of 
the men higher up, there is the loss to the companies of the 
services of Brig. -Gen. E. W. Hine, secretary of the Public 
Service Corporation of New Jersey, and the loss to the 
Kansas City Railways of the services of the president, Philip 
J. Kealy, who is lieutenant-colonel of the Missouri National 
Guard. Coming to the men in the ranks the instances of 
the depletion of the forces of the New York Railways, the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Public Serv- 
ice Corporation of New Jersey furnish criteria of some of 
the readjustments that have had to be made. 

The New York Railways has lost fifty-six men from the 
transportation department, two clerks, eleven men from the 
car equipment department, ten men from the engineering 
department, two men from the motive power department, 
one man from the office of vice-president and general 
manager, six men from the law department, two men from 
the accounting department and one man from the payroll 
and register division. Until further action of the board of 
directors, the wages or salaries of all of these men will be 
continued and upon the termination of their service with the 
militia the employees will be reinstated so far as possible 
in their former positions. 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company has lost fifteen 
men from the train service on its elevated lines, one man 
from the superintendent's office, twelve men from the station 
department of the elevated lines, forty-five men from the 
subway division, thirteen men from the engineering depart- 
ment of the elevated lines, nine men from the engineering 
department of the subway division, thirteen men from the 
motive power department, thirty-one men from the car 
equipment department, two men from the accounting de- 
partment, one man from the treasurer's department, one 
man from the purchasing department, one man from the 
law department and one man from the office of the vice- 
president and general manager. As in the case of the New 
York Railways, the wages and salaries of all of these em- 
ployees will be continued until further action by the board 
of directors and upon the termination of their service the 
men will be reinstated as far as possible in their former 
positions. 

About 100 employees of the railway, electric and gas com- 
panies included in the Public Service Corporation of New 
Jersey have been summoned to their respective camps for 
service. Of these fifty-three are from the Public Service 
Railway, twenty-one from the Public Service Gas Company 
and twenty-four from the Public Service Electric Company. 
Most of the men from the railway company are platform 
men. The directors of the corporation at their monthly 
meeting on June 20 resolved that all employees of the com- 
pany who are full members of the National Guard called for 
service should receive their wages during the time they were 
engaged in military service and their positions be held open 
for them. The employees were instructed to file with the 
treasurer power of attorney, designating the person to 
whom the wages should be paid. The decision of the 
directors in this connection was an amplification of a com- 



mittee report made before the Mexican situation resulted in 
calling out the men. The committee had approved paying 
the wages of the men who desired to attend the Plattsburg 
Camp or other military training camps under State or fed- 
eral direction. 

In Missouri, Mr. Kealy, previously referred to, found 
himself confronted with extraordinary conditions. When 
the call came for the Missouri National Guard it was dis- 
covered that the Third Regiment — Kansas City's regiment — 
was nearly 200 men short of its full quota. Col. Fred A. 
Lamb, in the militia twenty-seven years, was sick in bed. 
Mr. Kealy assumed command and took the regiment to 
Nevada, Mo. He then returned. Mr. Kealy saw his oppor- 
tunity. He acted at once. The days of Paul Revere are 
gone, but his methods are still applicable. Mr. Kealy imme- 
diately engaged the rooms occupied by the committee that 
had tried to arrange a preparedness parade. The sign for 
the proposed parade was still up. He had a motor-cyclist, 
Ross Landes, bugle the call to arms. Mr. Landes did 
more than merely notify the citizenery that men were 
needed — he actually brought back twenty recruits in his 
Indian sidecar. Dr. E. M. Hiner. f «rmer leader of the old 
Third Regiment band, made some trips recruiting for the 
new band. Colonel Lamb resigned as colonel on June 26. 
The men of the regiment are unanimous in wanting Mr. 
Kealy to succeed him and lead the regiment to the border. 

Last November Colonel Kealy was elected to his posi- 
tion in the Third Regiment, though he had not previously 
been connected with it. A practice hike was ordered for 
June 18 to Fairmount Park, 12 miles, and Colonel Kealy 
commanded on this trip. The orders to mobilize came while 
the regiment was in camp. Colonel Kealy's previous engi- 
neering training was said to be largely responsible for 
his ability to grasp the needs of the moment. He had had 
militia experience at the university. The citizens of Kansas 
City are grateful to Mr. Kealy for his service to the regi- 
ment. The prospect was that Kansas City would be found 
wanting when the call came for a regiment. The story 
of how Mr. Kealy raised the necessary recruits has just 
been told. He set the example to other employees by the 
showing that nearly forty men are going with the Third 
from the Kansas City Railways. The company will pay 
their wages while the men are gone, and will hold their 
jobs for them. Colonel Kealy has been performing his duties 
as president of the Kansas City Railways, spending two or 
three days a week in Kansas City, and being in constant 
touch by telephone with the offices while at Nevada. 

About fifty of the employees of the United Railways & 
Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., are enrolled with the 
Maryland militia. Under date of June 21, William A. House, 
president of the company, transmitted to the heads of all 
departments the following official notice: 

"It is the earnest wish of the United Railways & Electric 
Company that those of its employees who now belong to 
military organizations respond at once to the order for 
mobilization of troops on account of the Mexican situation, 
and we would make it plain to all national guardsmen who 
are in our employ that in no way will their positions be 
jeopardized by temporary absence in the discharge of their 
patriotic duty as American citizens. In confirmation, there- 
fore, of verbal instructions this letter will authorize you to 
inform the employees of your department or divison at 
once, that those who are now members of the State militia 
which has been called by the President of the United States, 
the Secretary of War, and the Governor of the State of 
Maryland, to the service of the country and to unhold the 
honor of its flag, will be paid their salaries during their 
absence, and upon returning will find their positions waiting 
for them." 

Immediately following President Wilson's call of the 
Illinois State Militia for military service at the border, 
L. A. Busby, president of the Chicago Surface Lines, issued 
the following bulletin: 



34 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



"Effective this date, all employees of the company who 
are now members of the state militia or naval reserve, 
and who are called into the military service of the United 
States will be given leave of absence while engaged in 
such service, and their positions will be held for them 
until mustered out. Until fuz - ther notice, employees while 
engaged in such military service will continue to receive 
their present average amount of pay per month. This 
sum will be paid in semi-monthly installments, pursuant 
to written directions left by each employee with his depart- 
ment head." About 150 employees have joined the colors. 

The Chicago Elevated Railroads, through Britton I. Budd, 
president, also announced that it would hold the positions 
of militiamen until they were mustered out, and would 
care for their dependent relatives on a liberal basis. 

Among the announcements which have come to hand 
with respect to the electric railways and their employees 
in connection with service at the border, other than those 
previously noted, are the following: 

All employees of H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., 
who are members of the National Guard will receive full pay 
during their absence and their positions will be held for 
them. 

All employees of the Illinois Traction Company, Peoria, 
111., who are members of the State Militia and are called out 
for service will have their positions held open for them and 
will not lose their present rating with the company. 

The Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., announces 
that forty-seven of its employees are members of the Con- 
necticut Militia, of whom thirty-four are conductors and 
motormen. Up to June 26 the company had not made any 
formal statement to the men, but expected to retain the po- 
sitions for all who went to the border. 

The Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company announces 
that between 100 and 200 men would be called from its serv- 
ice and that all men would be kept on full pay for three 
months and if the service lasted longer than that the com- 
pany would consider the problem again. It was also said 
that the rate of insurance carried under the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit group insurance plan would not be affected. In 
serving their country the Brooklyn Rapid Transit employees 
will not lose their seniority rating, but will resume their jobs 
with the same standing of promotion as before. 

The Rochester Railway & Light Company announced that 
any of its employees who belonged either to the National 
Guard or who wished to recruit for Mexican duty could do so 
and that their positions would be left open with full pay 
while they were away. 

The Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company, Lexington, 
Ky., through F. W. Bacon, vice-president, announced that all 
men who enlisted would be reinstated in their former posi- 
tions at the conclusion of their term of service. 

Henry L. Doherty & Company, New York, N. Y., announce 
that all employees of the Cities Service Company and other 
Doherty public utility companies, including the Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Company, who are members of the National 
Guard will be allowed their full pay for three months' mili- 
tary service. A policy to provide for the families of such 
guardsmen, if their services are needed longer, will be an- 
nounced later. All employees on the return from military 
service will receive their old places or positions equally re- 
munerative. 

The Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany and Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, In- 
dianapolis, Ind., were the first employers in the State to go 
on record as to their employees who were members of the 
militia companies. A brief statement issued early on June 
19 by Robert I. Todd, president of the Terre Haute, Indian- 
apolis & Eastern Traction Company and Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Company, announced the action to be taken 
by these companies as follows: "Any employees of this com- 
pany who are at present members of the National Guard, 
and called to service in connection with the Mexican troubles, 
will, until further notice, have their positions held open for 
them and wages continued." 

The McGraw Publishing Company, Inc., publishers of the 
Electric Railway Journal, Electrical World, Engineering 
Record, Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering and Elec- 
trical Merchandising, announced that its employees who are 
members of the National Guard will be paid while away in 
the service of their country. 



NASHVILLE-GALLATIN LINE PROPOSES 18.4-MILE 
EXTENSION 

Plans are now practically complete for an extension of 
the Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway from Edenwold 
to Springfield, Tenn., a distance of 18.4 miles. Springfield 
is the county seat of Robertson County, and the center of 
a rich agricultural section. A stockholders' committee com- 
posed of H. H. Mayberry, James E. Caldwell, Clarence M. 
Clark, H. H. Corson, N. S. Keith and Norman McD. Craw- 
ford has been formed to arrange for the financing and con- 
struction of this extension and certain improvements to 
the present property of the company. It is proposed that 
a new company be organized that will own the enlarged 
system. The Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway has a 
capital stock of $750,000 and has $600,000 of 5 per cent 
first mortgage bonds outstanding. To make the proposed 
extension it is estimated that $600,000 will be required, and 
an exchange of stock of the present company for that of 
the new company and in equal amount is being arranged 
among the stockholders, and new bonds will be issued to 
provide funds for the extension and improvements. The 
new bonds will be secured by mortgage on the present line 
and the extension to Springfield, and certain treasury stock 
will be held to be available for financing, if required. 

If the deal is successful the E. W. Clark & Company Man- 
agement Corporation will have charge of the construction. 
An agreement is also to be made with the E. W- Clark & 
Company Management Corporation for the operation of 
the combined lines. The length of the line from Nashville 
to Springfield will be 27 miles. It is to be electrically oper- 
ated for the entire distance. All surveys have been com- 
pleted and rights-of-way are now being secured. The First 
Savings Bank & Trust Company, Nashville, is depositary 
for stock certificates and bonds of the present company 
pending the issuance of the certificates of the new cor- 
poration. 



THIRD TRENTON ARBITRATOR AGREED UPON 

Arbitration has begun between the Trenton & Mercer 
County Traction Corporation and the employees, with the 
selection of Clifton Reeves as the third arbiter. After sev- 
eral conferences between Peter E. Hurley, general manager 
of the company, and C. Howard Severs of the union, the 
situation became deadlocked. The names of more than two- 
score prominent business and professional men were sub- 
mitted and turned down. Mr. Severs then named Mr. 
Reeves, and he was accepted by the company. On June 28 
the three arbiters began going over each case. The con- 
ferences are being held daily in the city hall in Trenton. 

Mr. Reeves is president of the Reeves-Cubberley Engine 
Company, Trenton, N. J., and has been a United States Com- 
missioner of Conciliation for nearly two years. The most 
noted case in which he succeeded in bringing about an ami- 
cable adjustment of labor and capital dfferences was when 
the traffic clerks and telegraph operators of the New Haven 
Railroad threatened to strike. He worked with Patrick Gil- 
day, chief conciliator of Pennsylvania's Department of 
Labor. Other cases in which Mr. Reeves acted with good 
results were the Westinghouse strike in Pittsburgh, in which 
he was the sole representative of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor in this matter; the Providence street railway 
trouble, International Silver Company strike, New England 
Steamship Company strike, Lake Torpedo Company strike, 
Hindee Machine Company strike and the Cincinnati ma- 
chine strike. 



ARKANSAS ASSOCIATION OF PUBLIC UTILITY 
OPERATORS ELECT OFFICERS 

Officers have been elected as follows for the Arkansas 
Association of Public Utility Operators to serve for the 
ensuing year: President, W. J. O'Brien, secretary-treasurer 
and manager of the Helena Gas & Electric Company, Hel- 
ena, Ark.; first vice-president A. Patterson, general super- 
intendent of the Southwestern Gas & Electric Company, 
Texarkana, Ark.; second vice-president, E. T. Reynolds, 
manager of the Arkansas Light & Power Company, Para- 
gould, Ark.; secretary-treasurer, R. B. Fowles, auditor of 
the Pine Bluff (Ark.) Company. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



35 



ADDITIONAL DUAL SYSTEM LINE OPENED 

On June 24 the New York Municipal Railway Corporation 
began the operation of trains over the New Utrecht Avenue 
elevated branch of the Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn. 
Complete operation of the new line was possible as far 
south as Sixty-second Street, where connection is made with 
the Sea Beach line, another Fourth Avenue subway branch. 
Beyond Sixty-second Street trains were operated over a 
single track as far south as the Eighteenth Avenue station. 
However, through operation was made and is to be con- 
tinued from the Municipal Building in Manhattan south to 
the Eighteenth Avenue station. It is hoped to get the rest 
of the line in shape for operation during the late summer or 
;n the coming fall. The New Utrecht Avenue line is a 
three-track elevated branch of the Fourth Avenue subway, 
leaving the latter at about Thirty-eighth Street, and run- 
ning through the Thirty-eighth Street cut to New Utrecht 
Avenue, and thence over New Utrecht Avenue, Eighty-sixth 
Street and Stillwell Avenue to Surf Avenue, Coney Island. 
It is a city-owned line, and was built mainly over the right- 
of-way of the old West End line, which originally was a 
steam road, but in latter years has been operated as a rapid 
transit line by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. 

Since the signing of the dual system contracts on March 
19, 1913, the following lines having been placed in operation: 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company lines — Queensboro 
subway, from station in Manhattan to Long Island City, 
opened June 22, 1915; Third, or express, tracks on Second, 
Third and Ninth Avenue elevated lines in Manhattan and 
The Bronx, complete operation began on Jan. 17, 1916. 

New York Municipal Railway Corporation lines — Centre 
Street Loop, temporary operation began on Aug. 4, 1913; 
Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, subway, Sea Beach railroad and 
completion operation of the Centre Street Loop commenced 
on June 22, 1915; extension of Fourth Avenue subway, 
Sixty-fifth to Eighty-sixth Street, on Jan. 15. 1916; opera- 
tion of third, or express, track on Broadway, Brooklyn, ele- 
vated line from Havemeyer Street to Myrtle Avenue, com- 
menced on Jan. 17. 1916; Service on Liberty Avenue ele- 
vated extension of Fulton Street, Brooklyn, elevated, inaug- 
urated on Sept. 25, 1915; the Lutheran Cemetery extension 
of the Myrtle Avenue. Brooklyn, elevated line, placed in op- 
eration on Feb. 22, 1915. 



WHITE CORPORATION TO MANAGE SHORE LINE 

The J. G. White Management Corporation, New York, N. 
Y., has been retained as operating manager of the Shore 
Line Electric Railway System and the Norwich & Westerly 
Traction Company. The combined property operates 250 
miles of interurban electric railway and serves all the towns 
and shore resorts on Long Island Sound east of New Haven, 
and continues the service from New London, Conn., through 
Westerly, R. I., to Watch Hill, Atlantic Beach, Weekapaug 
and other resorts on the Atlantic Ocean. The main line of 
the systems runs from New London north through Norwich, 
Conn., to Webster, Mass., and by connection with other lines 
reaches Worcester, Mass. In addition, city service is fur- 
nished in New London and Norwich, Conn., and several im- 
portant lines radiate from each of these points. 



Indiana's Last Horse Car to Go. — This year will mark 
the passing of the last horse car in Indiana. The old line in 
Brownstown, Ind., has been sold to allow for street im- 
provements and modern transportation. 

Illinois Traction Divides General Claim Department. — 
The general claim department of the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, Peoria, 111., was divided into two departments on July 1. 
The personal injury department will be removed from 
Springfield to Peoria in charge of G. R. Whitmore. The 
freight claim department will be retained at Springfield in 
charge of J. B. Hardaway. 

Service Agreement at Pittsfield. — A new agreement has 
been signed by the Berkshire Street Railway, Pittsfield, 
Mass., and its employees. The men on the Berkshire di- 
vision retain straight runs while those on the Pittsfield 
division can have straight time or relief as preferred. The 
men have been granted an advance in wages from $2.85 to 
$3 a day. The agreement is for one year from June 1. 

Bond Issue Proposed for Transit in Cincinnati. — On June 



20 the Cincinnati Rapid Transit Commission recommended 
to the rapid transit committee of the City Council the adop- 
tion of an ordinance providing for an issue of $6,000,000 of 
4% per cent fifty-year bonds. This ordinance will probably 
be introduced at the next meeting of Council. Chief Engi- 
neer Krug has been authorized to contract for boring in 
Walnut Street to ascertain the nature of the material that 
will be encountered there. 

Extension of Long Island Electric Zone to Babylon. — The 
engineers of the Long Island Railroad are at work on plans 
and estimates for the extension of the electric zone of the 
company from Lynbrook to Babylon along the south shore. 
This will add 19 miles to the 20 miles of road now elec- 
trically operated between the Pennsylvania Station and 
Lynbrook. It is expected that the plans for the electrification 
as prepared by the engineers will be ready for submission 
to the directors for action this winter with the prospect 
that if the extension is decided upon work will be begun 
next spring. 

Chicago Traction Commission Funds Increased. — An ad- 
ditional appropriation of $30,000 for the Chicago Traction 
& Subway Commission was authorized by the Chicago City 
Council at its regular meeting on June 19. The ordinance 
creating this commission, which is composed of Bion J. 
Arnold, Robert Ridgway and William Barclay Parsons, ap- 
propriated $220,000 for the undertaking, and the additional 
appropriation increases this total amount to $250,000. A 
recent progress report made by the commission to the local 
transportation committee indicated the scope of the investi- 
gation and the way in which the local transportation prob- 
lem in Chicago is being analyzed. 

Examination for Accounting and Statistical Clerk. — The 
United States Civil Service Commission announces an open 
competitive examination for accounting and statistical clerk, 
for men only, on Aug. 9 and 10. From the register of 
eligibles resulting from this examintion certification will be 
made to fill vacancies as they may occur in the position 
of clerk in the division of carriers' accounts and in the 
division of statistics of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, at salaries ranging from $1,200 to $1,620 per 
annum, and vacancies as they may occur in positions re- 
quiring similar qualifications. Applicants must have reached 
their twenty-first, but not their fortieth birthday on the 
date of the examination. High-grade experience for at 
least three years in accounting or statistical work in con- 
nection with railway or other common-carrier service is a 
prerequisite for consideration for this position. Experi- 
ence with the Interstate Commerce Commission or with any 
of the state commissions engaged in the regulation of the 
affairs of common carriers will be accepted in lieu of similar 
experience in the service of railways, express companies, 
or other common carriers. Persons who desire to take this 
examination should apply at once to the United States Civil 
Service Commission, Washington, D. C, for Form 1312, 
stating the title of the examination desired. 

Another Effort to Force Extensions in Seattle. — Council- 
man Oliver T. Erickson, of Seattle, Wash., has introduced 
a resolution into the City Council with a view of initiating 
proceedings whereby it may be determined by what right 
or power the Puget Sound Tracton, Light & Power Com- 
pany may be required to extend its lines. Mr. Erickson 
wants to know whether the company can be forced to make 
extensions, and it is to determine this that he proposed to 
call upon the legal department for an opinion as to the 
proper method to pursue in order to determine the question. 
A similar effort was made without result several years ago. 
At that time an ordinance was passed making it a misde- 
meanor for officials of the company to fail to extend the East 
Union line within a certain time. Several of the officials 
were arrested, but the cases against them were dismissed 
by the Superior Court. No appeal was ever taken by the 
city in these cases. Later, the city petitioned the Public 
Service Commission to order the extension of the company's 
line on Fourth Avenue South. The Public Service Com- 
mission held that it was without power to force the company 
to extend its lines. Still later, property owners along the 
Sixth Avenue Northwest line petitioned the Public Service 
Commission to order an extension of that line. The commis- 
sion, however, held that it was without power to compel 
the company to make such extension. 



36 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



(Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Financial and Corporate 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



Republic Railway & Light Company 

The comparative statement of income, profit and loss 
of the Republic Railway & Light Company, New York, N. 
Y., and its subsidiaries for the twelve months ended Dec. 
31, 1914 and 1915, follows: 



Operating revenue 

Operating expenses and taxes. 


1915 
$3,121,286 
. . . 1,874,082 


1914 
$3,001,285 
1,856,467 


Non-operating income 


$1,247,214 
1,753 


$1,144,818 
175 


Gross income 


$1,248,967 
688,952 


$1,144,993 
679,987 


Net income 

Dividends on preferred stock 


$560,014 
311,484 


$465,006 
311,484 




$248,530 


$153,522 



"The interest figures for the respective years are in accordance 
with the accounts of the subsidiary companies and in 1914 include 
$16,844 for interest on bonds held in the sinking funds. Begin- 
ning with 1915 this item is included in sinking fund payments 
instead of in the interest item. Therefore to put the column of 
increases on a comparative basis the items of interest, net income 
and balance are subject to adjustment by the amount of $16,844. 

Business activity in the territory served by the sub- 
sidiaries decreased to some extent during the early part 
of the year 1915, although not so notably as in other dis- 
tricts, owing to the diversification of industries located in 
their territory. During the latter part of the year condi- 
tions improved and are now prosperous. The earnings on 
the Youngstown railway lines also suffered somewhat from 
the competition of the jitney buses. This competition was 
never so severe in the district served by the company as 
in some parts of the country and is rapidly disappearing, 
owing partly to the fact that the operation was not as 
profitable as anticipated by the owners, and partly to the 
passage by the City Council of a regulatory ordinance 
which has been upheld by the courts. 

Notwithstanding these adverse conditions the gross earn- 
ings increased $120,012, or 4 per cent. Operating expenses 
and taxes, however, increased only $17,616, or 0.95 per cent, 
so that the net earnings increased $102,396, or 8.94 per 
cent. Owing to a marked increase in non-operating in- 
come, the gross income increased $103,973, or 9.08 per cent. 
The net income gained $95,008, or 20.43 per cent, and the 
balance after preferred dividends the same amount, or 61.88 
per cent. 

The combined properties of the company owned 170.9 
miles of track at the end of 1915 as compared to 169.63 the 
year before. During 1915 they operated 7,497,489 car 
miles as compared to 7,341,971 in 1914, and carried 46,036,- 
596 and 47,587,578 passengers respectively. During 1915 
the light and power business of the subsidiaries increased 
15.9 per cent. 



The J. G. White Companies 

According to the report of the J. G. White Companies, 
New York, N. Y., the amalgamated balance sheet as of Dec. 
31, 1915, showed the following items: Assets — good-will, 
contracts, etc., $1,515,540; securities owned and syndicate 
participations, $2,512,245; bills receivable, less reserve for 
doubtful items, $346,560; accounts receivable, less similar 
reserve, $475,453; interest and dividends accrued, $5,382; 
deferred charges and sundries, $11,876; cash in banks and 
on hand, $543,339, and working capital and cash in branch 
offices, $10,621. Liabilities and capital — capital stock is- 
sued, $4,290,900; bills payable, $325,000; accounts payable, 
$147,416; dividends payable, $53,840, and surplus of un- 
divided profits, $603,862. 

The companies during 1915 adhered strictly to their fixed 
policy of taking no large engineering or construction con- 
tracts except on a percentage or fixed-fee basis. During 
this period there undoubtedly was a considerable volume of 
rehabilitation and extension work in connection with the 



enlargement of industrial plants brought about by the ab- 
normal condition due to the European war, but practically 
no new enterprise involving large work along the usual 
lines that the companies had been identified with in the past 
was initiated, which made it impossible for the companies to 
secure work of this nature. 

The companies, however, secured a considerable amount 
of purchasing for clients, which business developed into a 
large volume during the year owing in great part to the 
prevailing conditions in the European markets. It is be- 
lieved that the connections made may produce a very satis- 
factory volume of business in this line even after the close 
of hostilities in Europe. 

During the year there was liquidated for cash a large 
block of securities at very satisfactory profits over the 
balance sheet figures, which accounts in a large measure for 
the reduction in value of $446,995 in securities owned. 

The officers of the companies believe that with the con- 
tinued increase in the industrial development now going 
on in this country and South America, conditions along the 
lines of the companies' usual endeavor should improve during 
the year. With the general unsettled political conditions 
throughout the world and uncertainties depending upon the 
outcome of the European conflict, however, it is very diffi- 
cult to forecast the immediate future. 



OPERATING RESULTS IN MANCHESTER, ENGLAND 

The tramways committee of the Manchester Corporation 
has agreed to contribute £100,000 in relief of the rates, as it 
has done on two previous occasions, but to do this it is 
calculated that it will be necessary to take £10,865 from the 
reserve fund. This rate contribution was fixed by the City 
Council three years ago, and before another year passes 
a new arrangement will have to be made. The position of 
affairs is regarded by the committee as very serious. The 
large payments in respect of war service allowances are a 
very serious drain on the financial resources of the depart- 
ment. For the year ended March 31, 1915, the allowances 
amounted to £31,764. Last year the amount was £92,881, 
and for the current year it is thought the allowance will go 
up to £94,000, making a total in three years of £218,645. To 
meet these payments the committee has been obliged to 
transfer smaller sums each year to the reserve and renewals, 
fund than it would have done in normal circumstances. For 
example, in 1915 the transferred sum was £48,614 less, and 
in the year just ended it was £78,000 less than it would 
have been in ordinary times. For the current year the 
committee will make no addition to the fund, instead of 
transferring £99,450 as it would wish to do. In three years 
the fund will be £226,922 less than it would otherwise have 
been under normal conditions. The general manager gives 
the total revenue, the car mileage, the revenue per car mile, 
and the number of passengers carried during the last three 
years as follows: 

1914 1915 1916 

Total revenue £925,310 £901,876 £939,416 

Car miles run 19,463,646 19,155,051 18,486,440 

Revenue per car mile 11.41d. 11.3d. 12.196d. 

Passengers carried 205,608,741 202,768,420 209,853,344 

The estimates for the current year are based upon an 
estimated car mileage of 18,500,000. They show that, after 
making provision for the payment of £100,000 to the city 
fund and meeting the extraordinary expenditure arising out 
of the war — namely, £94,000 for war service allowances, 
etc., and £40,000 income tax — the department will not be 
able to make any provision for renewals, and it is estimated 
that there will be an actual deficit of £10,865 in the revenue. 
It is proposed to meet this deficit by a transfer from the 
reserve and renewals fund. 

Leading members of the Manchester Corporation recently 
met for the purpose of considering the question of traffic 
congestion in the principal streets of the city. The matter 
has been before the Corporation for several years. The 
tramway, watch and improvement committees have reported 
on the subject, and the City Council has long been awaiting 
the outcome of their joint deliberations. It was decided to 
appoint a special committee, consisting of the chairmen 
and deputy chairmen of the tramways, traffic congestion, 
watch, highways, infirmary old site, and improvement com- 
mittees to consider the matter further and present a com- 
plete report to the Council. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



37 



Chicago City & Connecting Railways, Chicago, 111. — A 

semi-annual dividend of $1 was paid on July 1 on the 250,000 
shares of preferred participating certificates of the Chicago 
City & Connecting Railways. This payment compares with 
75 cents in January, 1916, and $1.25 in July, 1915. 

Choctaw Railway & Lighting Company, McAlester, Okla. 
— The plans for the reorganization of the Choctaw Railway 
& Lighting Company under the recent foreclosure and sale 
have not yet been fully completed. A bondholders' protec- 
tive committee was formed last fall, and all but $14,000 
of the $894,000 of first mortgage bonds were deposited with 
the Guaranty Trust Company, New York, N. Y., as depos- 
itary under a deposit agreement dated Sept. 15, 1915. On 
April 8, 1916, the property was bought in at foreclosure sale 
by C. N. Mason, Julius A. Trawick and Nathan S. Smyser, 
in trust for the bondholders' protective committee. On June 
23 it was reported that the plan of the committee was to 
incorporate one or more companies to take over the 
property. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamilton, 
Ohio. — Judge Murphy of the Common Pleas Court at Ham- 
ilton, Ohio, announced his decision on June 26 in the case 
of Albert D. Alcorn, Cincinnati, against the Cincinnati, 
Dayton & Toledo Traction Company. The court said that the 
company was insolvent and that there was evidence of a 
conspiracy to defraud bondholders. A receiver will be 
appointed to collect monthly receipts from the Ohio Elec- 
tric Railway, which is operating the property under lease. 
At a meeting of the bondholders' committee of the Cincin- 
nati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company on the same day 
the decision of Judge Murphy was discussed. It is said that 
the company, through the committee, will carry the case 
to the higher courts. At the present time the Ohio Electric 
Railway is turning over the money collected from the opera- 
tion of the road to this committee, which is making an 
effort to readjust the finances of the company. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — The operating report of the 
Cleveland Railway shows that during May 32,004,274 pas- 
sengers were carried, a gain of 12.32 per cent over the same 
month in 1915. The operating revenue for the month was 
$809,262. After deducting the allowances, $507,694, the net 
operating revenue was $301,567. The net income was $266,- 
420 and the net surplus, $48,820. This increases the interest 
fund to $562,638. 

Cumberland County Power & Light Company, Portland, 
Me. — A B. Leach & Company, New York, N. Y., are offer- 
ing for sale $825,000 of first lien and consolidated mort- 
gage 5 per cent gold bonds of the Portland Railroad dated 
Nov. 1, 1915, and due on Nov. 1, 1945, making the total 
amount of this issue $1,825,000. The present issue is to 
retire $600,000 of 4% per cent notes of the company due 
on Dec. 1, 1916, and to provide funds for additions and 
improvements. The bonds are a direct mortgage on the 
property of the Portland Railroad subject to an issue of 
first consolidated 3% per cent gold bonds of which, how- 
ever, $1,400,000 are pledged as security for this issue, leav- 
ing a balance of only $1,600,000 outstanding in the hands 
of the public. The company is operated under lease by the 
Cumberland County Power & Light Company for ninety- 
nine years from Feb. 1, 1912. The application of the com- 
pany to the Maine Railroad Commission in connection with 
this issue was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 10, page 1108. 

Mexico (Mex.) Tramways. — A joint meeting of the hold- 
ers of the bonds issued by the Mexico Tramways, Mexican 
Light & Power Company, Ltd., the Mexican Electric Light 
Company, Ltd., and the Pachuca Light & Power Company 
will be held in London on July 14, to consider and decide 
upon the policy to be adopted for the protection of the bond- 
holders' interests until conditions in Mexico improve. In 
order that the bondholders might have full information as 
to the present position of the company, F. H. Phippen, 
Toronto, Can., and E. D. Trowbridge, Detroit, Mich., rec- 
ently visited Mexico in the interest of the bondholders at 
the request of the National Trust Company, Ltd., the trus- 
tee under the various trust deeds, and with the approval 
of the committee. On their return they made a report on 
the properties, with important recommendations. The gen- 
eral meeting on July 14 has been called to enable bondhold- 



ers to meet Mr. Phippen and Mr. Rundle, the general man- 
ager of the National Trust Company, before these gentlemen 
are compelled to return to Canada. At the office of Bell & 
Schell, New York, the American agents for the Canadian 
Bank of Commerce, it was stated on June 28 that copies 
of the report and of the statement issued by the trust 
company were expected to be received from London on 
June 30. 

Monmouth County Electric Company, Red Bank, N. J. — 

The interests that purchased the property of the Monmouth 
County Electric Company under foreclosure recently have 
applied to the New Jersey Board of Public Utility Commis- 
sioners for permission for the successor company to issue 
$325,000 of stock. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 

— At the hearing of the request of the Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light Company before the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion on June 26 for authority to issue $14,075,000 of bonds, 
Mayor Stolberg, representatives of the Chamber of Com- 
mecre and members of the City Council of Canton appeared 
and insisted that if this authority is granted, the company 
be required to spend $300,000 on improvements and exten- 
sions in Canton. The company claims that Canton, with 
21 miles of track, produces only one-third as much revenue 
as Akron, with 37 miles of track. The company planned 
to spend $65,000 in Canton, but tentatively agreed to in- 
crease this to $100,000. The commission will render its 
decision later. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. J. 

— A gain of nearly 10 per cent in total business for May, 
1916, over May, 1915, is shown in a financial report of the 
Public Service Corporation of New Jersey. The increase 
amounted to $361,250. For the five months ending May 31, 
the total increase in business was nearly $2,000,000, on 13.3 
per cent gain over the corresponding period of last year. 
The report for May, 1916, is as follows: Gross increase in 
total business, $361,250; balance available — after payment 
of operating expenses, fixed charges, sinking fund require- 
ments, etc. — for amortization, dividends and surplus, $400,- 
800; increase in surplus available for dividends over the cor- 
responding month of 1915, $48,291. The report for the five 
months ended May 31, 1916, is as follows: Gross increase 
in total business, $1,960,485; balance available — after pay- 
ment of operating expenses, fixed charges, sinking fund 
requirement, etc. — for amortization, dividends and surplus, 
$1,963,766; increase in surplus available for dividends over 
the corresponding period of 1915, $436,171. 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Company, St. 
Joseph, Mo. — The St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power 
Company has applied to the Missouri Public Service Com- 
mission for authority to issue $15,000,000 of thirty-year 5 
per cent bonds, which, it is said, will be partly used to take 
up outstanding mortgages of $5,000,000. 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway, Seattle, Wash. — A 

deed to the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway, by which 
the bondholders, who recently purchased the line at a re- 
ceivers' sale, acquire title to the property, has been formally 
approved by Judge A. W. Frater in the Superior Court. 
The deed was signed by August Peabody and Burton 
Thomas as trustees for the committee representing the 
bondholders, who bid in the road at the up-set price of 
$1,200,000. The physical property of the railroad was 
actually transferred to the new owners on June 10, and 
they have since been operating the line under Walter M. 
Brown, acting for President Marshall P. Sampsell. All 
that is left to be determined in the long litigation in which 
the company was involved is the compensation of Scott 
Calhoun and Joseph A. Parkin, the receivers. W. R. Craw- 
ford, in the Superior Court, has served notice of appeal from 
Judge A. W. Frater's order of June 17, directing the re- 
ceivers to pay claims against the line amounting in the 
aggregate to about $175,500. In a recent order Judge 
Frater directed the receivers to pay the Class "A," or first 
preferred claims against the road, and 50 per cent of the 
class "B," or second preferred obligations. The Seattle 
& Rainier Valley Railway was incorporated recently 
in Delaware with $360,000 of stock presumably as the suc- 
cessor of the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway. 



38 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



United Light & Railways Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. — 

The board of directors of United Light & Railways Com- 
pany has adopted a resolution amending the by-laws by 
adding thereto an additional by-law to provide for a finance 
committee, consisting of five directors, of whom the presi- 
dent of the company, ex-officio, shall be one. The other 
members of the finance committee shall be elected by the 
board of directors to hold office for a term of one year and 
until their successors are elected and qualified. 

United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal. — M. B. Starring, 
president of the United Railways Investment Company, is 
in San Francisco, where he is holding a series of conferences 
with Jesse W. Lilienthal, president of the United Railroads, 
on new financing plans for the latter company. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 
The United Railways & Electric Company arranged to retire 
at maturity on July 1 the $500,000 of Baltimore, Catonsville 
& Ellicott Mills Electric Railway first mortgage 5 per cent 
bonds dated July 1, 1896. They were cared for under the 
terms of the indenture securing the first consolidated 4's of 
the United Railways & Electric Company. 

Union Traction Company of Indiana, Indianapolis, Ind.— 
The Public Service Commission of Indiana has been perti- 
tioned by the Muncie & Portland Traction Company, the 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Eastern Traction Company and 
the Union Traction Company of Indiana to approve the 
details of a lease for 999 years of the property of the 
Muncie & Portland Traction Company to the Union Trac- 
tion Company through the Indianapolis, New Castle & 
Eastern Traction Company. The Muncie & Portland Trac- 
tion Company operates between Muncie and Portland. The 
company is capitalized at $1,000 000, all common. It is pro- 
posed that this capital stock shall be made $500,000 pre- 
ferred and $500,000 common. The Union Traction Company 
would guarantee to pay the holders of the preferred stock 
2% per cent semi-annually. In addition to this, the Union 
Traction Company would pay to the Muncie & Portland 
Traction Company the sum of $2,265 semi-annually, and 
when the net income of the Union Traction Company 
amounted to $191,320 a year or more, it would pay any 
excess to the Muncie & Portland Traction Company until 
$17,370 had been paid. The payments in any one year under 
the lease, however, would not aggregate more than $46,900, 
made up as follows: $25,000 in guaranteed payments on the 
preferred stock; $17,370 as the maximum excess payment, 
and the two payments of $2,265 each made semi-annually. 

West Penn Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. — The West 
Penn Traction Company has declared an extra dividend of 
3 per cent on the preferred stock, payable on Aug. 15 to 
stock of record as of Aug. 1 and an extra dividend of 3 
per cent on the preferred, payable on Sept. 15 to stock of 
record as of Sept. 1. These dividends complete the pay- 
ment of all accumulated dividends on this issue. The 
quarterly dividend of 1% per cent was deferred on Sept. 
21, 1914, and regular disbursements were not renewed 
until March 8 of this year. At that time an extra divi- 
dend of one-half of 1 per cent was paid on accumulated 
dividends. On May 19, 1916, a dividend of 2V 2 per cent 
was paid on the accumulated dividends. This makes a 
total of 9 per cent which has been paid on the back divi- 
dends of the preferred stock. 



DIVIDENDS DECLARED 

Bangor Railway & Electric Company, Bangor, Me., quar- 
terly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala., 3 per cent, preferred; 1 per cent, on account of 
accumulated preferred dividends. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) City Railroad, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Capital Traction Company, Washington, D. C, quarterly, 
1% per cent. 

Chicago City & Connecting Railways, Chicago, 111., $1, 
preferred participating certificates. 

Chicago (111.) City Railway, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Cincinnati & Hamilton Traction Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, quarterly, 1% per cent preferred; quarterly, 1 per 
cent, common. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Street Railway, quarterly, 1% per cent. 
Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Railway, Springfield, 
Ohio, quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 



Halifax (N. S.) Electric Tramway, quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Interstate Railways, Philadelphia, Pa., 30 cents, preferred. 

Iowa Railway & Light Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 
La., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Omaha & Council Bluff Street Railway, Omaha, Neb., 
quarterly, 1*4 per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, 
common. 

Ottawa (Ont.) Traction Company, Ltd., quarterly, 1 per 
cent. 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, 87 x / 2 
cents, common. 

Philadelphia & Western Railway, Upper Darby, Pa., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Porto Rico Railways, Ltd., P. R., 1% per cent, preferred. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. J., 
quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Republic Railway & Light Company, Youngstown, Ohio, 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly, 1% per cent first preferred, quarterly, 1% per cent 
preferred. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, quarterly, 1 per 
cent. 

Toronto (Ont.) Railway, quarterly, 2 'per cent. 

United Gas & Electric Corporation, New York, N. Y., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, first preferred. 

Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., 
quarterly, 1 per cent. 

West End Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 3 per cent 
extra, preferred; 3 per cent, on account of accumulated 
preferred dividends. 

York (Pa.) Railways, 2% per cent, preferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

AURORA, ELGIN & CHICAGO RAILROAD, WHEATON, ILL. 



Period 
lm., May, 
1 " 

11 " 

11 " 



Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Revenue Expenses Income Charges Income 

'16 $174,517 $114,811 $59,706 $41,711 $17,995 

'15 165,033 114,124 50,909 39,07* 11,231 

'16 1,793,309 1,152,800 640,509 449,541 190, 96S 

•15 1,818,854 1,175,488 643,366 438,487 204,879 



CITIES SERVICE COMPANY, NEW YORK. N. Y. 
lm , May, '16 $709,085 $20,113 $688,972 $44,121 $644,851 
1" " '15 2S7.365 14,358 273,007 40,834 232,173 
12 " " '16 6,012,968 201,343 5,811,625 503,454 5,308,171 
12" " '15 3,952,799 143,095 3,809,704 478,333 3,331,371 

DALLAS (TEX.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 
lm., April, '16 $151,269 *$96,674 $54,595 $36,597 t$l?,?98 



1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



'15 131,945 *85,308 46,637 
'16 1,870,966 *1, 152, 216 718,750 
'15 2,062,879 *1, 182, 824 880,055 



33,394 13,243 
417,656 i310,294 
396,994 483,061 



EASTERN TEXAS ELECTRIC COMPANY, BEAUMONT, TEX. 

lm, April '16 $62,995 *$34,387 $28,608 $8,864 $19,744 

1 " " '15 50,669 *29,484 21,185 8,728 12,457 

12" " '16 773,901 *403,133 370,768 105,766 265,002 

12 " " '15 669,127 *389,106 280,021 103, S68 176,153 

FORT "WAYNE & NORTHERN INDIANA TRACTION 
COMPANY, FORT WAYNE, IND. 

lm., April, '16 $138,186 $83,189 $54,997 $53,237 t$l,875 

1 " " '15 135,938 80,430 55,508 53,257 J2.534 

4 16 558,277 334,433 223,844 215,201 J9,364 

4" " '15 566,280 324,465 241,815 213,871 J29,263 

HOUGHTON COUNTY TRACTION COMPANY. 
HOUGHTON, MICH. 

$27,765 *$14,389 $13,376 $5,453 $7,923 



lm., April, '16 

1 " " '15 
12 16 

12 " " '15 



21,850 
298,288 
267,496 



*11,812 
♦164,925 
♦173,886 



10,038 
133,363 
93,610 



5,581 4,457 
66,131 67,232 
66,805 26,805 



PENSACOLA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 

April, '16 $23,391 ♦$12,657 $10,734 $7,678 $3,056 

•15 20,472 *U,iZS 9,039 7,201 1,838 

'16 271,383 ♦ISO, 630 120,753 87,617 33,136 

•15 253,353 ♦159,167 94.1S6 86,982 7,204 

TAMPA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 

.April, '16 $78,959 ^$44,595 $34,364 $4,394 $29,970 

•15 81,176 ^42,739 38,437 4,376 34,061 

'16 987,491 ♦515,777 471,714 52,221 419,493 

'15 993,777 ^lO^S 482,884 52,988 429,896 

TWIN CITY RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, 
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

lm., May, '16 $849,056 $515,264 $333,792 $145,206 $188,586 

1 15 791,472 499,382 292,090 144,120 147,970 

5 16 4,156,224 2,631,142 1,525,082 713,387 811,695 

5 " " '15 3,833,818 2,544,656 1,289,162 702, 03S 587,124 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



♦Includes taxes. ^Includes non-operating income. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



JOURNAL 



39 



Traffic and Transportation 



RAILWAY ATTEMPTS JITNEY SERVICE 
Five Jitney Buses Operated by the Bakersfield & Kern Elec- 
tric Railway in Bakersfield, Cal., Pile Up $7,000 
Loss in Seven Months 

The Bakersfield & Kern Electric Railway, Bakersfield, 
Cal., in order to compete with private jitney buses, and by 
way of providing temporary transportation beyond certain 
of its electric lines, has been operating an automobile serv- 
ice since last October. Five Ford cars were used. Each was 
equipped with a twelve-passenger bus body with longi- 
tudinal seats. Two of these were put on the Baker Street 
run, two on Niles Street, and one on the West Park exten- 
sion. In each case the operator was paid motorman's wages 
and the passengers were transferred to and from the elec- 
tric lines of the company at convenient points. 

The figures given in the accompanying table show the 
mileage traveled each month on each route, and it is notable 
that the greater the mileage hi each case, the greater the 
deficit for the line. The operating expense includes wages 
of operator, maintenance and operating costs, as well as 
depreciation and interest on the investment. The income is 
the total cash fares received on the buses. This does not 
represent the number of passengers hauled, as those who 
transferred from electric cars to buses would not, of course, 
swell the bus receipts. 



Baker Street Run 
(Two Buses) 
October, 1915 

January, 1916 

February, 1916 

March, 1916 

April, 1916 


Revenue 
Mileage 
1,812 
4,239 
4,209 
5,877 
7,839 
8,417 
8,134 


Revenue 
$39.55 
79.95 
106.80 
199.15 
299.70 
337.30 
364.05 


Operating 
Expense 
$140.88 
349.63 
297.78 
498.45 
766.08 
792.89 
751.32 


Loss 
$101.33 
269.68 
190.98 
299.30 
466.38 
455.59 
387.27 


Total 


40,527 


$1,426.50 


$3,597.03 


$2,170.53 


Niles Street Run 
(Two Buses) 

October, 1915 

November, 1915 

December, 1915 

January, 1916 

February, 1916 

March, 1916 

April, 1916 


2,278 
5,340 
5,569 
7,753 
10,704 
11,348 
10,980 


$52.45 
108.20 
162.00 
281.65 
452.00 
476.60 
507.00 


$177.11 
440.44 
394.07 
657.63 
1,046.05 
1,068.90 
1,014.22 


$124.66 
332.24 
232.07 
375.98 
594.05 
592.30 
507.22 


Total 


53,972 


$2,039.90 


$4,798.42 


$2,758.52 


West Park Run 
(One Bus) 
October, 1915 

December, 1915 

January, 1916 

February, 1916 

March, 1916 

April, 1916 


4,915 
5,500 
5,933 
. 5,933 
. 5,556 
5,928 
5,771 


$133.10 
167.55 
194.70 
192.50 
202.70 
228.90 
239.35 


$3S2.07 
453.58 
419.76 
503.29 
543.04 
558.47 
532.72 


$248.97 
286.03 
225.06 
310.79 
340.34 
329.57 
293.37 


Total 


39,536 


$1,358.80 


$3,392.93 


$2,034.13 


Total for five buses. 


.134,035 


$4,825.20 


$11,788.38 


$6,963.18 



HEARING ON JULY 5 ON COMPANY'S REPLY IN 
ROCHESTER JITNEY CASE 

A conference between representatives of the New York 
State Railways and the Public Service Commission for the 
Second District of New York has been set for July 5, at Al- 
bany, for the discussion of the details through which the 
company will comply with certain of the orders of the com- 
mission contained in the recent denial of the Rochester jitney 
certificates. At the request of the Chamber of Commerce 
the company and the commission will not discuss any struc- 
tural changes until the Chamber has completed the study it 
is making of this problem. The features of the commission's 
order which will be discussed at the coming conference are 
as follows: Private telephone system, emergency trucks, 
electric switches, additional seats to be furnished, periodical 
checks of travel to be made, operation of crosstown bus lines, 
improvements in service to and from Fairport, and improve- 
ments in conditions at the State Street carhouse. 

These topics have been arranged after a comparison be- 
tween the commission's order and the company's formal and 
tentative answer filed at the required thirty days after the 



order. It is understood that the company in this answer has 
.substantially offered to comply with all of the commission's 
recommendations aside from those which require new con- 
struction, but that in some instances it has claimed that the 
requirements are already fulfilled or might better be filled 
by modifications of the commission's plans. 

The operation of the crosstown bus lines is typical of these 
cases. The company is understood to have suggested this as 
a substitute for the crosstown line recommended by the 
commission which will be impossible to build until a new 
bridge is erected across the river near Driving Park. A bus 
line, the company has said, could use the present bridge. 
Such a bus line, run as a part of the electric railway system, 
would afford transfers to the other lines, and generally fit 
in better with the present facilities than independent jitneys. 
None of the applicants for jitney certificates had applied for 
a route on this line or any like it. 



PITTSBURGH RAILWAYS INCREASE OWL FARE 

At midnight on June 22 the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways 
put into effect a 10-cent fare on its owl cars. This is an 
increase of 5 cents over the previous fare for this service, 
and is the first of the changes made by the company to 
secure additional revenue, growing indirectly out of the 
settlement of the strike of the employees of the company 
in May. It was upon condition that the company would 
receive the co-operation of the mediators in the strike in 
securing necessary additional revenue that it consented to 
pay an advance in wages greater than its present earnings 
would permit. The company said at that time that it de- 
sired it distinctly understood that if it was to pay the wages 
demanded, it would be necessary to provide increased fares 
partially to cover the advance to the men and that action 
would be taken for such adjustments of the fare zones as 
were deemed proper and reasonable. In announcing the 
increase in the owl fares the company posted placards in its 
cars which read as follows: "The old rate of night fare 
will be re-established on Thursday morning, June 22, 
namely, double the day fare. This action becomes necessary 
because of the abnormal increase in the price of labor and 
materials." 

Opposition to the increase in the fares developed at once. 
A committee of the Council of Pittsburgh dispatched a 
messenger to Harrisburg with a resolution to the Public 
Service Commission in which protest was made against the 
action of the company. The Public Service Commission on 
the afternoon of June 23 made an order requiring the com- 
pany to issue certificates of rebate to be redeemed in case 
the commission decided that the increase in rates should 
not stand. Accompanying this decision was the announce- 
ment that the commission had set Friday, June 30, at 10 
a. m. for a hearing at the Capitol on all of the questions 
involved in the complaint against the company. 



One-Man Cars for Bristol.— The Bristol (Tenn.) Trac- 
tion Company has completed the conversion of most of its 
cars for one-man operation and has installed the one-man 
system except on one route. 

Advertising Campaign Started in Denver. — The Tramway 
Bulletin, published by the Denver (Col.) Tramways, an- 
nounced in the June issue that the company has started on 
the first of several newspaper advertising campaigns "to let 
Denver people know about their own town." 

Accident on Pennsylvania Road. — Three persons were 
killed and a number of others were seriously injured on 
June 23 when a freight car of the Pittsburgh, Harmony, 
Butler & New Castle Railway, Pittsburgh, Pa., crashed into 
the rear end of a heavily-loaded passenger car at North 
Sewickley, near Elwood City. 

Restrictions on Packages in Kansas City. — A new order 
by W. C. Harrington, superintendent of transportation of 
the Kansas City (Mo.) Railways, prohibits the carrying of 
passengers with bundles too large to hold in the hand or 
store under the feet. The order also prohibits trainmen 
from carrying bundles of the proscribed sizes. 

Sale of Low-Fare Tickets Abolished. — The Indiana Public 
Service Commission has abolished the issuance of fifty-four- 
ride tickets for $2.15 on the Gary & Interurban Railroad 
between Gary and Indiana Harbor, Ind. This service was 



40 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



on the basis of \ X A cents per mile between the two cities. 
The fare was considered too low by the commission. 

Traveling Instructors With a Roving Commission. — The 
transportation department of the Kansas City (Mo.) Rail- 
ways has added two traveling instructors, a motorman and 
a conductor, who spend all their time on the cars, on special 
assignments to certain men, following up the work of the 
school of instruction, or in observing the men, and giving 
suggestions. 

Decrease in All Except Auto Accidents in Brooklyn. — Gen. 
George W. Wingate, president of the Brooklyn Institution 
of Safety, has issued to 10,000 automobile owners in the 
borough of Brooklyn a letter calling attention to the fact 
that while other classes of street accidents have shown very 
encouraging decreases in the first four months of 1916 as 
compared with the first four months of 1915, accidents in 
which automobiles were involved have not only failed to 
show similar decreases, but on the contrary have tended to 
increase largely. 

Massachusetts Court Dismisses Fare Case. — The Massa- 
chusetts Supreme Court has dismissed a bill brought by the 
town of Arlington against the Bay State Street Railway to 
restrain the latter from carrying into effect a schedule pro- 
viding for an increase of fares. The town claimed that the 
company was bound by the agreement with the Arlington 
& Winchester Street Railway when it received a location in 
1897 that a charge of not more than 5 cents should be made 
to any point in either town. The court holds that the matter 
is entirely within the jurisdiction of the Public Service Com- 
mission. 

Experimental Operation With New Cars Authorized. — 

The City Council of Seattle, Wash., has passed an ordinance 
authorizing the experimental operation of light-weight cars 
on the Summit Avenue line of the Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company. Trials will begin on or about July 
5 and will continue until the company and public officials 
are convinced that the cars are practical, useful, economical 
and safe, or that they are lacking in these qualities. If the 
experiments are counted a success, the company plans to 
install this new type of car on various routes where they 
will be the most practical. 

Spokane Service Readjustments Arranged. — According to 
officials of the Washington Water Power Company and the 
Spokane & Inland Empire Railway, Spokane, Wash., the 
readjustment of the street railway schedules for owl service 
will be made soon after July 1. D. L. Huntington, presi- 
dent of the Washington Water Power Company, states that 
the Public Service Commission has asked for considerable 
additional data in connection with the hearing on June 1) 
and 10, reported in the Electric Railway Journal of June 
24, page 1205. This information is being prepared. Mr. 
Huntington states that the service adjustment in all proba- 
bility will be in operation by July 15. He said: "I believe 
that we can work out a schedule which will cover the city 
adequately and at the same time offer a measure of relief 
for the companies." Under the new schedules there will be 
no duplication of service in the owl lines; where parallel 
lines are operated by both companies at this time, the field 
will be divided and the district served by one or the other 
line. 

Service Standard Rules in Effect in Baltimore. — The 

United Railway & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., re- 
cently advised the Public Service Commission of Maryland 
that beginning on June 15 it would issue transfers upon 
transfers on the Woodlawn branch of the North Avenue 
line. This is designed to give a 5-cent fare to persons trav- 
eling from the territory north of North Avenue served by 
the St. Paul Street and parallel lines, to the Electric Park 
section. The rules prescribed recently for the company by 
the commission went into effect on June 15 with the excep- 
tion of the one requiring "full-car" signs upon cars loaded 
to capacity and that forbidding passengers to stand upon 
the running boards of cars. These rules become effective on 
July 15. The rule restricting overloading provides that 
except during rush hours there shall be an average of a 
seat for every passenger. The rush hours are from 6 a. m. 
to 9 a. m., 4 p. m. to 7 p. m., and from 1 p. m. on Saturdays, 
Sundays and holidays. During the rush hours the cars may 
carry, in addition to seating capacity, one passenger for 
each 3 sq. ft. of clear floor space. 





Personal Mention 



S. W. Reynolds has resigned as general claim agent of 
the Illinois Traction System at Springfield, 111. 

J. B. Hardaway, an attorney in the general claim depart- 
ment of the Illinois Traction System, has been appointed 
head of the freight claim department, with offices in Spring- 
field, 111. 

Walter N. Walmsley has been appointed general manager 
of Alabama Power Company, a subsidiary of Alabama Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company, New York, N. Y., to succeed 
F. H. Chamberlain, resigned. 

G. R. Whit more, an attorney in the general claim depart- 
ment of the Illinois Traction System, has been given charge 
of the personal injury claim department. His headquar- 
ters will be moved to Peoria, 111. 

Edward Ostrander, assistant secretary of the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of Oregon, has been appointed secretary of 
the commission to succeed H. H. Corey, who has been made 
a member of the commission. 

W. B. Miser, general superintendent *of the Jacksonville 
Railway & Light Company, Jacksonville, 111., has been ap- 
pointed supervisor of new business for all gas and electric 
properties of the Illinois Traction Company, Peoria, 111. 

W. S. Brackett, storekeeper of the Denver (Col.) Tram- 
way, has been appointed purchasing agent of the company 
to succeed C. F. Musgrove, resigned. Mr. Brackett has 
been in the company's employ more than sixteen years. 

J. J. Bonfield, for twelve years local freight agent for the 
Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company at Lexington, Ky., 
has been promoted to the position of general freight agent, 
succeeding John D. Sallee, who has retired to private life, 
as noted elsewhere in this column. 

V. A. Gillette, dispatcher of the Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Railway and the Southern Michigan Rail- 
way, South Bend, Ind., has been appointed local superintend- 
ent to succeed L. E. Hollar, who has been advanced to super- 
intendent of transportation. 

L. E. Hollar, local superintendent of the Chicago, South 
Bend & Southern Indiana Railway and the Southern Michi- 
gan Railway at South Bend, Ind., has been appointed super- 
intendent of transportation of the companies succeeding 
F. I. Hardy, who has been made general manager. 

Irwin M. Ristine has been appointed supervisor of employ- 
ment of the Denver (Col.) Tramway. Mr. Ristine has been 
educational secretary of the Denver Y. M. C. A. schools for 
the last year and a half. Before that he was office and em- 
ployment manager of the firm of Sears, Roebuck & Com- 
pany, Chicago. 

James M. Smith, secretary of the Cleveland & Erie Rail- 
way, Girard, Pa., has been appointed acting manager of the 
company to succeed R. W. Palmer, whose appointment to 
the Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad, Auburn, N. Y., 
was announced in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 24. 

C. F. Musgrove, who has been purchasing agent for the 
Denver (Col.) Tramway since Jan. 1, 1897, has resigned. 
Mr. Musgrove entered the company's employ in February, 
1888, as secretary to William G. Evans, president at that 
time, and, after nine years in this capacity, was made pur- 
chasing agent. 

C. D. Emmons has resigned as general manager of the 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway and the 
Southern Michigan Railway, South Bend, Ind., effective on 
July 1, to accept the position of second vice-president and 
general manager of the Boston & Worcester Street Rail- 
way, with offices at Framingham, Mass. 

F. I. Hardy, superintendent of transportation of the Chi- 
cago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway and the 
Southern Michigan Railway, South Bend, Ind., has been 
appointed general manager of the company, succeeding C. D. 
Emmons, whose appointment to the Boston & Worcester 
Street Railway is announced elsewhere in this column. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



41 




E. H. Gray, superintendent of the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem properties at El Paso, 111., and contiguous territory, has 
been appointed general superintendent of the Jacksonville 
Railway & Light Company, Jacksonville, 111., effective on 
July 1, to succeed W. B. Miser, made supervisor of new 
business of the McKinley properties. 

J. C. Donald has resigned as general superintendent and 
purchasing agent of the Asheville Power & Light Com- 
pany, Asheville, N. C, effective on July 1 to accept the 
position of assistant to the 
vice-president and general 
manager of the Ironwood & 
Bessemer Railway & Light 
Company, with headquar- 
ters at Ashland, Wis. Mr. 
Donald was born in Conecuh 
County, Ala., on Nov. 16, 
1876. He was educated in 
the public schools of Colum- 
bia, S. C. He entered rail- 
way work witih the wire and 
conduit department of the 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated 
Railway, with which he was 
connected for five years. He 
then served for a year in the 
electrical equipment depart- 
ment of the Pittsfield works J- C. donald 
of the General Electric Com- 
pany. He was next connected with the Southern Railway 
& Light Company, Natchez, Miss., for a year as electrical 
engineer and superintendent of the company. Subsequently 
he served for a year as superintendent of the Citizens' 
Light, Heat & Power Company at Montgomery, Ala. He 
then re-entered railway work and served for two years as 
foreman of electrical construction for the Chattanooga Elec- 
tric Company and Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. He has been connected with the Ashe- 
ville Power & Light Company for the last five years as 
electrical engineer, general superintendent and purchasing 
agent. 

H. H. Corey has been appointed to the Public Service 
Commission of Oregon to succeed Clyde A. Aitchison, who 
resigned to become solicitor to the National Association of 
Railroad Commissioners. Mr. Corey has been secretary of 
the commission and at the May primary was nominated as 
the Republican candidate for commissioner from the eastern 
Oregon district. 

John D. Sallee has resigned as general freight agent of 
the Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company, Lexington, 
Ky., and will retire from active business life. Mr. Sallee 
had been connected with the company at Lexington for 
more than twenty-six years. He has been general freight 
agent of the company since the fall of 1911. Previous to 
that he was superintendent of the lines of the company in 
Frankfort for six years. Before going to Frankfort he was 
dispatcher in Lexington for seven years. As general freight 
agent of the company, Mr. Sallee had supervision over the 
Frankfort terminal and also looked after the terminals at 
Paris, Georgetown and Nicholasville. 

N. E. Drexler has been appointed chief engineer of 
the Newport News & Hampton Railway Gas & Electric 
Company, Hampton, Va., to succeed C. D. Porter, resigned. 
Mr. Drexler is a graduate of the Rensselaer Polytechnic- 
Institute, Troy, N. Y. Since graduation he has been with 
the Newport News & Hampton Railway, Gas & Electric- 
Company as assistant engineer, master mechanic, assistant 
chief engineer and assistant superintendent of tranportation. 
For the last three months he was acting electrical engineer 
for the Maryland Electric Railways with headquarters at 
Annapolis, Md. As stated in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal of June 10 Mr. Porter has been appointed general man- 
ager of the Maryland Electric Railways. 

William R. Willcox, former chairman of the Public Serv- 
ice Commission for the First District of New York, was 
named on June 27 as chairman of the Republican National 
Committee to direct the campaign of Mr. Hughes. Mr. 
Willcox was the first chairman of the Public Service Com- 
mission in New York to which he was appointed during the 



administration of Mr. Hughes as Governor of New York. 
He was formerly postmaster of New York. Mr. Willcox 
was born in Smyrna, N. Y., fifty-three years ago. It was 
while Mr. Willcox was chairman of the commission that 
the plans were developed for the dual rapid transit system 
now under construction in New York. This is the largest 
single municipal undertaking in the history of the world. 

John Weigel has resigned as chief of the time-table de- 
partment of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit System to 
become superintendent of schedules for the International 
Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. Mr. Weigel will also give part of 
his time to supervising the schedules of the southern prop- 
erties of the United Gas & Electric Corporation, which con- 
trols the International Railway. Mr. Weigel's electric rail 
way career began twenty years ago, when he entered the 
shops at Brooklyn. He soon was transferred to the trans- 
portation department, serving successively as inspector, 
chief inspector, assistant superintendent and chief of the 
time-table department. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 
was one of the first roads to inaugurate scientific schedule 
making. Largely under Mr. Weigel's direction practices 
were developed in Brooklyn that have since served as 
models for many other city railways. 

Charles A. Drew has been appointed superintendent of 
the time-table department of the Brooklyn ( N. Y.) Rapid 
Transit Company to succeed John Weigel, resigned, whose 
appointment to the International Railway is noted else- 
where in this column. Mr. Drew was born in Bloomfield, 
N. J., thirty-eight years ago. He started railroading on 
Sept. 26, 1894, with the Newark (N. J.) Passenger Railway 
and continued with that company until June 1, 1900. At 
first he acted as a conductor and as a dispatcher. He was 
later promoted to the auditing department of the company, 
where he served from 1897 to 1900. On June 11, 1900, 
Mr. Drew entered the service of the Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Company as a motorman. He worked in that position 
until the latter part of 1901. He was then made starter. 
In February, 1902, he was advanced to office dispatcher. He 
held that position until Nov. 1, 1907, when he was made 
depot master at East New York. He continued as depot 
master there until March 1, 1916. He was then made 
schedule maker in the main office, and on June 1, 1916, was 
appointed superintendent of the time-table department, the 
title of the head of the department being changed from chief 
to superintendent. 

James P. Barnes, who was honored on Wednesday of this 
week by election to the presidency of the New York Electric 
Railway Association, has been prepared for the responsi- 
bilities of this office by ac- 
tive committee work in this 
and the American Electric 
Railway Association, and by 
the extension of his ac- 
quaintance with the rail- 
ways and railway men of 
the State and country. His 
interest in the big problems 
of the industry is indicated 
by the report on compensa- 
tion insurance presented at 
this week's meeting and to 
be printed in a later issue 
of the Electric Railway 
Journal, and by his two 
years' work on the equip- 
ment committee of the 
j. p. barnes Engineering Association 

during which he devoted his 
energies to the steel wheel and other specifications. Mr. 
Barnes has been identified with the Allen & Peck properties 
for four years past, having resigned the position of chief 
engineer of the Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Railway 
to become general manager first of the Syracuse & Suburban 
Railway, and later of the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 
Railway, the position which he now occupies. Since grad- 
uating from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mr. 
Barnes has occupied several positions in succession, in each 
of which he has demonstrated marked technical and execu- 
tive ability. 




42 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Construction News 



Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously reported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 

Central Florida Interurban Railway, St. Cloud, Fla. — In- 
corporated to construct about 300 miles of electric railway. 
Capital stock, $100,000. Carl E. Carson, president, and Wil- 
liam S. Alyea, secretary. [June 10, '16.] 

Tampa & Eastern Traction Company, Tampa, Fla. — A 
charter has been granted to the Tampa & Eastern Traction 
Company to construct a line from Tampa to Lakeland, about 
33 miles. Capital stock, $750,000. Officers: F. W. Cole, 
president; E. J. Binford, vice-president; Frank L. Cooper, 
secretary, and F. M. Williams, treasurer, all of Tampa 
[May 27, '16.] 

*Seattle & Rainier Valley Railway, Seattle, Wash. — In- 
corporated in Delaware presumably as the successor of the 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway, the property of which 
was sold recently under foreclosure and purchased by the 
representatives of the bondholders. Capital stock, $360,000. 

FRANCHISES 

Santa Monica, Cal. — The Pacific Electric Railway has re- 
fused the offer of the city of Santa Monica for a franchise 
over Montana Avenue from Third Street to Fourth Street 
and north on Fourth Street to San Vicente Boulevard in 
exchange for removing its tracks from Ocean Avenue, north 
of Santa Monica Boulevard. 

Quincy, 111. — The Quincy Railway has asked the Council 
for a franchise to construct a loop from near the southwest 
corner of Twenty-second and Washington Streets to the 
terminus of the branch of the State Street line. 

Russellville, Ky. — The Tennessee & Kentucky Interurban 
Railroad has received a franchise from the Council to con- 
struct a line into Russellville. The company plans to con- 
struct a line from Nashville to Russellville. Paul D. Den- 
ton, Nashville, secretary. [May 20, '16.] 

Buffalo, N. Y. — The International Railway has asked the 
Council for a franchise to construct an extension through 
Franklin Street from Chippewa to Allen Streets. 

Astoria, Ore. — It is reported that the Pacific Power & 
Light Company has decided to surrender all rights to 
operate street cars in upper Astoria. It is stated upon the 
refusal of the company to construct lines under the new 
franchise, an ordinance will be introduced in the Council 
at an early date revoking the privileges of the franchise 
granted last year. 

Oregon City, Ore. — The Portland Railway Light & Power 
Company has received a freight franchise from the Council 
of Oregon City. The life of the franchise will be ten years 
instead of twenty-five, as originally proposed. 

Walla Walla, Wash.— The Walla Walla Valley Railway 
has asked the City Commissioners to submit to a vote of 
the people the matter of a franchise for a street railway 
line out Ninth Street to the city limits. The company plans 
the construction of a line to the south and west of the city 
limits, also a branch line to the fair grounds. The company 
also wants permission to operate a freight train over the 
line any hour of the day. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities Company, Tuscaloosa, 
Ala. — This company is fixing up its property about half- 
way between Tuscaloosa and Holt for a picnic grounds and 
park and is erecting a dancing pavilion and large swimming 
pool. 

*Duncan, Ariz. — The Carlisle Mining Company plans to 
construct an electric railway from Duncan to its mines at 
Steeplerock, N. M., 13 miles. H. K. Welch, Steeplerock, 
manager. 



Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — It is reported 

that this company will extend its line from Los Angeles to 
San Diego via Fullerton, Anaheim and Santa Ana. 

Martinez & Concord Interurban Railway, Martinez, Cal. 
— Contracts will be let at once by this company for con- 
struction work on Pine Street and Pacheco Avenue, Mar- 
tinez, in connection with its proposed line between Martinez 
and Concord. Clifford McClellan, San Francisco, is inter- 
ested. [June 17, '16.] 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oakland, Cal. 
— The Railroad Commission of the State of California has 
issued an order authorizing the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Railways to abandon a part of its double track 
on Fifth Avenue, Oakland. 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway. — This company is con- 
structing 1% miles of single track from its Point Loma line 
at Roseville to the Government Reservation line at La 
Playa. 

Pensacola, Fla. — The House of Representatives has passed 
a bill authorizing George H. Hervey of Pensacola to con- 
struct and operate an electric railway on the Fort Barran- 
cas and Fort McRae military reservations. The bill had 
already passed the Senate. [Feb. 19, '16.] 

*St. Petersburg, Fla. — It is reported that plans are being 
considered for the construction of an electric railway from 
St. Petersburg to Tampa, about 20 miles, including a bridge 
3% miles long over Old Tampa Bay. George Gandy, Sr., 
and Lewis B. Brown, St. Petersburg, are interested. 

*Charleston, 111. — A project to construct a line from 
Charleston to Terre Haute is being considered. J. W. Daw- 
son, Westfield, is interested. 

Danville Street Railway & Light Company, Danville, 111. 
— This company has begun work on the west approach to 
the Fairchild Street subway. Grading and laying of ties 
are now in progress. The company has also received a new 
switchboard for installation in connection with this subway. 
It is expected that work will be completed by Aug. 1. 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, Urbana, 111. — 
Regular passenger and freight service was installed on this 
company's line between Urbana and Paxton on June 28. 

Union Traction Company, Anderson, Ind. — This company 
is making extensive repairs to its tracks at Marion, the 
work beginning at the bridge in Washington Street and pro- 
gressing northward. 

St. Joseph Valley Railway, Elkhart, Ind. — This company 
is seeking permission from property owners to string wires 
supporting the trolley wires from the buildings, thus doing 
away with poles on Main Street from Hickory Street to 
Jefferson Street. 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 
This company has awarded a contract to the Topeka Bridge 
& Iron Company for the construction of a concrete bridge 
consisting of two 65-ft. arches over Land Creek. The cost 
is estimated at $4,250. 

Duluth-Superior Traction Company, Duluth, Minn. — The 
formal order was issued by the Railroad Commission of 
Wisconsin on June 21, rescinding the order of the commis- 
sion of Nov. 13, 1912, under which the Duluth-Superior 
Traction Company was required to reduce fares in Superior. 
Reference was made to this order in the Electric Railway 
Journal for April 29, page 840. Under the terms of the 
agreement, the company will place in service double-truck 
cars on the Billings Park line as soon as the viaduct has 
been strengthened to permit the operation of this line. The 
company will also construct a line from Tower Avenue to 
the dock front on the Bay of Superior, to be completed by 
Dec. 1, 1917. The Tower Avenue and Belknap Street lines 
will be connected to serve what is known as the Normal 
School district. The latter line must be completed before 
Nov. 1, 1919. Approximately $200,000 will be required to 
construct the extensions. 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. — Preliminary to the paving 
of Main Street from Twelfth to Nineteenth Streets with 
creosoted wood blocks, the Kansas City Railways will lay 
new track and bring same up to grade. A 20-in. solid con- 
crete base, sawed-oak ties and 95-lb. T-rails with welded 
joints will be used. The company is now welding 25 miles 
of track in the city. 



July 1, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



43 



*Beaver Valley Electric Railway, Baker, Mont. — This 
company proposes to build an electric railway from Baker 
to Ekalaka, Mont., via Webster, 50 miles. The final location 
has been made for 25 miles of the line and the right-of-way 
has been secured. It is estimated that from 10,000 to 15,- 
000 cu. yd. of material will be handled per mile. The con- 
tract for the grading work will be awarded by Aug. 1. The 
company will also construct a 150-ft. trestle. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company. — Operation 
was begun by the New York Consolidated Railroad on the 
West End elevated line on June 24. Regular service will be 
from Chambers Street, Manhattan, as far as Sixty-second 
Street and New Utrecht Avenue, Brooklyn, and a shuttle 
service will be operated on the west-bound track from Sixty- 
second Street to Eighteenth Avenue. 

New York Municipal Railway Corporation, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — The Public Service Commission for the First Dis- 
trict of New York has rejected all bids received on June 5 
for the supply of about 52,000 tons of structural steel, for 
use in the construction of various portions of the dual sys- 
tem of rapid transit. The commission in rejecting the bids 
took cognizance of the fact that the steel market is falling 
and that the prices of steel will almost certainly be lower 
in the future. The commission has approved the awarding 
by the New York Municipal Railway Corporation of the con- 
tract for track laying and electrical equipment on the 
Jamaica extension of the Broadway elevated line in Brook- 
lyn from Crescent Street to Cliffside Avenue to Lewis H. 
Woods, New York City. Bids were taken on four types 
of construction, Mr. Woods' ranging from $136,947 to 
$149,829. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

Bids were opened on June 26 by the Public Service Commis- 
sion for the First District of New York for the construc- 
tion of the 180th Street yard of Route No. 18, a part of 
the White Plains Road elevated extension of the Lenox 
Avenue branch of the first subway, the lowest bidder being 
Thomas J. Buckley Construction Company, New York, at 
$26,922.50. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. — 

This company has applied to the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Ohio for authority to issue $14,057,000 first lien re- 
funding gold bonds, of which $1,955,300 is for improvements. 
Among the improvements planned are the following: 
Double-tracking A. B. C. line to Falls and north end of 
Bedford; improvements from Bedford to Newburg; double- 
track line between Canton and Massillon; extension to Ma- 
honing line in Canton; Massillon extension; extension on 
Wooster Avenue, Akron; double-track line between Blue 
Point and Springfield Lake, 3.83 miles; double-track from 
Akron terminal over iceway to gorge, 2% miles. 

Bangor & Portland Traction Company, Bangor, Pa. — 
Plans are being made by this company for direct track con- 
nection with the Northampton Traction Company at Bangor, 
giving a through line from Easton to Portland, a distance 
of 26 miles. 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway, Nashville, Tenn. — 

Plans are being considered for the organization of a com- 
pany to succeed the Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway 
for the purpose of constructing an extension to Springfield. 
The new line will be 18.4 miles long, the total distance from 
Nashville via the present Nashville-Gallatin Interurban 
Railway and thence by the route surveyed for the extension 
to Springfield being about 27 miles. The line will pass 
through Goodlettsville, Baker, Ridgetop and Green Brier. 
All surveys for the extension have been completed and 
rights-of-way are now being obtained, and it is expected 
that within the next month or two actual construction work 
will be begun. 

Dallas, Northwestern Traction Company, Dallas. Tex. — 
E. P. Turner, vice-president of the Dallas Northwestern 
Traction Company, states that the company has not 
abandoned its railway project, although the bond interests 
prefer that a line be built from Dallas to Slidell, through 
Denton and Krum instead of the Denton-Krum line. Engi- 
neers have completed surveys and negotiations now under 
way regarding financial arrangements are expected to be 
completed shortly. [Jan. 29, '16.] 



Galveston (Tex.) Electric Company. — This company is re- 
constructing about IV2 miles of ballasted track. 

Houston, Richmond & Western Traction Company, Hous- 
ton, Tex. — It is reported that construction will be begun 
about July 15 on this company's proposed line between 
Houston and San Antonio. The first section will be built 
between Houston and Gonzales, C. C. Godman, Kansas City, 
president. [June 17, '16.] 

Temple & Marlin Interurban Railway, Temple, Tex. — S. 
D. Hanna, chief engineer of the Marlin-Temple Interurban 
Promotion Company, reports that he will have all surveys 
and right-of-way plans completed within the next sixty 
days for this company's proposed line from Marlin to Tem- 
ple. As soon as these surveys are finished, plans for the 
line will be submitted to Eastern financiers who have al- 
ready tentatively agreed to finance the project. [April 
29, 16.] 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Massachusetts, Northeastern Street Railway, Haverhill, 
Mass. — This company has awarded a contract to E. A. Pea- 
body & Son, Lawrence, for the construction of a carhouse at 
Merrimac to replace the one recently destroyed by fire. The 
building will be 90 ft. x 90 ft., and will be of brick and steel 
construction, with reinforced concrete floors and granite 
and cast stone trimmings. 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. — The interurban railways 
entering Kansas City and the board of control of the Kan- 
sas City Railways have agreed upon a site for a terminal 
freight depot. Plans are now being perfected for the or- 
ganization of the Kansas City Transfer & Warehouse 
Terminal Company, which will ask a franchise from the city 
for the operation of the terminal. The site selected is on 
Wyandotte Street between Third and Fourth Streets. In- 
terurban freight cars will run over Kansas City Railways' 
tracks only to reach the terminal, and the Kansas City 
Railways will build and maintain the tracks for this pur- 
pose. The Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway 
probably will abandon its present freight depot, which it 
has outgrown. The Kansas City Western Railway now 
uses the Strang line freight depot at Third and Grand 
Streets, which will be abandoned. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has authorized the advertising for bids, to be 
opened on July 14, for the construction of station finish 
for the Grand Central Station of the Queensboro subway. 
This work is to include the lengthening of the island plat- 
form of the present station of the Queensboro subway in 
Forty-second Street, between Lexington and Third Avenues. 
This platform is to be extended westerly for about 500 ft., 
and connecting with this extension there will be an under- 
ground passageway to the present Grand Central station of 
the first subway. 

Beaumont (Tex.) Traction Company. — A contract has 
been awarded to H. Weber for the construction of an addi- 
tion to the paint shop of the Beaumont Traction Company 
at the Irving Street carhouse. It is estimated that the ad- 
dition will cost about $1,800. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 

A report from this company states that plans are being 
made to construct an additional substation to be located 
adjacent to its Electric Park carhouse to be known as the 
Belvedere Avenue substation. The company plans< to install 
two or three 1500-kw. rotary converters with necessary 
transformers, switchboards and auxiliary apparatus. 

Columbus Railway, Light & Power Company, Columbus, 

Miss. — It is reported that this company plans to purchase 
a 500-kw. generator. 

Helena Light & Railway Company, Helena, Mont. — It is 

reported that this company plans to extend its transmis- 
sion lines to Lenox. 

Columbia Railway, Gas & Electric Company, Columbia, 

S. C. — This company is contemplating extensions to its 
transmission system. 



44 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 1 



Manufactures and Supplies 



RETURN OF GOOD BUSINESS 
Comparison of Rolling Stock Purchases for First Six Months 
of 1915 and 1916 Shows Satisfactory Increase 

A review of the rolling stock columns of the Electric 
Railway Journal for the first six months of 1916 indicates 
that the electric railway industry, so far as rolling stock is 
concerned, is resuming its activity of the years prior to 
the general business depression of 1914 and 1915. This un- 
doubtedly is due in part to the lifting of the retrenchment 
policy which has been pursued during the past two years 
but also to the increased traffic caused by better industrial 
conditions. 

A comparison of the number of cars ordered in the United 
States and Canada during this period in 1915 and 1916 
shows that 951 more cars have been ordered this year than 
last. This is a gain of more than 74 per cent over the 1273 
cars which were ordered during the first six months of 1915. 
It is interesting to note from the following table that while 
the Eastern and Middle West States predominate in the 
number of cars ordered the percentage of increase in rolling 
stock purchased is distributed pretty evenly throughout the 
\arious sections of the country. 



First Six First Six 
Months 1915 Months 1916 Increase 



Eastern States 


730 


1,257 


527 


Middle West States 


462 


805 


343 




22 


19 


27 




41 


88 


4V 




18 


25 


7 


Total 


1,273 


2 224 


951 



The largest car orders placed this year to date are as fol- 
lows: Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 200 cars; 
New York Municipal Railway, 200 subway cars; Public- 
Service Railway, Newark, N. J., 197 cars, 177 of which are 
being built in its own shops and twenty of which have been 
ordered from an outside car builder; Cincinnati (Ohio) 
Traction Company, 100 cars; Connecticut Company, New 
Haven, Conn., 100 cars; Toledo Railways & Light Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, 100 cars; Kansas City (Mo.) Railways, seventy, 
five cars; New York (N. Y.) Railways, seventy storage-bat- 
tery cars; Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, fifty-two artic- 
ulated center-section bodies and fifty trail-car bodies; New 
York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y., fifty cars; Rhode 
Island Company, Providence, R. I., fifty cars; Detroit (Mich.) 
United Railway, fifty trail cars. 

The industry naturally welcomes this return of good busi- 
ness conditions, which simply for rolling stock and its 
equipment, means the expenditure of $4,755,000 more than 
was spent during the first six months of 1915. This figure 
is based on the conservative estimate of $5,000 per car. 



ROLLING STOCK 

Tazewell (Va.) Street Railway is reported to have ordered 
one car from The J. G. Brill Company. 

Willamette Valley Southern Railway, Oregon City, Ore., 
is reported to be in the market for additional equipment. 

Columbus Railway, Light & Power Company, Columbus, 
Miss., is reported to be in the market for three double-truck 
cars. 

Harrisburg (Pa.) Railways, noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of March 11 as expecting to order five double- 
truck passenger cars, has purchased this equipment from 
The J. G. Brill Company. 

New York Central Railroad, New York, N. Y., noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 10 as expecting to pur- 
chase twelve 70-ft. cars, to seat ninety persons, has ordered 
this equipment from the Standard Steel Car Company. 

TRADE NOTES 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has received a large 
order for Cleveland type splicers from the Connecticut Com- 
pany, New Haven, Conn. 



Cornell S. Hawley, president of the Laconia Car Com- 
pany, has been elected president of the Consolidated Car 
Heating Company, Albany, N. Y., succeeding F. W. Kelley. 
Mr. Hawley will retain the presidency of the Laconia Car 
Company. 

Heywood Brothers & Wakefield Company, Wakefield, 

Mass., reports the receipt of orders for seats for six interur- 
ban cars of the Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway; fifteen cars 
of the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company; 105 cars of 
the Connecticut Company, and 200 cars of the Bay State 
Street Railway. 

Roller-Smith Company, New York, N. Y., announces that 
it has recently established a St. Louis agency in the person 
of George W. Pieksen, who is located in the Railway Ex- 
change Building, St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Pieksen will handle 
Roller-Smith products in St. Louis and in parts of the 
States of Missouri and Illinois. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., reports 
the receipt of the following orders for screenless air clean- 
ers: Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., twelve; 
Middlesex & Boston Street Railway, Newtonville, Mass., 
eight; Westinghouse Traction Brake Company, sixteen, for 
the cars being built for the Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway. 
This company has also received an order from the Cape 
Electric Tramways, Capetown, South Africa, for twenty- 
four ratchet handles. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, effective July 1, 
will act as general sales agent in the United States for the 
entire line of Crouse-Hinds Imperial headlights for railway 
and mine use. The Imperial line enables them to furnish the 
headliaht best suited to any condition as it contains a com- 
plete assortment of luminous arc, carbon arc and incandes- 
cent headlights. The Ohio Brass Company has made exten- 
sive preparation for taking over this line, its entire sales 
force and others having spent three days at the Crouse- 
Hinds plant in Syracuse, and will be in position to offer its 
customers the same service on headlights that has been giv- 
en with the sale of its other materials. 

Railway Improvement Company, New York, N. Y., re- 
ports the receipt of an order from the Kansas City (Mo.) 
Railways for 3000 No. 1A sanitary straps for use on present 
equipment, and an order for 1125 straps for the seventy-five 
cars now being built for this company by the St. Louis 
Car Company, Rico anti-climbers have been ordered for 
the 100 cars being built by the G. C. Kuhlman Car Com- 
pany for the Toledo Railways & Light Company, the 200 
cars being built by the Laconia Car Company for the Bay 
State Street Railway, and the 100 cars being built for the 
Connecticut Company. This last company, which operates 
676 miles of line in New Haven, Hartford, Bridgeport and 
other cities and has 1826 motor and about fifty other cars, is 
gradually equipping its old cars with anti-climbers. 

Rail Joint Company, New York, N. Y., announces that the 
Bonzano Rail Joint Company, as well as the Q. & C. Com- 
pany, by advice of their counsel after investigation, have 
recognized the utility and validity of the Thomson & Thom- 
son rail joint patents owned by the Rail Joint Company and 
have taken a license thereunder in order to utilize the Thom- 
son & Thomson novel system of metal distribution, for head 
reinforcements, in connection with their Bonzano types of 
splice bars. Accordingly notice is given by the Rail Joint 
Company that the aforesaid companies are authorized under 
the Thomson & Thomson patents in the manufacture and 
sale of the Bonzano type of splice bars having the Thomson 
& Thomson system of metal distribution for head reinforce- 
ment. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd., Rugby, England. 

has issued an eighty-eight-page pamphlet on steam tur- 
bines and generators. It contains an explanation, in sim- 
ple language, of the principles of operation of the Curtis 
turbine and is well illustrated with diagrams and pictures of 
detail parts and assembled machines. Electric generators, 
both alternators and d.c. machines, are also described, and 
ventilating systems and air filters receive attention. Tech- 
nical data are included in the form of curves and tables 
and as a whole the publication forms a convenient and read- 
able treatise on the subject covered by its title. 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



Vol. XLVIII NEW YORK SATURDAY, JULY 8, 1916 No. 2 



MILITARY VALUE At its Niagara Falls meeting held 
OF ELECTRIC last week the New York Electric 

ROADS Railway Association concentrated 

its attention largely upon the ways in which the rail- 
ways can assist the government in mobilizing troops 
and supplies. The immediate benefit of this concentra- 
tion appears in the reports abstracted in last week's 
issue. Through devotion to a common cause the rail- 
ways will themselves benefit by reflex action. Whether 
or not the railways are needed for mobilization purposes 
in the near future, intensive analysis of facilities at 
this time will bring out the shortcomings of our electric 
railway systems, considered as a unit ; will show the 
government what each State has to offer in the way 
of electric transportation facilities, and will weld to- 
gether the railway organizations of each territorial 
division as each company considers itself a component 
part of a whole. Already it is seen that with the excep- 
tion of two comparatively short gaps there is a con- 
tinuous electric railway across New York State in the 
general direction of the steam railroads and the canal. 
These gaps should be bridged in the interests of both 
the State and the nation. 

ARE In saying this we do not mean to 

SUBSIDIES assert that a policy in favor of 

NECESSARY? subsidies for military railways is 

necessary in this country yet, although such a policy has 
been followed very extensively abroad. We do believe, 
however, that the committee on the movement of troops 
at the New York convention last week has shown con- 
clusively the great assistance which electric railways 
can be in mobilization and in other military operations, 
and that for this reason the State or national govern- 
ment could well encourage their construction at certain 
points and their maintenance in effective condition. 
This aspect of the use of electric roads has received 
practically no attention in the past. But if the electric 
railways, like the steam railroads, are liable to be taken 
over by the government in time of actual or threatened 
war, then the government is vitally interested in having 
them where they are needed and in the condition in 
which they will be needed. We suggest, therefore, that 
the committee on military service take under considera- 
tion the desirability of formulating a plan for rounding 
out in peace the electric railway system of the State 
so that it will be effective in war, and the best means 
by which this result can be accomplished. Such a plan 
would make the public realize more keenly the intimate 
relation which really exists between its members and 
the electric railways. 



TEN CENT The raising of the owl car fares 

FARES ON i n Pittsburgh to 10 cents is logi- 

OWL CARS ca i as j s b ase( j on the principle 

that fares should be proportioned to the cost of opera- 
tion. If there is to be an increase in fares, those pas- 
sengers whose transportation is the least profitable or 
those who are carried at a loss should be the first to 
bear the increased charge. The cars on a city system 
which run after midnight and before 5 a. m. are rarely 
filled, yet they require the operation of the power sta- 
tion and much other equipment for the service of a few 
passengers only. The Pittsburgh Railways claim that 
the plan inaugurated on midnight of June 22 was not 
the establishment of a new fare but a return to a plan 
in use before 1907 and that the only reason for the pre- 
vious reduction to 5 cents was that it was required by 
a law which has since been declared unconstitutional. 
The chief argument during the past week has not been 
on the propriety of the fare but on the method of its es- 
tablishment, its opponents declaring that proper notice 
was not given to the public. Whether there would have 
been less opposition to the plan if it had been advertised 
extensively in advance is an open question. It does not 
seem, however, that there should be any real objection 
to an increased fare, per se, as riders at that time are 
enjoying a special service. 

A RAY OF The refusal of the up-State New 

HOPE FOR York Public Service Commission 

HIGHER FARES to allow the United Traction Com- 
pany to increase its rates between Albany and Troy, 
N. Y., noted elsewhere in this issue, seems to rest upon 
the belief that the company failed to prove the justice 
and reasonableness of the proposed increase. Further- 
more, the commission felt that the company's losses 
from operation were not caused by the Albany-Troy 
line, and that to increase the rates here would involve 
unjust discriminations. While refusing to sanction the 
new schedules, however, the commission appears to ap- 
preciate the fact that the company needs increased 
revenue, and a really encouraging feature of the deci- 
sion is the intimation that under the recent interpreta- 
tion in the Ulster & Delaware Railroad case by the 
Court of Appeals the commission has the power to 
permit urban fares of more than 5 cents, in spite of 
the old railroad law, if the need for such fares is shown. 
Moreover, Commissioner Carr in a separate memoran- 
dum frankly recognizes that the company, particularly 
in Albany, is as a whole giving more service than its 
earnings justify, and suggests a thorough rearrange- 
ment of service so as possibly to give better accommo- 



46 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



dations to the public at a lower cost to the railway. 
All these points seem to indicate the feeling of the 
commission that it is the urban fares rather than the 
interurban fares that need adjustment to increasing 
costs. Is it too much to hope that a full realization of 
its responsibility for removing old and unjust legisla- 
tive restrictions may lead the commission before long 
to a real settlement of the urban problems of the United 
Traction Company? 

INFLUENCE OF TRAFFIC DENSITY ON INVESTMENT 

In an article appearing on a later page of this issue 
D. J. McGrath, research assistant of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, presents some additional 
results of the study of the research division of that in- 
stitution concerning the relation of the investment per 
revenue passenger to the density of traffic on city lines. 
Our readers will doubtless remember that the same 
author contributed an article to our issue of May 8, 
1915, in which he suggested for the first time the use 
of the figure "investment per revenue passenger" as a 
unit of comparison for judging the relative capitaliza- 
tions of electric railway companies. The article pointed 
out some advantages which this unit possessed as a 
standard over those more commonly used, such as "in- 
vestment per mile of track" or "per dollar of gross reve- 
nue." Mr. McGrath's investigation showed a variation 
of investment, in the properties considered, ranging 
from 13 to 32 cents per revenue passenger. 

The present article is largely an extension of Mr. 
McGrath's article of fourteen months ago, and deals 
with the question of the variation in the investment per 
revenue passenger as between properties operating 
under varying conditions of traffic density. His con- 
clusion is that the investment per revenue passenger be- 
comes rapidly greater where the density of traffic is 
less than 100,000 revenue passengers per mile of single 
main track. When the density of traffic is greater than 
100,000, the chances for profitable operation increase 
until a certain point, as yet undetermined, is reached. 
The increasing length of passenger haul per 5-cent fare, 
the congestion of street traffic, the necessity for heavier 
and more expensive construction, the requirements for 
greater current-carrying capacity of the power distri- 
bution system, together with many other factors, all 
combine to increase the investment per passenger. 

Studies such as Mr. McGrath has made are extremely 
interesting because they throw additional light upon 
the difficult problem of the proper adjustment of fares, 
particularly in the large cities. While in one sense the 
new line of investigation has not brought out any ad- 
ditional truths concerning urban transportation eco- 
nomics, it has served to confirm that which is already 
known. The growth of a city beyond a certain point, 
instead of working to the advantage of its surface rail- 
way system, brings additional financial burdens and de- 
creases profits. 

So far as can be seen at the present time, our cities 
will continue to grow; the average length of haul will 
increase; congestion in the retail business and financial 



districts will become greater; the investment in cars, 
track and equipment per mile of main track will be in- 
creased, and the profits will be adversely affected. As 
cities grow, there is a progressive decrease in the rate 
of profit per passenger carried. But the net earnings 
per revenue passenger of our electric railways must not 
decrease if the necessary new financing to provide addi- 
tional facilities is to be successfully accomplished. 

It is to be hoped that the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology will continue the valuable studies which Mr. 
McGrath and others have been making. Such scientific 
work, carried on without bias by our leading educa- 
tional institutions, will lay the groundwork of scientific 
fact which must be recognized by commissions and pub- 
lic authorities in dealing with the problems of the 
electric railways. 

DEVELOPING THE FREIGHT BUSINESS 

Our leading article this week is on the methods of 
developing freight traffic employed by the Illinois Trac- 
tion Company, and we believe that it will attract a great 
deal of attention. In many respects Illinois is well 
suited for electric railway development. Owing to the 
topography of the country, construction costs are fairly 
low, and the population served is prosperous. It would 
be improper to say, however, that equally favorable con- 
ditions do not exist elsewhere, so that the reasons for 
the successful development of freight on the Illinois 
Traction System must be attributed more largely to 
methods and men rather than to environment. But the 
effectiveness of the men and methods is shown by the 
fact that during 1915 the company handled approxi- 
mately 25,000 carloads of freight and earned about 
$500,000 in freight revenue on its 460 miles of line. 

Of course, such a traffic would not come spon- 
taneously. The management early realized that if it 
was to do a considerable business in freight it must 
have the facilities in the way of track necessary for 
such a service. Where freight rights could not be 
secured through the towns, or where such transporta- 
tion in that way did not seem advisable, cut-offs were 
built. At other points short curves and steep grades 
were removed, and agreements were made with steam 
railroads for freight interchange. The population along 
the route was interested to aid in the construction of 
grain elevators, and a liberal policy was adopted in 
the way of installing temporary industrial tracks. This 
energy in the development of freight was not allowed 
to interfere with the passenger service, however, as 
that still constitutes on the Illinois Traction System, as 
on most roads, the great bulk of its transportation busi- 
ness. 

In the words of the Illinois Traction System officials, 
they have as yet only begun to "scratch the surface" 
of the company's freight traffic possibilities. Never- 
theless, the experience in Illinois is one which can well 
be commended to the careful consideration of other 
electric railway managers who see opportunities in 
their freight business, but are uncertain as to the 
methods which they should adopt to develop it. 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



47 



WHAT KIND OF COMPENSATION INSURANCE 
SHOULD BE ADOPTED? 

After so thorough a review of the various ways of 
insuring under workmen's compensation laws as that 
presented before the N. Y. E. R. A. at Niagara Falls 
last week and published elsewhere in this issue, it would 
be useless for us to discuss all these plans in detail. 
The committee report on this subject ably summarizes 
the characteristic merits and demerits of the respective 
methods of insurance, although no specific findings are 
made as to their relative worth. Of course, generaliza- 
tions on a subject containing so many intricate points 
and possessing so few experience data are difficult, but 
it is to be regretted that the committee did not use its 
extensive knowledge of the subject to draw up more 
definite conclusions for its report. 

For example, in our opinion it could justly have said 
that of the four possible insurance methods — stock com- 
pany, mutual insurance, State fund and self-insurance 
— the first is one that should be clearly recognized as 
being quite unnecessary for a large unified industry 
like electric railways. The asserted advantages of this 
method fall far short of counterbalancing the heavy 
loading of premiums with acquisition expenses and 
profits. With the development of the theory of work- 
men's compensation, other and better methods of in- 
surance have been originated solely to avoid the unde- 
sirable and still existing features of stock-company in- 
surance, and the railways should understand that a 
proper choice need involve a consideration of only the 
other three methods. As to the relative merits of these, 
it could well be held that self-insurance is the most 
desirable form for some of the largest companies, while 
the remainder of the railways would better begin the 
development of a mutual group instead of wasting 
money in stock-company insurance or experimenting 
with the State fund. 

As matters stand now, the issue between mutual trade 
insurance and the State fund method has not been con- 
clusively threshed out, but the latter method involves 
too many points of speculation before it can be con- 
sidered the favorite. The loss ratio of a mutual group 
and the State fund, under similar conditions, would be 
the same, but the expense ratio is a doubtful point. 
The State fund, which began operating at an expense 
ratio of 15 per cent, has reduced it to 12 per cent, but 
this figure has almost been equaled by the expense 
ratio of the Brewers' Mutual Indemnity Insurance Com- 
pany, a new trade mutual that was organized under the 
New York compensation act. What is needed, of course, 
are more exhaustive and exactly comparable data, and 
these can only be obtained if electric railways make an 
earnest effort at mutualization while the State fund is 
trying to prove its efficiency. One cannot yet be certain 
that the State fund can make the transfer to a self- 
supporting basis after July 1 of this year without an 
increase in rates or a curtailment of dividends. An 
even more important question is whether the State 
will really continue to reduce the expense ratio — in 
other words, whether it will in the long run be as dili- 



gent in its efforts to reduce expenses as are the mutual 
companies or will go the way of practically all other 
governmental attempts at business-like operation. 
Actual experience over a reasonably long period of years 
will afford the only authoritative answers to these ques- 
tions, but in the meantime electric railways need not 
be passive. 

The hesitancy of electric railways thus far in adopt- 
ing the mutual form of insurance has undoubtedly been 
due in large part to the lack of an experienced medium. 
A proposition has now been made, however, whereby 
electric railways may join the Utilities Mutual Insur- 
ance Company, which was originally organized for gas 
and electric lighting utilities of the State. Although 
in theory such a union of interests might not be desir- 
able, the plan of participation provides for such pro- 
portionate control in the board of directors and for 
such separation of experience records as render the 
proposal a practical and commendable one. When to 
these features there is added the fact that this mutual 
company has been in successful operation for more than 
eighteen months, it is evident that the railways no longer 
have an excuse for not taking quick and concerted steps 
toward the mutualization of their industry under the 
compensation law. 

While the mutual plan, with its exact experience and 
equitable division of burdens, is one that well deserves 
trial by electric railways, there are, as we said before, 
some companies which, on account of their magnitude, 
will find their ends served best by the self-insurance 
plan. It has been said that the low cost of self -insurance 
thus far should be considered in the light of the fact 
that no catastrophe burdens were present and, in an- 
other instance, that sooner or later the inability of some 
self-insured company to handle a catastrophe would 
result in the prohibition of self-insurance. It should 
be noted, however, that the catastrophe hazard for elec- 
tric railway employees is almost negligible as compared 
to that in industrial plants and similar institutions 
where all the employees work together or in large 
groups. Moreover, the height of development in safety, 
claim and medical work that has been reached by many 
electric railways in the normal course of their business 
makes it possible for them to assume the compensation 
risk of employees with practically no additional work. 
When a large electric railway has convinced the State 
authorities that it is financially capable of carrying its 
own risk, has deposited in bonds one-half of the State- 
fund annual premium, and thereafter has annually 
reported its financial showing, little ground exists for 
fear that the company's surplus will not cover deferred 
or continued compensation payments and the small 
catastrophe hazard. Under self-insurance, insurance 
cost becomes simply accident cost, with adequate pro- 
tection for the future comparable to the mutual or 
State-fund reserves if the State examiners do their 
work properly. In the case of companies financially 
sound, self-insurance is not a gamble, and we do not 
believe that those using this method will change to 
another. 



Developing Carload Freight Traffic on 
Illinois Traction System 



Article Outlines How This Large 
Interurban Railway System Made 
Its Freight Traffic Earn More 
Than $500,000 Annually and Also 
Describes Its Relations with the 
Industries and Steam Railroads, 
Both of Which Made Wholesale 
Freight Transportation Possible 



During the year ending Dec. 31, 1915, the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, Peoria, 111., handled approximately 25,000 
carloads of freight and earned about $500,000 in freight 
revenue. This freight earning represents about 20 per cent 
of the gross income of the Illinois Traction System's inter- 
urban lines, and the freight transported amounted to 734,483 
tons. In connection with freight transportation, 3,154,313 
revenue freight car-miles were run, and the results for 1915 
show an increase of 115 per cent over that obtaining in 
1908. The foregoing figures give an inkling of what this 
460-mile interurban railway system is doing in the way of 
developing its freight business. 




ILLINOIS TRACTION 



CARLOAD FREIGHT — FEEIGHT YARDS AT EAST PEORIA, BRIDGE AND 
ENTRANCE INTO PEORIA IN BACKGROUND 



MORE and more are electric interurban rail- 
ways realizing the folly of trying to make 
ends meet with earnings from a strictly 
passenger traffic. Many roads, from their 
inception, have devoted attention to the develop- 
ment of an express or less than carload freight 
business, which is handled in equipment resem- 
bling passenger cars. Franchise restrictions have pro- 
hibited the handling of standard freight cars and 
freight trains through the city streets on a number 
of lines, and very little has been done to lift these un- 
warranted embargoes against the handling of a general 
freight business. Those companies that have entered 
the bulk or carload freight business have found it more 
profitable than other classes of traffic, and there is a 
marked tendency on the part of many other companies 
at the present time so to equip their lines and correct 
the physical errors that they can handle carload freight 
on an unlimited scale. Early in its history the Illinois 
Traction System was confronted with the same obstacles 
which have prevented many other electric interurban 
lines from going into the general freight business. 



This company, however, realized the tremendous possi- 
bilities of freight traffic and inaugurated a consistent 
campaign to remove the physical barriers and obtain 
relief from the franchise restrictions. Where this was 
not possible belt lines were built around the cities. 

Chronological History of 
Freight Development 

Illinois, perhaps, afforded as favorable an opportunity 
for the successful construction and operation of an elec- 
tric railway as any other State in the Union. In gen- 
eral, construction costs were within reason because the 
topography is but slightly rolling and traffic possibilities 
were almost ideal, and because the State is rich in 
natural resources, containing large deposits of high- 
grade bituminous coal, fertile prairies and navigable 
waterways. Statistics show that Illinois leads all other 
States in the yearly area and yield of corn and oats, 
and in the number and value of horses. It also leads in 
extent and value of farm implements manufactured, 
meat products marketed yearly, and the extent and 



July 8, 1916 | 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



value of yearly crops produced. All of these factors, 
together with a number of thriving industrial centers 
with populations ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 people, 
situated at intervals of from 30 to 50 miles along the 
Illinois Traction lines, furnished local markets for the 
products of the farm and the mine. Natural lines of 
intercommunication which could be highly developed 
also afforded favorable prospects for passenger traffic. 
Such promising territory has had everything to do with 
the stability of the railway earnings of this property, 
and the management had in mind almost from its incep- 
tion a character of construction and equipment which 
would permit the handling of all classes of traffic. In 
case there is a lull in the output of the mines, the quan- 
tity of traffic is sustained by handling the products of 
the farm, and vice versa, when the agricultural season 
is unfavorable, the coal industry assists in counter- 
acting this loss of revenue. 

During construction this electric interurban line, like 
many others, made the mistake of operating over the 



removing sharp curves and steep grades at other points. 
The removal of these physical limitations and the relief 
from franchise restrictions permitted the Illinois Trac- 
tion System to handle a general freight traffic from 
Champaign, 111., to St. Louis, and from Springfield to 
Peoria, as well as from Peoria by way of Bloomington 
to Decatur. These improvements alone, however, did 
not expand this class of business beyond such local 
freight as originated and was delivered on the Illinois 
Traction's lines. During the period of construction 
connections were made with steam railroads at various 
points, but under contracts permitting only company 
material for construction purposes to be delivered over 
them. At a few points the railway company's lines con- 
nected with coal mines, and the first carload freight 
shipments largely consisted of this commodity. These 
coal mine connections, however, were made primarily to 
obtain coal for the railway's generating station, and the 
sale of coal to consumers along its lines was merely 
incidental. 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT FREIGHT YARDS AT EAST PEORIA, SHOWING 

"BROADSIDE" VIEW OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARS 



streets of villages and cities under contracts which, in 
many cases, limited the quantity and character of traffic, 
particularly as it related to freight. Moreover, in so 
doing, physical restrictions were frequently necessary, 
such as sharp curves and steep grades which would 
permit the handling of freight only in specially designed 
cars. As the freight business grew and interchange 
relations with steam railroads were arranged, these 
physical and contractual limitations became serious ob- 
stacles in the way of a rapid development, and as early 
as 1906 this company began to remove many of the 
physical obstructions. Sharp curves and steep grades 
on private rights-of-way were first eliminated, and, in 
many instances, private rights-of-way were purchased 
through villages and towns in order to straighten the 
line and obtain relief from franchise restrictions. In 
the larger cities where it was inadvisable to disturb 
franchise conditions, private rights-of-way were pur- 
chased and belt lines were constructed. 

At the close of the year 1911 approximately $1,000,- 
000 had been expended in the construction of freight 
belt lines, and about the same sum had been spent in 



Even with the favorable siter. afforded on the belt 
railways around Decatur, Springfield, Edwardsville and 
Granite City, industries could not be induced to locate 
their plants on the electric line unless a steam railroad 
connection was also to be had. Confronted with this 
obstacle, the management decided that the success of 
the freight business depended upon a full interchange 
with steam railroads. Applications to the State com- 
mission for physical connections and freight inter- 
change failed to obtain relief, but the favorable locations 
for industries afforded along the belt lines influenced 
different commercial organizations to take up the ques- 
tion of interchange between steam and electric lines 
with the State commission. In some instances they were 
successful in obtaining an order for track connections 
and interchange contracts. On the other hand, the first 
interchange contract consummated by the traffic de- 
partment of the Illinois Traction System was that made 
through a friendly arrangement with the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois Railroad and the Rock Island System. 
A physical connection was made with the former rail- 
road at Glover, 111., and less than carload freight was 



50 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT— DESCRIPTION OF FREIGHT MOVED AND TONNAGE 







December 


1915-1914 




December, 1913-1912 


Description of Freight Moved and Tonnage (Company Material Excluded) 




Compara- 








Compara- 








Month 


tive Same 


Cumulative 


Cumulative 


Month 


tive Same 


Cumulative 


( 'uroulative 




December 


Month 


from 


Period 


December, 


Month 


from 


Period 




1915 


Last 


Jan. 1, 1915 


1914 


1913 


Last 


Jan. 1, 1913 


1912 






Year 








Year 







Products of Agriculture 


















Grain . 


7,483 


4,951 


63,306 


45,007 


1,299 


4,716 


26,428 


34,474 


Flour... . 


252 


207 


2,774 


2,790 


224 


230 


1,888 


2,235 


Other mill products 


171 


242 


2,821 


3,051 


159 


138 


1,707 


2,141 


Hay 


155 


167 


2,424 


2 824 


193 


182 


2,039 


1,656 


Tobacco . . 


15 


148 


2 






5 


Cotton . 


55 




55 














148 


262 


3,769 


5,265 


172 


78 


1,520 


2,295 


Other products of 'igriculture 






A 


^77 




9 


47 


217 


















Products of Animals 


















Livestock . 


41 


85 


668 


1,707 


77 


226 


2,790 


3,656 


Dressed meats 


27 


34 


480 


651 


54 




292 


120 




14 


246 


3 444 


23 


4 


73 


200 




37 


20 


109 


61 


8 


11 


19 


57 


Wool . 




5 


19 






12 


22 


Hides and leather 


4 


4 


41 


40 

i 




14 


124 


139 


Dairy products 


11 




25 




6 


2 




2 


61 


1.066 


51 


2 


187 


282 






_ 

1 RODUCTS OF IVlINES 


















Anthracite coal 




5 


20 


42 


9 


1 


51 


32 


Bituminous coal 


43,057 


34.546 


373,364 


258,914 


29,504 


33,141 


274,938 


305,448 


Coke 


441 


CO 


2,237 


1,180 


31 


3 


493 


1,193 


Orea 










26 


Stone, sand, etc 


1 485 


2,207 


72,130 


92.829 


2,275 

21 


5,220 


74,207 


87,318 




652 


2^917 


43,134 


52,390 


1,274 


7,694 


16,844 


Products of Forest 








.. 










Lumber. . 


605 


619 


6,487 


8,222 


293 


578 


8,264 


5,617 


Other products of forest 


4,186 


4,729 


31,981 


22.553 


2,840 


1,329 



14,876 


19,190 


Manufactures 


















Petroleum and other oils 


109 


173 


1,525 


2,435 


148 


124 


1,871 


1,315 


Sugar 


57 


63 


954 


1,395 


81 


14 


494 


331 


Naval stores 


























80 


2 


Iron and steel rails 


27 


72 


1,484 


"l 228" 


15 


106 


428 


1,074 


Other casting and machinery 


580 


248 


5,184 


5,272 


98 


203 


2,577 


1,978 


Bar and sheet metal . . 


37 


34 


527 


1,062 


82 


48 


334 


502 




1 , 103 


1,121 


38,460 


22,768 


963 


1,611 


14,930 


19,207 




225 


314 


488 


3 


14 


242 


560 


Wagons, carriages and tools 


66 


10 


329 


269 


29 


16 


298 


311 


Wines, liquor and beer 


268 


204 


3,951 


3,587 


101 


238 


1,811 


2,539 


Household goods and furniture 


242 


226 


3,383 


3,543 


286 


281 


4,021 


3,618 




2,070 


905 


17,935 


13,990 


979 


1,498 


12,675 


20,051 


Other commodities under 2000 lb. lots. . . 


4,453 


2,997 


54.146 


116,670 


16,705 


9,195 


173,703 


107,865 


Total tonnage 


68,076 


57,110 


734,483 


675,042 


56,716 


60,509 


631,119 


642,522 



ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT— FREIGHT AND MILEAGE STATISTICS 





December 1915-1914 




December 


1913-1912 




Freight Traffic 




Compara- 








Compara- 








Month 


tive Same 


Cumulative 


Cumulative 


Month 


tive Same 


Cumulative 


Cumulative 




December, 


Month 


from 


Same Period 


December, 


Month 


from 


Same Period 




1915 


Last 


Jan. 1, 1915 


1914 


1913 


Last 


Jan. 1, 1913 


1912 






Year 








Year 








68,076 


57,110 


734,483 


675,042 


56,716 


60,509 


631,119 


642,522 


Tonnage company freight 


279 


238 


4,592 


3,790 


Total tonnage — all freight 


68,076 


57,110 


734,483 


675,042 


56,995 


60,747 


635,711 


646,312 




3,024,054 


3,229,589 


35,431,307 


35,667,477 


3,338,816 


3,120,314 


34,141,510 


32,857,012 




501,976 


540,382 


5,016,000 


2,519,056 


13,467 


12,953 


247,292 


203,835 


Total mileage — all frieght 


3,526,030 


3,769,971 


40,447,307 


38,186,533 


3,352,283 


3,133,267 


34,389,802 


33,060,847 


Number of tons carried 1 mile per mile of road (revenue) 


8,297 


8,871 


95,171 


89,851 


7,856 


7,342 


80,333 


77,311 




8,297 


8,871 


95,171 


89,851 


7,888 


7,372 


80,915 


77,790 




51.80 


66.01 


55 07 


56.57 


58.87 


51.57 


54.09 


51.14 


Average distance haul of 1 ton (all freight), miles 


51.80 


66.01 


55.07 


56.57 


58.82 


51.58 


54.10 


51.15 


Total freight revenue 


$45,450.58 


$37,124.48 


$477,147.31 


$482,011.73 


$41,759.04 


$43,342.19 


$483,401.52 


$464,197.66 


Average amount received for each ton of freight 


$0 66 


SO. 65 


$0 65 


$0.71 


$0.74 


$0 72 


SO. 77 


$0.72 


Average receipts per ton per mile 


$0 015 


$0,011 


$0,013 


$0,014 


$0,013 


SO. 014 


$0,014 


$0,014 


Miles of road operated in freight service 


425 


425 


425 


425 


425 


425 


425 


425 




$106 94 


887.35 


$1,122.70 


$1,134.15 


$98.26 


$101.99 


$1,137.42 


$1,092.23 


Freight revenue per loaded car-mile 


$0.2512 


$0.2331 


$0.2445 


$0 2475 


$0.2427 


$0.2504 


$0.2446 


$0.2388 




$3,218.10 


$1,855.22 


$24,129.48 


$17,542.17 


$1,226.75 


$1,308.07 


$16,006.48 


$16,212.40 


Locomotive Mileage 




















21,848 


20,082 


233,281 


222, 127 


17,387 


16,967 


210,535 


203,198 


Passenger locomotive miles 


211 


6 


678 


'.556 


12 


201 


8,283 


4,497 


Switching locomotive miles 


11,999 


9,861 


113,914 


124,723 


11,461 


4,766 


123,911 


46,690 




34,058 


29,949 


347,873 


347,406 


28,860 


21,934 


342,729 


254,385 


Car Mileage Revenue Service 


















Freight car-miles: 


















Loaded 


180,866 


159,242 


1.951,486 


1,946,871 


172,047 


173,098 


1,976,361 


1,943,582 


Empty 


90,732 


85,534 


923,624 


940,761 


84,037 


75,973 


889,909 


868,479 


Caboose 


27,591 


20,171 


279,203 


231,758 


17,848 


14,820 


222,456 


163,228 


Total 


299,189 


264,947 


3,154,313 


3.119,390 


273,932 


263,891 


3,088,726 


2,975,289 



Statistical Data Showing Character and Tonnage of Freight Moved, and Mileage 



July 8, 1916 J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



51 



niin«.i : btati Fair Grounds 



transferred by teams between the terminals of the elec- 
tric line and the Rock Island Railroad at Peoria, 111. 

With a steam railroad outlet for carload freight, the 
Illinois Traction System proceeded to direct its atten- 
tion to the development of freight on its own lines. 
In order to handle this business on a large scale, how- 
ever, freight equipment, including cars and locomotives, 
was necessary. For the local freight business the 
company had in service eleven 40-ton electric locomo- 
tives of the sloping-cab type, having a drawbar pull 
capacity of 12,000 lb. In 1910 six 60-ton locomotives 
with steel box bodies and a motor capacity for 30,000 
lb. drawbar pull was added to this equipment. Since 
that time other 60-ton locomotives of the same type 
have been added to the service. Coal cars of 80,000 lb. 
capacity and box cars for handling grain and other com- 
modities which require 
that class of equip- 
ment were also pur- 
chased. At the pres- 
ent time the Illinois 
Traction System's 
freight equipment in- 
cludes 759 freight cars 
of all kinds, fifteen 
cabooses, thirty loco- 
motives and pulling 
cars, sixteen express 
motors, ninety-eight 
express trailers and 
nine refrigerator cars. 
Views of the 60-ton 
locomotive and other 
standard freight equip- 
ment are shown in the 
accompanying illustra- 
tions. 

Preparations for the 
handling of a general 
freight business oc- 
curred simultaneously 
with plans for orig- 
inating this business. 
Among the first prof- 
itable sources of bulk 
freight revenue was 
that obtained from 
grain elevators. Of 
these, the Illinois 
Traction System now 
serves twenty - three, 
which have a combined 
capacity of 590,500 
bushels of grain, and 
they ship approxi- 
mately 4000 cars annually. In connection with these 
some interest may be attached to the manner in which 
the traffic department induced the location of elevators 
on its lines. Most of this work was handled through 
the traffic department's industrial agent, who also in- 
vestigates all industrial connections before they are 
granted. 

Possible locations for elevators were first selected, 
and then the industrial agent would obtain the co- 
operation of two or three influential farmers in the 
neighborhood. After these farmers had been convinced 
of the value of the elevator, they would call a meeting 
of all the farmers in that vicinity at a country school- 
house. The industrial agent would address these meet- 
ings and explain what an elevator would mean to the 
farmer in the way of reducing the haul and the num- 
ber of teams and saving in horseshoes, wagon repairs 
and help. He would dwell particularly on the relief it 



Western 
Cartridge Co. 




Springfield u.ticj M Belt L05A^ 



sVWe.tBelt / c. 4 a/ _jBclt & KuM) er C< 
^ Team Track 



ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — SPRINGFIELD BELT 
RAILWAY AND CONNECTIONS 



would bring to the farmer's wife. In fact, every argu- 
ment that could be brought to bear upon the situation 
was presented, and as soon as the agent had convinced 
his audience he proceeded to organize a farmers' ele- 
vator company by getting the farmers to subscribe for 
shares of stock in the elevator. When enough subscrip- 
tions were obtained, a State license to organize a stock 
company was secured, the company was organized and 
the officers elected. 

In a general way an elevator having a capacity for 
10,000 bushels of grain costs approximately $3,800, in- 
cluding the office building and the mechanical equip- 
ment. Most of these elevators have been installed since 
1910, and in practically every instance they have been 
a financial success. As an aid to this end the traffic 
department has been of no mean importance. From 

time to time it mails 
to all interested grain 
brokers a circular 
showing the names, ad- 
dresses and capacities 
of all the elevators lo- 
cated on its lines. This 
induces competitive 
bids for the grain, and 
the farmers thus 
served are in a position 
to obtain the maximum 
market prices for their 
grain. 

At first all grain was 
forwarded in the trac- 
tion company's cars in 
the usual way. In a 
comparatively short 
time, however, it was 
found that the steam 
railroads had relative- 
ly few carloads of 
freight to deliver to the 
electric line, whereas 
the electric line was 
originating grain and 
other coarse freight in 
carloads on quite a 
large scale. As a re- 
sult, the Illinois Trac- 
tion System's equip- 
ment was soon practi- 
cally exhausted, and it 
had only a few steam 
railroad cars which 
could only be loaded 
with shipments to for- 
eign lines. In order to 
rel ieve this situation the railway company built a 
grain transfer elevator at Glover, 111., the point of 
interchange with the Chicago & Eastern Illinois 
Railroad. This elevator had a storage capacity 
for 9000 bushels of grain, which permitted prompt 
release of cars either loading or unloading at 
this point, and when there were enough of both 
steam and electric railway cars the transfer was 
made direct; that is, without placing the grain in the 
storage bins. All grain passing through this elevator 
is weighed automatically on a scale which has a capacity 
of 5000 bushels per hour. On a single day as many as 
sixty-five cars of out-bound grain have been transferred, 
at an average cost of transfer of about % cents per 
bushel. Recently other grain transfer elevators have 
been installed at Decatur and East St. Louis. 

Since the first interchange contract was consum- 
mated in 1910, similar contracts and reciprocal switch- 




O'Gara Mine 

Deeatur- r (, pt lngneld 
Brick M'fg paring Brick Co. 



bfiringfield 

Ji-^-*-*- Wilson Tile / Drain Til* 



52 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — CARS SET AT 
COAL MINE 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT LOADING TILE 

INTO I. T. S. BOX-CARS 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT FREIGHT HOUSE 

AT PEORIA 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — ST. LOUIS RETAIL 
COAL DELIVERY PLANT 



ing arrangements have been made with the St. Louis 
Terminal Railway Association, with a connection at 
Granite City, and with the Southern Railroad, which 
has a connection at Venice, 111. Through these two con- 
nections the Illinois Traction System has access to all 
steam railroads operating out of St. Louis, Mo., and 
East St. Louis, 111. It also interchanges with the 
Wabash Railroad at Decatur, Springfield, Mount Olive, 
Staunton and Tilton, with the Cbicago & Alton Railroad 
at Shelbytown and Anderson, with the Illinois Central 
Railroad at Springfield and Decatur, and with the Peoria 
Railway Terminal at Peoria, thus giving a connection 
at that point with the Chicago & Alton Railroad and 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. Through 
tariffs are in effect with the Rock Island and the Min- 
neapolis & St. Louis Railroads, and interchange con- 
tracts with these railroads also provide for full work- 
ing arrangements with both the steam and the electric 
line for all classes of traffic. 

A complete set of rates to all Illinois points is in 
effect with the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. The 
Wabash Railroad System is also open to the electric line 
from Buffalo, N. Y., to Omaha, Neb., with both class and 
commodity rates and reciprocal switching arrangements 
at the connections. The switching rate is based on 10 
cents per ton, with a minimum charge of $2 and a 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — GLOVER INTERCHANGE 
TRACKAGE 

maximum charge of $4 per car. Similar arrangements 
have been made with the Chicago & Alton Railroad and 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad. A decision 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission forced the 
Peoria & Pekin Union Terminal Railway at Peoria to 
open up its terminal track facilities to the Illinois 
Traction System. This gave it access to all the indus- 
tries in Peoria, a privilege for which the traction line 
pays a terminal switching charge. 

Interchange with the Illinois Central Railroad was 
only obtained through a ruling of the Public Utilities 
Commission, brought about by complaint of Springfield 
manufacturers and the Springfield Chamber of Com- 
merce. This company also has physical connection with 
the Big Four Railroad, the Litchfield & Madison Rail- 
road and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. 
Recently joint rates on several commodities have been 
filed to govern shipments from and to the Illinois Trac- 
tion System to points on the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railroad. In all, the Illinois Traction System 
connects with eighteen steam and electric railroads and 
has access to all points in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, 
Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and North and South Dakota. 
It also has combination rates and services with boat lines 



July 8, 1916 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



53 



on the Mississippi River, the Illinois River and Lake 
Michigan. Unquestionably these interchange contracts 
with foreign lines have been of more value to the trac- 
tion system as a traffic accelerator than perhaps any other 
one factor, unless it is these contracts taken in con- 
junction with the facilities for industries afforded by 
the four belt lines. Since these interchange contracts 
became effective, the traction company has had no diffi- 
culty in locating industries on its lines. 

Other Sources from Which Carload 
Freight Is Secured 

Among the first carload freight revenue-producing 
industries located on the lines of the Illinois Traction 
System was a gravel-washing plant at Mackinaw, 111. 
At this point the traction company owned several acres 
of right-of-way underlaid with excellent deposits of 
sand and gravel. This tract was leased to private par- 
ties after the railway company had completed ballasting 
its line, and a gravel-washing and screening plant was 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — PLAN OF LARGE COAL 
MINE CONNECTIONS 



installed. The lease was made on a royalty basis, and 
it has now been in operation about eight years. During 
the construction season of the year this pit ships as 
many as forty cars a day over the electric line, and 
averages twenty cars a day. Gravel deposits are scarce 
in central Illinois, hence a good price is paid for this 
material and quite a long haul is to be had by the rail- 
way. A view of this pit is shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations. 

At the present time the Illinois Traction System 
serves ten coal mines and nine paving-brick plants. 
Aside from these a number of other industries requiring 
in-bound shipments of raw materials and out-bound 
shipments of manufactured products have been located 
along this railway's lines. To give some idea of the 
amount of freight which one of these brick companies 
delivers to the electric line, it may be of interest to 
state that the Decatur Brick Manufacturing Company, 
which has its brick kilns on the Decatur belt railway 
and mines its shale and clay on the Springfield belt rail- 
way, shipped 785 cars of shale, weighing approximately 
50 tons each, from Springfield to Decatur during 1915. 
In addition this company, during the same period, 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT SHALE MINING ON 

SPRINGFIELD BELT 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT LOADING EMPTY MILK 

CANS AT SPRINGFIELD 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT ARRIVAL OF MILK 

TRAINS IN ST. LOUIS 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — FREIGHT TRACK TO 
DRAIN TILE PLANT 



54 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



shipped to points on the electric line eighty carloads of 
brick and received thirty-five carloads of coal and eight 
carloads of sand. The Springfield Paving Brick Com- 
pany, another large concern located on the Springfield 
belt railway, shipped 250 carloads of brick over the elec- 
tric line during 1915. One of the larger coal mines to 
which a track connection has been made ships about 
2000 cars of coal over the electric line annually. 

Terms of Contracts for Industrial 
Track Service 

All industrial tracks which extend beyond the electric 
railway's right-of-way are arranged for by contracts 
with the industries which receive the service. Generally 
these contracts provide that the railway company lease 
the right-of-way from the industry on which the track 
is laid and that it build the railway track. The indus- 
try, in turn, does the grading and pays for all material 
necessary to construct the track and overhead. It is 
also specified that the industry shall pay the railway 
company the estimated cost of the material within sixty 
days after the contract is signed, and if the estimate is 



period of five years. This latter provision is required 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission to preclude any 
evidence that might be considered as a case of rebating. 
In every instance the ownership of the track remains 
with the railway company, and when the contract expires 
or is annulled, the railway company is permitted to re- 
move the track. This form of contract is practically the 
same as that used by steam railroads, so that, as a rule, 
industries desiring locations do not quibble over the 
terms. 

Installing Team and Farm 
Side Tracks 

Whenever a request for a side track is made and the 
industrial agent's investigation shows that the probable 
traffic is sufficient to pay interest on the company's in- 
vestment the track is built. Many of these farm and 
team sidings have been installed at various points along 
the company's lines, and in the majority of instances 
have proved to be profitable sources of revenue. In some 
instances industries express the desire to locate on the 
railway company's right-of-way, and this is arranged 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — VIEW OF TYPICAL FREIGHT TRAIN 



in error an adjustment is made at the completion of 
the work. In most instances the railway company sup- 
plies all the material for the track and overhead, and 
it charges the industry for its transportation from the 
point of origin to the point of delivery. During the 
period of construction the industry is required to carry 
liability insurance, and the contract remains in effect 
until the operation of the industry is abandoned. Dur- 
ing the term of the lease the industry maintains the 
track and overhead, but the work is usually done by the 
railway company at the industry's expense. Special pro- 
vision is also made for accidents in the operation of the 
track, and both parties are responsible for their own 
employees. 

As soon as shipments are delivered to the railway 
company it reimburses the industry at the rate of $2 
per car on all cars from which it receives at least a 
minimum freight charge of $10. These payments cease, 
however, when the industry has been fully reimbursed 
for the money it expended in constructing the track. 
Monthly settlements between the railway company and 
the industry are also provided, and the contract states 
that the railway shall continue to refund the industry 
until the tracks are fully paid for unless the freight 
received does not permit full reimbursement within a 



for under leases. In connection with these arrange- 
ments the Interstate Commerce Commission ruled in 
1912 that carriers could not lease their right-of-way in 
industries for a nominal sum but should receive a com- 
pensation equivalent to 6 per cent on the value of the 
property so leased. Since that time the Illinois Trac- 
tion System has conformed to this ruling. The Illinois 
Public Utilities Commission has also issued an order to 
the effect that these industrial-spur contracts shall con- 
tain a sixty-day cancellation clause. This commission 
held that such a clause was necessary to protect the 
public's interest. 

In many instances requests for the team and indus- 
trial sidings have been voluntary, and in others the 
installation has been entirely due to the work of the 
traffic department. Many of the spurs for the sale of 
coal and gravel have been put in because the traffic de- 
partment has interested parties in different localities in 
selling these products. Dealers are secured and a por- 
tion of the company's right-of-way leased to them for 
installing coal, sand and gravel bins. In this manner 
quite a large coal and gravel traffic has been developed 
on all divisions of the system. In connection with the 
coal business, the traffic department has done much to 
stimulate it by keeping in touch with the coal jobbers at 



July 8, 1916 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



55 



different points along its lines, particularly in the fuel 
contracting season. As shown in the statistical data, 
coal and gravel make up an important item in the total 
quantity of freight tonnage shipped. 

Temporary team tracks for handling construction ma- 
terials have also proved to be quite a factor in stimulat- 
ing carload freight traffic. Steam railroads, as a rule, 
refuse to install temporary team tracks at points con- 
venient to large construction jobs unless the tonnage is 
very large, and this has opened quite an attractive field 
for the electric line. These temporary team tracks are 
installed under contract, and since the Illinois Traction 
System now has connections with all steam railroads, it 
not only delivers materials originating at industries 
along its lines but it also shares in part of the freight 
earnings from materials originating on connecting 
lines. The policy of installing these temporary indus- 
trial spurs has been of particular value of late in con- 
nection with the good-roads movement, because it has 
permitted the Illinois Traction System to handle large 
quantities of materials used for road construction pur- 
pose. A number of temporary side tracks have also 
been installed to deliver materials to large building con- 
struction jobs at various points along this company's 
lines. In almost every instance the contracts for these 
spurs are on the basis that the parties for whom they 
are installed pay the entire cost of constructing them 
and taking them out when the work is completed. 

Good Return from Installing 
Side Tracks 

To give some idea of the money expended for these 
team and industrial side tracks annually, it may be of 
interest to state that during 1914 approximately $10,- 
000 was expended in this way. In 1915 more than 
$18,000 was spent for freight side tracks, and for the 
first two months of 1916, more than $6,000 has already 
been spent for this purpose. These amounts, of course, 
do not include the cost of the track beyond the railway 
company's right-of-way, but simply represent the ex- 
pense which the railway company must bear. A few 
examples of expenditures for side tracks and the re- 
turns expected are as follows : $2,850 was expended for 
a siding to an elevator which, it was estimated, would 
develop at least 100 cars of grain annually. For an ex- 
penditure of $800 for a track connection to a brick 
company, the traction company received a revenue of 
$1,050 during the first ten months it was in operation. 
In six months a grain elevator, which was erected be- 
side a siding already installed, delivered to the traction 
company eighty-three cars of grain, returning a total 
revenue of $3,820. It was estimated that this grain 
elevator would ship approximately 150 cars a year. 

A track connection was built to a large cartridge man- 
ufacturing plant which was arranged for switching 
cars from foreign lines, and at the same time the elec- 
tric railway furnished a special service for the em- 
ployees. This plant employed between 350 and 500 men, 
and most of them had to be transported to the factory 
site. In two months the traction company also switched 
226 cars from connecting lines and received a switching 
revenue of approximately $700. Aside from the switch- 
ing service, 147 carloads of freight originating on the 
electric line were delivered to this plant, returning a 
total revenue of $3,100. The securing of this plant on 
the electric line also resulted in a steam railroad's 
agreeing that the electric line should do the switching 
which, of course, meant that it would receive the switch- 
ing revenue. These figures are largely for construction 
materials, and it is expected that when this plant is in 
operation that the traffic will be divided between the 



electric line and the steam road as far as freight is 
concerned, and in addition the electric railway will have 
a 6-mile haul for the plant's employees. 

Aside from the team tracks installed at practically 
any point along the company's lines, upon request and 
evidence that they will be productive of sufficient busi- 
ness to make them a paying proposition, team tracks 
are also installed at way stations, and in many locations 
the railway company has provided wagon scales. Usu- 
ally these team tracks, unless the carload freight busi- 
ness is heavy, also serve as house tracks with an ele- 
vated freight platform on the freight-room side and a 
driveway on the team side. This plan of construction' 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — LOADING CARS AT 
GRAVEL PIT NEAR MACKINAW 



permits a single track to serve for both less than car- 
load and carload shipments. 

Several of the accompanying diagrams and views 
have been reproduced to illustrate the plans used in 
making these industrial plant connections. 

Freight Service Increases Power 
Requirements 

As the freight business grew and the length of the 
freight trains increased from four or five cars to thirty 
or forty cars, additional substation capacity became 
necessary, and as a substitute for increased feeder 
capacity, the trolley voltage was raised from 550 to 650. 
This necessity for increased substation and line capac- 
ity was not entirely due to the freight traffic but largely 
so. On the other hand, as the quantity of freight in- 
creased, particularly that of carload freight, more and 
more of the trains were scheduled for night runs when 
the passenger cars had handled the evening traffic 
peak. A number of new substations were added to the 
system in 1909 and 1910, and the standard substation 
equipment of one 300-kw. rotary converter was, in many 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



ILLINOIS 



REPORT OF CARS ON HAND A 



CTION SYSTEM 




Note — Numbers and Initials must be taW-n from tW <j£rs and not from way-bills. This report is to be 
made in triplicate DAILY EXCEPT SUNDAY up to 800 A. M. One copy to be sent to Car 
Accountant, or.e copy to Chitf Dispatcher and one copy for Station File. Forward on first passenger train 




ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT GENERAL CAR 

DISTRIBUTER RECORD FORM 

instances, doubled, or a 500-kw. machine was substi- 
tuted for the 300-kw. machine. At the present time the 
average distance between substations is 9.8 miles, the 
total number of substations is thirty-eight, and the total 
number of rotary converters is forty-four. These pro- 
vide a total kilowatt capacity of 22,600 kw., or the 
equivalent of approximately 51 kw. per mile of track. 

Scheduling Freight Trains 

All freight trains handling carload freight are oper- 
ated on night schedules, except in two cases, one of these 
being of necessity a day run in order to complete de- 
liveries, and the other a short run on a branch line 
where there is practically a store-door delivery. Freight 
service between Springfield, 111., and St. Louis, Mo., in- 
cludes two trains each way daily, which pick up and 
set out loaded cars en route. The other train is known 
to the service as a drag, or a dead-freight train, and 
besides handling what is termed "rough freight" or 
freight in carloads, this train does all the miscellaneous 
switching en route. All freight trains are scheduled to 
leave the freight terminals, but they run as extras, with 
rather liberal running time so that they will have am- 
ple time to do the road work. The usual freight train 
from St. Louis to Springfield averages about thirty 
loaded cars and four empty cars. The train making the 
run in the opposite direction is somewhat lighter, con- 
sisting of an average of about seven loaded and fifteen 
empties. The merchandise train out of St. Louis to 
Springfield averages about eight loaded cars daily, and 
the merchandise train running in the opposite direc- 
tion averages about four loaded and six empties daily. 
Aside from these two there are also two trains operat- 
ing over part of this same division, which usually con- 



sist of seven loads of freight out-bound from St. Louis, 
and the in-bound train usually averages about two 
loaded and six empty cars. 

A typical weekly report of the total amount of freight 
handled by the Illinois Traction System on the three 
divisions is as follows: 

Eastern Division 
422 loads of coarse freight handled. 
Sixty-eight loads of merchandise handled. 
One load of coarse freight received from C. & E. I. 
Six loads of merchandise received from C. & E. I. 
Twenty-four loads of coarse freight delivered to the C. & E. I. 
One load of grain transferred at Glover. 

Northern Division 
514 loads of coarse freight handled. 
218 loads of merchandise handled. 
Fifty-seven loads delivered from P. & P. TJ. 
Five loads received from P. & P. U. 
Nine loads delivered to P. R. T. 

Nine loads of grain delivered to Wabash at Decatur. 

Southern Division 
235 loads of merchandise handled. 
377 loads of coarse freight handled. 
Eighty-eight loads of merchandise out of St. Louis. 
Two cars of stock. 
Nineteen loads of cinders. 
Sixty-one loads received from the M. B. T. 
Seventeen loads delivered to the M. B. T. 
Twenty-four loads received from the Southern. 
Two loads delivered to the Southern. 



Distributing Freight Cars 

No small part of a successful carload freight han- 
dling business is the promptness and fairness of dis- 
tributing empty cars. These must not only be sent 
promptly, but it is often necessary to distribute empties 
in proportion to the needs when there is a car shortage. 
In that case considerable diplomacy is necessary in or- 
der to eliminate friction. Cars to the various side 
tracks and industries are distributed by the division 
superintendents through the dispatchers. Records of 
interchange of cars between divisions as well as of the 
distribution of cars to the industries over the entire 
system are kept at the office of the assistant general 
manager by a general car distributer. In order to get 
a line-up on the car situation daily all way-station 
agents are required to make car reports to the division 
superintendents. "Blind" sidings or sidings between 
stations are checked by the first train crews over the 
road each morning, and these crews report to the divi- 
sion superintendents through the dispatchers. As soon 
as this information is in the hands of the division super- 
intendent he arranges for the car distribution which is 
executed by the dispatcher, who also reports over the 
telephone to the general car distributer as to what he 
has done. In general there are seldom more than 10 
or 15 per cent of foreign cars on the system at any one 
time, so that the work of distributing empties is that 
of handling the company's own equipment. On the 



ILLINOIS TRAC 

Report of Equipment, 24 hours ending 1:00 p. r 


TlOltf SYSTEM 

10 












ON HAND 




HAD ORDEIl 


FOREIGN CARS 


REMARKS 












































In TroniK 




































































C. B. & D. DIVISION 




















i 














Q 






























































































































































It ,. ,- Irmk to 

Johnson, loci. 
































































rilntoo 
































































I "(■'. Cuun.p Incl. 
































































P. M. A C. DIVISION 
































































BloominKtr.n 
































































































































































































i>. r. as. nrvronw 
































































Cash 
































































































































s. A N. E. DIVISION 































































ILLINOIS TRACTION CARLOAD FREIGHT — WAY STATION AGENTS' CAR REPORT FORM 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



57 



other hand, foreign cars are kept moving in order to 
keep the per diem charges at a minimum. The forms 
employed by the station agents in reporting the checked 
cars to the division superintendents are shown in the 
accompanying illustrations, as well as the general form 
used by the car distributer in distributing cars over 
the entire Illinois Traction System. 

Quantity and Kind of 
Freight Handled 

As mentioned earlier in the article, freight traffic 
during the past seveji years has increased 115 per cent, 
and the earnings from freight now represent about 20 
per cent of the gross earnings of the interurban lines. 
Freight revenue is received from two sources, namely, 
revenue for transporting freight and revenue from 
switching service rendered to industries and connec- 
tions. Earnings from these two sources for the last 
seven years are as follows : 



Year Freight Revenue Switching- Revenue 

1909 $271,389.20 $10,280.97 

1910 357,873.20 14, 057. SO 

1911 372,443.97 13,437.27 

1912 462,055.83 16,446.66 

1913 4S5.084.35 16,122.88 

1914 483,060.76 16,396.73 

1915 475.696.S4 24,186.06 



Another table of statistics on page 50 indicates the 
sources of the tonnage and shows the growth of 
freight traffic beginning in 1912 and ending Dec. 31, 
1915. 

Regarding the future the management of the Illinois 
Traction System believes that it has only begun to 
"prick the surface," so to speak, of its freight traffic 
possibilities. Only within the past few years has this 
company been able to offer attractive inducements to 
industries to locate on its lines and belt railways, and 
during the present year contracts already executed and 
others in process will add a number of other important 
industries to those already using the electric railway 
freight service. While connections, through rates and 
reciprocal switching arrangements have been made with 
steam railroads, they have as yet not fully opened 
their doors to the electric railway traffic, but there is 
no longer any doubt that they will realize the error 
of their ways in the past, and full interchange and 
through routeing of freight will be in effect with all 
connecting steam railroads. 



Massachusetts Commission Issues 
Report 

The third annual report of the Massachusetts Public 
Service Commission has been issued, the first volume 
from the press covering reports and orders and includ- 
ing 185 pages of introductory reports and general sta- 
tistics and 648 pages of orders, special reports and 
exhibits, with the usual maps of steam and electric 
railways in the State. Among the special reports of 
interest to electric railways, which have in the main 
been abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal at 
previous times, are a twenty-four-page review of the 
jitney bus situation in Massachusetts and elsewhere, 
prepared by Charles E. Mann, executive secretary of 
fie commission; street railway power requirements in 
: Iassachusetts ; important decisions in the fare cases of 
ae Blue Hill Street Railway, New Bedford & Onset 
otreet Railway, and Norfolk & Bristol Street Railway; 
an investigation of safety conditions on the Boston rapid 
transit lines, and an eighty-eight-page report by the 
commission to the Legislature on metropolitan transpor- 
tation problems at Boston. 



Front-End Collector's Transfer 

The Adoption of This New Transfer Has Simplified 
the Collectors' Work and Accelerated 
Traffic 15 Per Cent 

THE Kansas City Railways on May 1 adopted a spe- 
cial transfer for "front-end collectors," which elim- 
inates the necessity of these conductors handling sev- 
eral different transfers. Heretofore the front-end col- 
lectors, in serving each car, have had to use the trans- 
fer of its particular line, and the delay in selecting and 
punching these various transfers has been a serious re- 
tardant in the movement at congested corners. The new 
front-end collector transfers have in the margins the 
names of about forty boarding points where front-end 
collectors are customarily used, and before he starts 
work the collector punches the designation of the cor- 
ner where he is to collect. The conductors on any lines 
where the transfer may later be used have then only 
to note that the passenger is not being carried back to 
his starting point. 

These transfers are punched for hour periods, in- 
stead of for fifteen-minute periods as are the ordinary 
transfers, removing more of the burden from the front- 



TRANSFER FOR FRONT-END COLLECTION — THE PUNCH INDICATES 
BOARDING POINT, NOT TRANSFER POINT 

end collectors. A note on the back of the transfer in- 
structs the collector to punch the printed location near- 
est his actual working place, in case such place is not 
included in the list. The Kansas City Railways use 
ordinarily forty to fifty front-end collectors. During 
the "Billy" Sunday revival ten or fifteen more were 
used, where attendants at the services boarded the cars 
homeward bound. It is estimated that the use of these 
transfers will save four to six seconds on each car tak- 
ing passengers at these boarding points. 

Heretofore the collections of front-end men have been 
averaged and estimated among the various lines served 
at the corners where they were stationed, and credited 
to those lines. The new transfers will not allow of quite 
such close reckoning, but the same system of estimat- 
ing as is used for discovering the course of a transfer 
over various lines, based upon occasional record-taking 
by conductors, will be employed. Eventually a coupon 
system may be adopted in order to attain accurate rec- 
ords of origin of travel and course of transfers. The 
front-end transfers constitute usually about 2 per cent 
of the 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 transfers issued every 
month, but it is estimated that their use makes a differ- 
ence of more than 15 per cent in the expedition of 
traffic. 



A ticket office has been opened in the American Trust 
Building on the Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio, for the 
accommodation of patrons of the Lake Shore Electric 
Railway and the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 
Railroad, the cars of which are compelled to stop there 
for passengers instead of in front of the interurban 
depot. 




58 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [VOL. XLVIII, No. 2 



Investment per Revenue Passenger and 

Density of Traffic 

The Author Analyzes the Relation Between Electric Railway Investment and Traffic 
Density on the Basis of His Suggested Unit of Investment per Revenue Passenger 
— Charts Based on Statistics of Existing Properties Are Also Presented 

By D. J. McGRATH 

Research Assistant Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



IN dealing with the relation of the capitalization of 
street railways to the fair value or the actual in- 
vestment, a unit of comparison called the "investment 
per revenue passenger" was suggested by the author 
in an article appearing in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for May 8, 1915. It was pointed out at that time 
that while this unit was not by any means a fixed quan- 
tity, or capable of exactly denning a standard of rea- 
sonable capitalization for all transportation companies, 
it seemed to have certain advantages over the more 
commonly used standard units such as the "mile of 
track" or the "dollar of gross revenue." Some ten ex- 
amples which were considered fairly typical were given. 
The figures in these particular cases varied from a min- 
imum investment of 13 cents per revenue passenger to 
a maximum of 32 cents. Some of the reasonably prob- 
able causes of this variation were outlined in the article. 

During the past year, in connection with the investi- 
gation which is being made of the electric railway fare 
and traffic problem, the research division of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology has acquired a con- 
siderable amount of additional data along the lines of 
the actual investment in various street railway com- 
panies and has reduced these data to the revenue pas- 
senger unit. 

As a result of this form of analysis it has been found 
that while there is a certain natural and proper varia- 
tion in the costs of constructing and equipping different 

70 1 — * | 1 1 r— | 1 1 [ j j 1 1 1 1 1 

65 



00 




Revenue Passengers per Mile of Single Main Track per Annum. 



FIG. 1 — RELATION BETWEEN TOTAL ANNUAL COST OF PERMA- 
NENT PROPERTY PER REVENUE PASSENGER PER ANNUM 
AND DENSITY OF TRAFFIC FOR THIRTY-FIVE TYPICAL 
STREET RAILWAYS 
In this diagram the cost of parks and similar non railway 
property is excluded. Circles indicate companies which have 
little or no investment in power plants ; dots, companies having 
power plants. 



street railways, there appears to be, if the data avail- 
able may be considered fairly representative, a rea- 
sonably consistent relation between the investment per 
revenue passenger and the density of traffic. 

In considering the following discussion and statis- 
tics, it must be remembered that they are applicable 
only to ordinary street railways which are wholly, or 
almost wholly, engaged in passenger business at small 
unit fares such as 5 or 6 cents. The curves were de- 
rived from the data of thirty-five different street rail- 
ways, more than half of which are in the State of 
Massachusetts, where the capitalization of the com- 
panies has always been limited to the actual invest- 
ment of money in the property and has been under the 
supervision of a State commission. The remaider of 
the companies included in this study were ones for 
which reliable engineering appraisals were available in 
which the investment or the reproduction value had 
been determined. Systems serving various classes of 
territory were included, city suburban and rural lines 
all being treated alike, but the high-speed interurban 
type of electric railway, which corresponds more nearly 
to the steam railroad type of service, was excluded. No 
company was included which rented or leased any con- 
siderable part of the track or cars which it operated, 
unless the investment represented by such rented prop- 
erty could be determined and included. On the accom- 
panying plots, the data are specially indicated for com- 
panies which purchase all or most of their power, and 
so have little or no investment in power plant. The 
figures are practically all from reports of the years 
1914 or 1915. 

The principal relation is shown in Fig. 1. The curve 
which has been drawn in is merely intended to guide 
the eye to the approximate average location of the 
points and not to represent any arbitrary standard. 
Granting that the data used are fairly typical of street 
railway conditions generally in this country, it may be 
concluded from this plot that the average investment 
per revenue passenger decreases as the density of traffic 
increases up to a certain point, after which higher 
traffic densities fail to cause any material decrease in 
the investment per passenger. This seems to indicate 
that in the larger cities, the traction companies have to 
put in so much more investment in heavier track, bet- 
ter cars, more power plants and the added track and 
equipment required for long hauls that any advantage 
which might be gained from increasing density of traffic 
is offset. 

An example of this is shown by the two points which 
are considerably above the average curve, one near 
400,000 and the other near 750,000 revenue passengers 
per mile of single main track. These points represent 
the investment in two very large cities where long 
hauls are given for the single fare and where there is a 
material amount of unusually expensive construction. 

The points for companies which do not own their 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



59 



power plants are shown by the hollow circles as distin- 
guished from the other solid dots. The former are 
generally somewhat lower on the curves than the others, 
as would naturally be expected. 

It is plain that the investment per revenue passenger 
is subject to some considerable variation on different 
systems even at approximately the same densities of 
traffic, but this form of analysis seems to give some- 
what more consistent results for comparative purposes 
than a mere scattering of investment data without 
reference to any of the limiting conditions. 

Where the density of traffic is less than 100,000 
revenue passengers per mile of single main track, the 
investment per revenue passenger becomes rapidly 
greater. In fact, these statistics indicate that operation 
is not so likely to be profitable at 5-cent fares where the 
density of traffic is much less than 100,000 per mile 
of track. 

When the investment per passenger gets to be 30 
cents or more, as it evidently does at these low 
densities, an average rate of return of, say, 7 per cent 
on investment, requires 7/100 of 30 cents, or 2.1 cents 
at least, out of each passenger's fare. Since a low 
density of traffic also means higher operating expenses 
per passenger, there is little likelihood of 2.1 cents being 
available for return on investment after the nickel fare 
has been "split" for the other expenses. A 7 per cent 
average return is used here merely as an illustration; 
it is not intended to stand as an arbitrarily selected 
"fair" rate. 

The general precept may be laid down that the more 
revenue passengers per mile of track, the better are the 
chances for profitable operation. However, a practical 
limit is reached along this line in the operation of 
street railways in very large cities where the length 
of passenger haul for the 5-cent fare becomes so great 
as materially to reduce the earnings per car-mile. 
Moreover, when any part of the trackage becomes so 
congested that the company has to resort to the build- 
ing of subway or elevated lines to handle the traffic, 
then the investment will be abnormally increased. 

In Fig. 2 there is shown that part of the Investment 
which is devoted to the construction of road and track, 
exclusive of power plant buildings, power equipment 
and rolling stock. The curve is similar in shape to the 
total investment curve shown in Fig. 1 but of course 
it is somewhat lower on the scale. All the companies 
included in making up Fig. 1 were not included in the 



Actual Cost of Equipment! i c Cars and Other Vehicles) per Revenue Passonger 
















* 




1 































• 









2 3 4 5 6 

Revenue Passengers per Oar Mile 



Actual Cost of Power Buildings and Equipment per Revenue Passenger 
• • 


























• 






















• 




• 


• 


• — 







2 3 4 5 6 

Revenue Passengers per Oar Mile 



Act 


ual Cost o£ Other Permanent Railway Property per Revenue Passenger 












































• i 


'v 


• 


• 

•• 


• n 






• 

• 

• 


• 



01234567 

Revenue Passengers per Car Mile 

FIG. 3 — RELATIONS BETWEEN ACTUAL COSTS OF EQUIPMENT, 
ETC., PER REVENUE PASSENGER AND REVENUE PASSEN- 
GERS PER CAR MILE 

construction of the following charts because the more 
specific data required were not available. 

In Fig. 3 the other elements which go to make up 
the total investment are compared with density of traf- 
fic. These elements, however, seemed to be somewhat 
more closely related to the density of traffic expressed 
in terms of revenue passengers per car-mile, rather 
than per mile of track, although the same general form 
of relation naturally holds true in both cases. 

The old unit, investment per mile of track, is also 
capable of analysis with respect to the density of traffic 
as is shown in the plot marked Fig. 4, which should 
prove generally useful when considering statistics in 
this form of comparison. The reasons for the increase 
in investment per mile of track as the density of traffic 
increases are not difficult to explain. In the first place 
track built for dense traffic is generally, and should be, 
of heavier and more expensive construction. The elec- 
tric line for distributing the power along the track 
must be of greater current carrying capacity and con- 
sequently requires more copper. These railways with 
dense traffic are almost always in the large cities and 
towns where expensive paving is required which is not 
necessary in rural districts. Fully as important is the 
fact that the denser traffic requires more cars and power 
plant equipment for each mile of track operated. 







Cost of Road and Track Construction. 








Including: 


Road & Track; Materials & Labor 
Paving 

Bridges. Trestles and Culverts 
Electric Line, Poles, Wires, 
Conduits, etc. 

O: -1 r- rr> l „ i _ 


• 
























• 


• 










OlfcJIlUl a 

Engincc 


a uiutmuuu oysbeins 

ring & Superintendence 
, Taxes, etc., during 
truction. 














Interest 

Cons 




• 
























































\ • 




























\* 




























■.\ 


\» 


P • 
























* 
« 






















• 












• 

















































Revenue Passengers per Mile ot Single .Main Track per Annum. 




Revenue Passengers per Mile of Single Main Track per Annum. 



FIG. 2 — RELATION BETWEEN COST OF ROAD AND TRACK CONSTRUCTION AND DENSITY OF TRAFFIC. FIG. 4 — RELATION BETWEEN 

TOTAL INVESTMENT PER MILE AND REVENUE PASSENGERS PER MILE 



60 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



It is not to be supposed that these general statistics 
can be used to make any definite or final decision as to 
whether a given company's capitalization represents a 
fair investment value or not. Obviously there can be 
no absolute statistical standard for determining in- 
vestment or fair value. 

If in any given case the unit capitalization falls above 
the average curve it is by no means a proof of over- 
capitalization. All the conditions and local circum- 
stances as well as the past history of the up-building 
of the system must be given due consideration. Indeed, 
the mere fact of the data falling exactly upon the aver- 
age curve is not in itself a demonstration that a com- 
pany is not over-capitalized for the actual amount, 
condition and kind of property it has on hand. 

The statistics of any one particular year are not 
always a safe criterion to rely upon in these compari- 
sons. A company may have been obliged to make a 



large investment in an extension or improvement, which 
investment is included in its capitalization for a certain 
year before the extension or improvement has been put 
into use. This would naturally raise the investment 
per revenue passenger somewhat above its normal level 
and it might take one or two years before the extension 
or addition began to receive its normal share of the 
traffic. 

In general, however, it would seem that these average 
curves should be of service in broad general considera- 
tions of the cost of street railway service and the de- 
termination of reasonable systems and rates of fare. 
They show clearly the general nature of the effect of 
density of traffic upon the investment in street railway 
property used for the transportation of passengers. 
These statistics may also prove useful in making rough 
comparisons of the capitalization of any particular 
street railway with others of a similar nature. 



Workingmen's Compensation Insurance 

Report on Different Plans Followed in New York State and Their Advantages, Disadvan- 
tages and Costs as Regards Electric Railway Operation 

By J. P. BARNES (Chairman) 
W. H. COLLINS, C. L. STONE, THOMAS PENNY and ERNEST GONZENBACH 



THE workmen's compensation law of the State of New 
York became effective on July 1, 1914, and it became 
necessary for each of the employers to designate prior 
to July 1, 1914, which of the forms of insurance, (1) 
stock company, (2) mutual company, (3) state fund, or 
(4) self-insurance, it elected for its protection. In 
most instances arrangements covering the full term 
of one year were made. Agitation in the Legislature 
for amendment to the law was active during the ses- 
sion of the Legislature following the effective date of 
the law, but material amendments were not enacted until 
the legislative session of 1915-1916. 

During the last few months figures have been made 
available showing the experience of insurers and car- 
riers under the various plans, and it is intended in this 
report to set forth briefly some of the figures which 
have been made available to your committee. Consider- 
ing the four alternatives, we find certain inherent ad- 
vantages and disadvantages in the various forms which 
may be briefly summarized as follows: 

(1) — Stock Company Insurance 

The insurer in the stock company is protected under 
a form of policy, not only against those injuries entitling 
the workman to compensation under the compensation 
law, but also against other classes of injuries to work- 
men, insuring to the employer that the expenditure of 
his insurance premium definitely protects him against 
all claims of workmen for injuries, provided that the 
company in which he insures is sound and stable. The 
insurer is relieved of the negotiations of settlement of 
claims, appearances before the commission at hearings 
upon claims and defence of suits arising therefrom. 

The rates of insurance under the policies of the stock 
companies are, for urban operation, $3.24 per $100 of 
payroll and for interurban operation, $5.18 per $100 of 
payroll. There is no refund or dividend to apply in re- 
duction of these rates, but we understand that policies 
may be obtained at a lower rate by insurers who have 
fulfilled certain requirements as to the appointment of 

•Abstract of report presented at annual meeting of New York 
Electric Railway Association, Niagara Falls, N'. T., June 27-28, 
1916. 



safety committees, safeguarding of hazardous ma- 
chinery, locations, etc. 

(2) — Mutual Insurance 

The mutual company is in effect a pool entered into 
by employers in a similar class of business, under the 
terms of which expense and hazard are shared between 
those participating in the pool, so that if the mutual 
company includes all or nearly all of the companies in 
a certain class of industry, the experience of the mutual 
company will, over a term of years, reflect the true ex- 
perience of the industries, equitably dividing the burdens 
of that industry among all employers participating. 

The insurance rates are the same as for stock com- 
pany insurance, but the unexpended portion of premiums 
paid is returnable as dividends after the establishment 
of a sufficient reserve fund, and arrangements may be 
made for distribution of dividends on a basis of pro- 
rating, which will recognize comparative merit claims 
to consideration of the various insurers. This feature is 
distinctly valuable and should be emphasized, as it makes 
possible an equitable distribution of the burden of in- 
surance of an industry and does this without over-bur- 
dening the well-managed company for the faults of an- 
other company in the same pool not so well or skillfully 
handled. 

The policyholders in the mutual company are able, 
by choosing directors suitable to them, to administer the 
funds of the company and assure themselves that the 
business of the mutual company is carried on along 
lines of policy agreeable to the policyholders. This in- 
fluence over the manner of settlement and handling of 
funds is not had by the policyholder either in the stock 
company or in the state fund, although the individual 
has even greater latitude under the plan known as "self- 
insurance" than under any of the other three. 

Under the plan of mutual insurance the extreme or 
catastrophe hazard is shared generally throughout the 
industry and may be further guarded against by re- 
insuring of the catastrophe hazard on the part of the 
mutual company. Many mutual companies reinsure 
against liability in excess of, say $15,000 or $20,000 aris- 



July 8, 1916 J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



61 



ing out of one accident, thus minimizing the catastrophe 
hazard to their policyholders. 

(3) — State Fund 

Insurers in the state fund pay a lower initial rate 
than in either stock or mutual insurance ($2.50 for 
urban and $4.75 for interurban, as contrasted with 
$3.24 and $5.18). Under the provisions of the law a 
separate group may be established in the state fund for 
any particular industry, and dividends based upon the 
experience of the group may be had, the benefit of 
the favorable experience not being shared with em- 
ployers in other industries. The general conduct of the 
business of the state fund is similar to that of the 
mutual company, except that the administration of the 
funds is in the hands of officers appointed by the commis- 
sion and is not subject to any control on the part of the 
insurers ih the fund. Up to July 1, 1916, the adminis- 
tration expenses of the state fund have been paid by 
the state, but after this date these expenses will be borne 
by the state fund, which will increase the cost of this 
form of insurance. Insurers in the state fund are not 
protected against catastrophe losses of other insurers in 
that fund, the catastrophe hazard of all lines of industry 
being shared by all insurers in the fund, at least to the 
extent of their premium payments. The manager of the 
state fund is authority for the statement that insurers 
in the state fund are not subject to any assessment 
liability. The commission, however, has authority to 
revise rates from time to time. The State Industrial 
Commission has ruled that it has no right or authority 
under the law to assess the state fund policyholder, 
which ruling has been confirmed in an opinion by the 
attorney-general. On the other hand, the members of 
the mutual company incur an assessment liability of 
100 per cent of their premium and do not secure re- 
lease from liability to pay compensation as do insurers 
in the state fund. 

(4) — Self-Insurers 

Employers may elect to settle compensation claims 
directly upon presentation of satisfactory evidence to 
the commission of their ability to meet these obliga- 
tions. In this connection the commission requires the 
deposit of an approved security in an amount equivalent 
to six months' premium at the rate of the state fund, 
and in addition a cash deposit from which claims are 
paid, it being the duty of the employer to keep this 
fund always at the amount specified by restoring thereto 
any amount that may be withdrawn by the payment of 
claims. The self-insurer pays the least for his com- 
pensation insurance of any of the classes, but on the 
other hand, bears alone the burden of his catastrophe 
hazard. The commission is authorized to require pay- 
ment by the self-insurer of an amount estimated by the 
commission to be sufficient to meet all deferred pay- 
ments arising out of any accident, which renders the 
self -insurer liable to relatively large lump-sum payments 
at the will of the commission. 

The experience of insurers under various forms of 
policies has tended to show that the rates charged for 
stock and mutual insurance are excessive, or else that 
the experience of the companies in this state, since the 
enactment of the compensation law, has been unusually 
favorable. So far as your committee could ascertain, 
there does not seem to be, in the experience of the com- 
panies in this state, a justification for the higher rate 
charged for interurban as compared with urban opera- 
tion, and it would appear that these rates, and especially 
the interurban rate, are subject to adjustment down- 
ward. 

The experience of the self-insurers under the law 



shows a considerably lower cost than any of the other 
forms of insurance, but this statement should be viewed 
in the light of the fact that the companies from whose 
records information was obtained have not suffered the 
burden of any accidents of unusually disastrous nature, 
a danger which confronts all self-insurers. 

Plan of "Utilities Mutual" 

The gas and electric companies, a business similar to, 
and to some extent allied with, the electric transporta- 
tion business, have formed a mutual insurance com- 
pany, known as the Utilities Mutual, eighteen months 
of whose experience is available for comparison. The 
expense ratio of this company over the eighteen months 
has been 22 per cent, the loss ratio 22.50 per cent, leav- 
ing a balance to apply on surplus and reserve of 55.5 per 
cent. The tendency toward increase of settlements and 
general cost of this form of insurance is illustrated by 
the following comparative table, showing the experience 
of the company just quoted for the first twelve months 
of its operation, as compared with the eighteen months, 
the latter figures including the former: 



For Twelve Months For Eighteen Months 

Loss r atio 16. 19 per cent 22.50 per cent 

Expense ratio 20. 27 per cent 22.00 per cent 

Surplus 61. 76 per cent 55.50 per cent 



The increased loss and expense ratios and decrease in 
surplus for the eighteen months, as compared with 
twelve months, is stated by the Utilities Mutual Com- 
pany as due to reductions in advance premium through 
individual ratings by the compensation inspection rating 
board. These reduced premiums illustrate the immedi- 
ate advantage to be obtained in the mutual company 
from favorable experience. 

No figures of loss ratio, as applied to the electric 
railway industry, are available, but it seems fair to pre- 
sume that the loss ratio, being dependent upon the state 
of the industry rather than on the form of insurance 
carried, would be practically constant under either the 
mutual or state fund plans. 

The Utilities Mutual, whose officers and directors are 
chosen from among the officials of lighting companies 
throughout the state, and whose affairs are under the 
management of Parsons & Company, is willing to ex- 
tend its plan of operation to include electric railway risks 
and has, at least in one instance, already done so. 

The plan of participation on the parr of the electric 
railway industry contemplates keeping the statistics as 
applied to electric railway companies separate from those 
of the other industries, so that each industry may know 
its own experience, individually and a'so as compared 
with the experience of the other industry. They further 
propose that upon participation in that company by the 
electric railways, places will be made on the board of 
directors for representatives of the electric railway in- 
terests, and by-laws will be adopted such that the rela- 
tive representation on the board of directors of the 
railway and lighting representatives will be propor- 
tional to the premium payments from the two industries. 

The estimated premiums of the entire electric railway 
industry of the state, based upon payroll figures, is four 
times that of the lighting industry, end under the 
plan proposed, assuming that all or nearly all of the elec- 
tric railways insured in the Utilities Mutual, the board 
of directors would comprise a majority of railway repre- 
sentatives. 

Conclusion 

There are then, five plans from which the railways of 
the state have to choose: (1) stock company insur- 
ances; (2) mutual company insurance in a company com- 
posed entirely of street railway policyholders; (3) in- 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



surance in a utilities mutual, composed of railway and 
lighting interests; (4) insurance in state fund; (5) 
self-insurance. 

Your committee deems best to refrain from any 
recommendation to the member companies as to the 
various forms of insurance, confining itself solely to a 
statement of the conditions and possibilities of each 
method and to form the basis for discussion on the floor 
of the convention. Your committee has in its possession 
considerable data regarding the costs and conditions of 
the various forms of insurance, which are omitted from 
this report for the sake of brevity, but which are avail- 
able to member- companies interested in securing the 
information. 



Fare Increase Denied 

United Traction Company Said Not to Have Proved 
Case for Higher Interurban Fares — Albany 
Service More than Is Justified by Earnings 

UPON the ground that the United Traction Com- 
pany, Albany, N. Y., had not proved its need for 
an increase of fares between Albany and Troy and 
that the proposed increase from 10 to 15 cents with 
full transfer privileges would be unjustly discrimina- 
tory against users of the Albany-Troy line and resi- 
dents along the Troy road, the Public Service Commis- 
sion for the Second District on June 28 refused to per- 
mit the company to put its proposed new schedules into 
effect. Commissioner Frank Irvine wrote the opinion 
in the case, in which all the other commissioners con- 
curred. Commissioner Carr, however, submitted a 
memorandum in which he agreed that the proposed 
schedules should not be permitted, but suggested that 
as the company undoubtedly needs additional revenue it 
might gain this by keeping the fares as at present and 
withdrawing the transfer privilege to and from the 
interurban line for local lines both in Albany and Troy. 

Although figures were presented to show that in- 
cluding a profit from the ownership of the Hudson Val- 
ley Railway the United Traction Company operated last 
year at a deficit of about $70,000, and although it was 
testified that a "practical study" of the situation had 
convinced the company that the only means to increase 
the revenue to meet this deficit was to increase the 
Albany-Troy fares, Commissioner Irvine did not attach 
much value to such evidence. He said that there was 
no evidence as to the value of the property employed in 
the Albany-Troy service, or in the entire service ren- 
dered by the company. Commissioner Irvine then 
quoted a table of the company's earnings as filed with 
the commission, showing that the revenue per car- 
mile on the Albany-Troy line was greater from 1910 to 
1914 than the revenue per car-mile either on the Al- 
bany or Troy divisions. In 1914 and 1915 the revenue 
per car-mile was slightly less than on the Albany di- 
vision but much greater than on the Troy division. 
"An inspection of the tables shows conclusively," said 
Commissioner Irvine, "that the losses, if any, are not 
because of the Albany-Troy operation." He also stated 
that while no figures were procurable showing the cost 
of operation on the Albany-Troy line, the company not 
distributing costs to the various divisions, it seemed 
more than probable that the operating expense per car- 
mile is less than on the urban lines. He was led to 
this conclusion by the fact that there is less paving ex- 
pense on much of this line, that more economical rails 
can be used, and that the higher-speed interurban oper- 
ation reduces platform expense. 

Of the discrimination in the proposed schedule, Com- 
missioner Irvine wrote as follows : 

"It is said that as no suggestion has been made that 



unjust discrimination would result from the proposed 
tariff, its establishment is within the managerial dis- 
cretion of the company. In order to establish discrimi- 
nation it is not necessary that any witness should use 
the word. In Albany or in Troy, one on a 5-cent fare 
may ride 7 miles without a transfer and 9.24 miles in 
the same general direction with a transfer. In view of 
what has been shown as to revenues and expenses, how 
can it possibly be contended that there is no discrimi- 
nation in charging three times as much for a distance 
of 7.3 miles (the mileage of the Albany-Troy line) as is 
charged for 7 miles or 9 miles or 10 miles, and twice 
as much between the Schuyler Bridge and Grabrance 
Lane district and Albany or Troy, a maximum of about 
5 miles, as is charged for those other distances in the 
Albany district or the Troy district? These are cer- 
tainly discriminations and if they are not unjust dis- 
criminations the duty devolved upon the company of 
presenting evidence to justify them. The record is abso- 
lutely barren of such evidence." 

Not the least important part of this decision, it is 
said, was the suggestion in Commissioner Irvine's opin- 
ion that the public service commissions have the power 
in the light of the recent Ulster & Delaware Railroad 
decision of the Court of Appeals to permit increases in 
rates where the need for them is proved, notwithstand- 
ing previous legislative enactments limiting such rates. 
Under such an interpretation of the law as handed down 
by the highest tribunal, it might be possible for the 
commissions to permit an increase of fares above 5 
cents in any city, notwithstanding the provisions of the 
railroad law which on its face restricts street railroads 
from charging more than 5 cents for a ride between any 
two points on its system in any city or village. "This 
statute by its terms," said Commissioner Irvine, "does 
not apply to passengers between different communities 
in the Troy district or to passengers between Albany 
and Rensselaer. But in view of the recent decision it 
seems that the restriction is no longer operative in any 
case where a company can show that at the statutory 
rate it is unable to earn a fair return. Even if the 
statutory restriction applied in the present case and 
the company was not earning a fair return, it would 
not follow that this increase should be permitted. One 
class of patrons may not be subjected to a rate in itself 
unreasonably high in order to recoup losses sustained 
in serving other classes at unprofitable rates. It can 
make no difference in this respect that the unprofitable 
rate is imposed by law. The company rather than its 
patrons must bear the burden thereof." 

Commissioner Carr, while concurring in the refusal 
of the commission to approve of the proposed increase 
of fare to 15 cents between Albany and Troy, stated 
that the problem might best be solved by keeping the 
fares as at present — 10 cents between Albany and Troy 
on the direct line and 5 cents from the intermediate 
zone to any place on the direct line in either city — but 
withdrawing the transfers to and from the Albany-Troy 
line and any of the local lines in Albany and Troy. 

In his opinion this would be a fair arrangement of 
these rates and it would not work any hardship upon 
the public in any respect, while it would give the com- 
pany a reasonable return for the service which it per- 
forms. Of the general financial situation of the com- 
pany with regard to the service furnished, Mr. Carr had 
this to say : 

"Another thing which should be borne in mind in con- 
nection with this case is that, in Albany particularly, 
the company is as a whole giving more service than its 
earnings justify. Whether this is due to the fact that 
it runs cars on a close headway during the non-rush 
hours as well as during the rush hours, I can not state. 
It may be that the people in Albany could get better 



July 8, 1916 | 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



63 



service than they get now with a considerably less 
number of car-miles per mile of road. The figures show 
that the car-miles per mile of road in Albany are con- 
siderably more than 60 per cent higher than any other 
road in the State of New York outside of the metro- 
politan district. If a thorough rearrangement of serv- 
ice could be made in Albany it is possible that much 
better accommodations could be given to the public at 
a lower cost to the company." 



C. E. R. A. Reaches Home 

Britton I. Budd Describes Activities of Illinois 
Electric Railways Association — Other Events 
of Last Two Days of Cruise 

At the meeting of the Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation held on the steamship South American on the 
morning of June 28, J. A. McGowan, secretary and 
treasurer Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 
Company, and chairman of the committee on resolu- 
tions presented a report. It took the form of extending 
the sincere thanks of the association to the supply men's 
committee" of arrangements for the excellent work it 
had done in arranging all the details of the four-day 
cruise; to the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion for the special car it ran from Indianapolis via Day- 
ton and Toledo, Ohio; to the Union Traction Company 
of Indiana for the special car it ran from Indianapolis 
to Toledo via Fort Wayne; to the Ohio Electric Rail- 
way Company, the Toledo Railway & Light Company, 
the president, officers and speakers at the sessions held 
on the boat trip, and to S. W. Greenland, Fort Wayne, 
R. A. Crume, Tippecanoe City, and C. K. Minary of Ben- 
ton Harbor, Mich., for the courtesies they had extended 
the association; to L. C. Smith & Brothers for the loan 
of a typewriter; and A. B. Dick Company for the loan 
of a mimeograph which was used to publish the "C. E. 
R. A. Deep Blue Daily." The following resolution re- 
garding this daily was also presented by this committee: 
"Resolved: That the Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion extends its sincere thanks to the Electric Railway 
JOURNAL, through its representatives Messrs. Hugh M. 
Wilson, L. E. Gould and E. M. Haas, for the publication 
on board the steamer of the sparkling and witty 'Deep 
Blue Daily,' giving an account of all the accidents and 
incidents of the voyage." A proposed amendment to the 
constitution of the association affecting the qualifications 
of its officers was also proposed and it will be submitted 
for consideration of the members in printed form. 

Handling Legislative Matters 

Britton I. Budd, president Chicago Elevated Railroads, 
was then introduced, and he expressed much interest in 
the co-operative spirit that was so prevalent among the 
members of the Central Electric Railway Association. 
He said that he was very much in favor of the railway 
officers taking an active part in association work be- 
cause he believed that they could derive great benefit. 
Mr. Budd then proceeded to tell of the work of the Illinois 
Electric Railways Association which, he said, was four 
years old and embraced forty railway companies. In the 
second year of this association's existence many bills 
were introduced in the State Legislature affecting elec- 
tric railways. This fact was called to the attention of 
the association, and little or no information was found 
available concerning the progress of the bills nor the ex- 
act wording of them. In fact, bills affecting the trans- 
portation industry including both steam and electric rail- 
roads had been introduced and were passed without the 
legislators consulting the officers of the railways con- 
cerning the effect they would have on operation. Ac- 
cordingly the Illinois association decided that it must 



take an active part in legislative matters, become per- 
sonally acquainted with the legislators and openly en- 
deavor to prevent the passage of vicious bills. Mr. Budd 
said that whenever bills of interest to electric railways 
were now up for consideration as many as thirty-five or 
forty officials were present at Springfield and openly 
used arguments and their personal influence to defeat 
them. He remarked that it was his experience that 
when legislators were acquainted with the actual facts 
concerning the effect of a bill both on the public and on 
the railways, most of them were reasonable and would 
not give their support to unjust measures. 

Mr. Budd said the association made it a point to have 
some of the officers of every railway company personally 
acquainted with their representatives in the State Leg- 
islature. He was also of the opinion that the best re- 
sults could be obtained by bringing the actual operating 
officers into personal contact with the legislators. The 
legislators had more respect for views of these practical 
men than they did for lawyers or paid lobbyists. On 
the other hand, the experience which these department 
heads obtained in this work was of much value and a 
great asset to the railway company they served. The 
steam railroad representatives have followed about the 
same plan as the electric railways, and in many instances 
the representatives of the two forms of transportation 
have co-operated in bringing about amendments or ac- 
tually killing detrimental legislation. In conclusion Mr. 
Budd stated that the work as done by the association in 
connection with legislative matters had alone justified 
its existence. The work that its representatives had 
done before the State Legislature had also brought them 
in closer friendly relations with the steam roads than 
they were before. 

Charles L. Henry, Indianapolis, responded to Mr. 
Budd's address. He said that in Indiana the electric 
railways have a special organization which looks after 
legislation. This organization is not allied with the as- 
sociation but has all the association's members' interests 
at heart. It has been the practice of this special organi- 
zation to have a paid employee attend all the sessions of 
the legislature and obtain copies of all bills introduced 
which in any way affect railway operation. The copies 
of these bills are filed, and whenever they are up for 
consideration in the Legislature, the officers of the rail- 
ways affected are called in to the hearing. All bills af- 
fecting detrimentally electric railway operation are fol- 
owed from the time they are introduced until they are 
killed or amended so' that they will not prove vicious. 
Mr. Henry said that because the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association embraced four states, it was practically 
impossible for it to act in legislative matters, but the 
representatives from each state have found it more ad- 
vantageous to act for themselves. 

Other Speakers and Events on Trip 

At this point John Benham, vice-president Interna- 
tional Register Company, told the association of his very 
pleasant relations with the Chicago, Duluth & Georgian 
Bay Transit Company's officers and how they had en- 
deavored to make the trip the success that it was. Upon 
motion Mr. Benham was authorized to write a letter to 
the president of the boat company commending the serv- 
ice and thanking the officers most cordially for the many 
courtesies they had extended to the association. E. M. 
Walker, general manager and purchasing agent Union 
Electric Company of Dubuque, Iowa, who was a guest on 
this trip, was then introduced and made a few compli- 
mentary remarks. G. F. Allen, Railway Materials Com- 
pany, Chicago, 111., also addressed the association. 

After a stop of from 5 o'clock until 10 o'clock in the 
morning at Mackinac where most of the party made a 



64 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



tour of the island, the steamship South American pro- 
ceeded to Harbor Springs, Mich., where it docked for 
two hours. Owing to the inclement weather, however, 
very few of the members went ashore, and at the sched- 
uled hour, 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the cruise pro- 
ceeded to Macatawa Pier in Black Lake, Mich. The 
steamer arrived there at 7.30 o'clock in the morning, 
June 30, where a large number of the party disembarked 
and took the private cars furnished by John F. Collins, 
vice-president and general manager Michigan Railway, 
for Toledo, Ohio. The cruise was officially completed at 
Benton Harbor, Mich., where C. K. Minary gave the as- 
sociation a luncheon at the "House of David" a religious 
colony near Benton Harbor. At this point the Indiana 
members were met by the special cars of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co. and of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, and they pro- 
ceeded to Indianapolis and Fort Wayne via South Bend 
and Peru. More than 100 of the party remained aboard 
the steamship and took the trip across Lake Michigan 
from Benton Harbor to Chicago. 



Cleveland Pays Railway to Flush 
Streets 

Plan Whereby the Cleveland Railway Flushes the 
City Streets and a Description of the Flusher 
Provided for This Purpose 

By H. C. Ebeling 

Engineer Cleveland (Ohio) Railway Company 

A DISCOVERY by the city officials that a provision 
of the Tayler ordinance, under which the Cleveland 
(Ohio) Railway operates, provided that the railway 
should also "operate hospital and supply cars for the 
city and such other cars for exclusive municipal pur- 
poses as the city shall furnish and maintain," led them 
to require the railway company to operate tank cars to 
be employed in flushing and cleaning the streets. For a 
number of years the city has been flushing its streets to 
clean them. 

The first efforts of this kind were to flush the 
streets by discharging water over the surface of the 
pavement by means of suitable nozzles on tank wagons. 
The water for these was obtained from the fire hy- 
drants, pressure equal to the city water pressure being 
secured by closing the tank outlets and forcing the wa- 




CLEVELAND RAILWAY S FLUSHER CAR — VIEW OF NOZZLE 
ARRANGEMENT 

ter into it until the water-main pressure was reached. 
This method of flushing was found satisfactory for the 
congested districts, but a tank mounted on a wagon was 
necessarily small and frequently had to be refilled. More- 
over, only a comparatively small section of a street could 
be cleaned at one filling of the tank, and the streets 
cleaned in this way were few owing to the limited 
amount of equipment the municipality had for this pur- 
pose. 

Prior to the arrangement whereby the railway com- 
pany flushed the streets it was required under its fran- 
chise to sprinkle them, consequently it had a number of 
service cars for this purpose. When the municipal au- 
thorities decided to avail themselves of the provisions of 
the ordinance, the railway company was instructed to 
convert its sprinkling cars into flushers. With the ad- 
vent of the street car flusher it was no longer necessary 
for the railway company to sprinkle the streets, because 
the dust and refuse were flushed away sufficiently often 
to make sprinkling unnecessary to keep down the dust. 
Furthermore, under the old arrangement the expense of 
sprinkling its right-of-way was borne by the railway, 
but under the new plan the city reimburses the com- 
pany to the extent that it furnishes and maintains the 
flusher cars, pays the cost of operating them including 
the wages of the employees and the cost of the power, 





CLEVELAND RAILWAY'S FLUSHER CAR — SIDE VIEW OF CAR 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



65 




CLEVELAND RAILWAYS FLUSHER CAR — DETAILS OK HNDERKRAME 



but contributes nothing toward fixed charges or for 
track maintenance and renewals. 

Converting Sprinklers into Flushers 

It was a comparatively simple task to equip the old 
sprinkler tank cars so that they would serve as flushers. 
A De Laval centrifugal pump, direct connected to a 15- 
hp. Westinghouse motor mounted on the same base as 
the pump, was placed on the front platform of the car. 
The suction line of the pump was connected to the tank 
as close to the bottom as possible. The discharge line 
was furnished with a Y fitting, and a line from each 
branch of the Y connected to a nozzle over each track 
rail and about 11 in. above them. A quick-opening lever 
gate valve was placed in each branch of the discharge 
line and arranged to be opened and closed from the car 
platform by means of foot-pedal operating levers. Each 
valve is operated independently so that either or both 
sides of the street may be flushed. The motor operates 
at 550 volts or the trolley voltage, and it is equipped 
with a suitable starting rheostat. 

The nozzles are designed to discharge a fan-like sheet 
of water over the surface of the street, the nozzle on 
one side of the car being so adjusted as to clean the 
devilstrip and the track upon which the car operates, 
and the other nozzle catches the refuse washed from 
the track and devilstrip by the first nozzle and carries 
it to the curb, whence it flows to the sewer. Views of 
the nozzle arrangement are shown in the accompany- 
ing illustrations. The flushing nozzles are made of cast 
brass with inner and outer casings. The inner casing 
has a narrow slot through which the water passes, and 
the outer casing has a slot a trifle wider. The width 
of the stream of water is controlled by turning the in- 
ner casing. Under ordinary conditions a slot % in. 
wide by 6 in. long is used. 

After the sprinkler cars which had been converted 
into flushers had been in operation a short time, they 
proved so satisfactory that the company was requested 
to build two additional double-truck flusher cars. This 
is the type of flusher shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations and its construction is described in detail. An 
all-steel underframe built of structural shapes was pro- 
vided to carry the 4488-gal. steel tank. Owing to the 
weight of this tank when filled with water, the under- 
frame construction is rather heavy, and the 12-in. side- 
sill channels were each reinforced by a V^-in. x 10-in. 
plate placed between the flanges of the channels. The 
tank cradles were made of 5/16-in. plates cut to fit the 
curve of the tank, and where these cradles rested on the 
underframe they were reinforced with 4-in. 6V4-lb. 
channels. Six cradles were installed to support the 
tank and they were secured to the side sills by connect- 
ing angles. Diagonal braces of 2-in. x 2-in. x Vi-in. 
angles were provided in the underframe to stiffen it 
against transverse deflection. The bolsters were formed 
of two 8-in. llVi-lb. channels placed 4% in. back to back 



and fitted with :, s -in. x 10-in. cover plates. The other 
framing shown in the plan of the underframe was in- 
stalled to support the pump and motor, the air-brake 
cylinder and grid resistances. 

The tank is built of ^-in. and 5/16-in. plates, and it 
is 18 ft. 4 1 /2 in. long over all and 6 ft. 7 in. in diameter. ' 
Angles were placed on the bottom of the tank so that 
it could be bolted to the supporting cradles, and a man- 
hole and cover were provided to give access to the in- 
terior for cleaning and inspection. Brackets secured on 
the top of the tank support the trolley board, and a lad- 
der beside the manhole was installed for convenience in 
operating. A De Laval rotary turbine pump, the same 
as mentioned earlier in the article, having a capacity of 
175 gal. of water per minute at a head of 124 ft., was 
also provided on these flushers. These tank cars are 
mounted on Brill 27-F trucks, and are equipped with 
four Westinghouse No. 49 motors and type K control. 

While much depends upon the condition of the street 
and the skill of the operator of these flusher equipments, 
some idea of their effectiveness may be obtained from 
the following data taken from the original flusher cars: 

Capacity of the tank 3,247 gal. 

Width of part of street flushed 25 ft. 

Distance flushed 3,500 ft. 

Time required 8 minutes 

On this basis the double truck or large flushers hav- 
ing a capacity of about 4488 gal. will flush 4850 ft. of 
street on one side only, in about twelve minutes with 
one filling of the tank. 



Electrical Engineers Discuss Trans- 
mission Problems 

Discussion at Cleveland Meeting Showed Important 
Problems to Be Those Connected with Reliability 
of Service 

THE thirty-third annual convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers was held from 
June 27 to 30. The headquarters were at the Hollenden 
Hotel in Cleveland, where the Tuesday, Wednesday and 
Thursday meetings were held. Thursday afternoon was 
spent in an outing at Nela Park, where dinner was 
served in the evening. The last day of the convention 
was spent on shipboard cruising among the Lake Erie 
islands. More than 600 members and guests registered 
for the convention and the technical sessions were unus- 
ually spirited and well attended. 

In the technical sessions several papers of interest to 
electric railway men were delivered. These took up 
some of the latest problems in power transmission, and 
they are briefly abstracted below. 

Methods of minimizing the duration of unavoidable 
interruptions to service were outlined in a paper pre- 
sented by F. E. Ricketts. It was advocated that, since 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [VOL. XLVIII, No. 2 



the amount of service affected by opening switches de- 
pends upon the nearness of the switch to generator, 
generator switches should not open automatically on 
overload. A scheme was described for extinguishing 
short-circuit arcs by interrupting the generator field 
current and then restoring it before motor-driven appa- 
ratus on the line came to a stop. The difficulties arising 
with synchronous convertors in this connection were 
pointed out and relay connections for automatically tak- 
ing care of the converters were described. 

The report of the transmission committee, of which 
Percy H. Thomas, consulting engineer, New York City, 
is chairman, listed the comments of a number of central 
station men regarding the effect of altitude on the 
operating temperature rise of electrical apparatus and 
the use of grounded neutrals on high-tension transmis- 
sion lines. It was brought out that the effect of ground- 
ing the neutral will not be the same on all systems. 
Opinion as to the desirability of lower ratings on 
machines for use in high altitudes was divided. 

The experiences of the Public Service Electric Com- 
pany of New Jersey with the various modern central 
station protective devices were described by N. L. Pol- 
lard and J. T. Lawson. In five years of experience with 
the arcing-ground suppressor, it has operated in every 
case of fault to ground. Top and bottom dampers on all 
air-blast transformers, especially where a common 
chamber is used, were recommended. 

In a short paper, 0. 0. Rider, assistant to general 
superintendent, Public Service Electric Co. of Northern 
Illinois, pointed out the value of the isolating trans- 
former with a 1-to-l ratio as a means of localizing dis- 
turbances on extended systems transmitting energy at 
moderate voltages. 

F. L. Hunt, chief engineer, Turner's Falls Power & 
Electric Co., gave the results of megger tests made on 
disk insulators on a 66,000-volt transmission line in 
central Massachusetts. The cost of testing per insu- 
lator on the line varied from 7.3 to 11 cents. The 
highest percentage of damaged units was found at the 
line end of the strings. 

A method of grading suspension insulators so as to 
secure uniform distribution of voltage over the various 
disks of a string was described by R. H. Marvin, elec- 
trical engineer, R. Thomas & Sons Co. Grading is ac- 
complished by placing flat metal rings of different size 
around each insulator cap and stud. 

In a paper by E. E. F. Creighton, consulting engineer, 
Ceneral Electric Co., the advantages and disadvantages 
of the overhead ground wire as a protective device were 
discussed at length. To render the paper of interest to 
the greatest number of readers the mathematical por- 
tions were segregated as much as possible from the re- 
mainder of the text. From a theoretical standpoint, a 
single grounded wire should be placed as near as prac- 
ticable to the power wire in order to get the greatest 
electrostatic protection. It was pointed out that addi- 
tional ground wires properly placed increased the pro- 
tection. In general, where more than one ground wire 
is used a great advantage can be obtained by keeping 
them as far apart as possible. Mechanical and economic 
conditions often affect the location of grounded overhead 
wires. 



A bulletin has been issued by the Ohio State Univer- 
sity which describes the itinerary taken on an Eastern 
inspection trip by four instructors and the fourth-year 
students in mechanical engineering and electrical engi- 
neering. The itinerary included a visit to a number of 
important manufacturing and power generating plants. 
Two days were spent in Cleveland, two days in Pitts- 
burgh, two days in Niagara Falls and one day in Buffalo. 



AMERICAN] ASSOCIATION NEWS 



Section No. 7 Discusses Safety, Preparedness 
and Traffic Checks 

The last regular meeting of the Connecticut Com- 
pany section for the season was held on June 13 with a 
record-breaking attendance of 216 persons. The meet- 
ing was preceded by a "shore" dinner. It was followed 
by a visit to a local theater where a safety film, "The 
Price of Thoughtlessness," and a number of comic films 
were shown for the entertainment of the members. 

The program of the meeting included a talk by Hon. 
Russell A. Sears, general attorney Boston Elevated Rail- 
way, on "The Reasons for the Safety-First and Pre- 
paredness Movements," a talk by R. A. May, comptroller 
Connecticut Company, on "The Work of the Connecticut 
Company Section," and a paper by Walter Camp, Jr., 
traffic engineer Connecticut Company, on "The Duties 
and Work of the Traffic Engineer." 

Mr. Camp said in part: "The main object of the 
work of the traffic department of the Connecticut Com- 
pany is to fit the service to the actual riding and to 
avoid making fixed schedules and then trusting that 
the riding will adjust itself to them. The day has 
passed for street railways of any size when any one 
individual can by his personal observation have suffi- 
cient knowledge of the demands for service on the 
various lines to enable him to adjust and place service 
where it will do the most good. Our traffic studies are 
to secure, with the co-operation of the local managers, 
such details and accurate information of traffic demands 
that we can tell where to place our cars. 

"We have started off with the largest three divisions, 
New Haven, Hartford and Bridgeport, in each of which 
is an inspector who makes passenger counts daily at 
points of maximum load. The checks are taken each 
day at maximum load points in the direction of heaviest 
riding. Ordinarily, in-bound cars are checked from 
6 o'clock to 10 o'clock in the morning and out-bound 
cars from 2 o'clock to 7 o'clock in the afternoon. Occa- 
sionally all-day checks, requiring two men, are also 
made. 

"Each inspector has a regular printed form on which 
to make his report, and as each car comes along he 
puts down the name of the line, the car number, the 
time of arrival and the number of passengers. Every 
line is checked about once a week and lines are checked 
on different days each week, that is, a line checked on 
Tuesday one week will be checked on Wednesday the 
following week. Inspectors also note upon their reports 
matters affecting the service, such as accidents, delays, 
crippled cars, tie-ups, fires, parades, etc., or reasons 
for unusual riding such as picnics, games, etc. They 
also note the weather conditions during the check. 

"The records for each line are divided into half -hour 
periods, and in the office the times at which each car 
is due at the checking points are entered on the record 
sheet in a special column and every car more than three 
minutes off time is checked off. Overloads are checked 
also, 50 per cent above the seating capacity being con- 
sidered an overload. Monthly statements are made up 
for each line showing the number of cars operated, the 
percentage of cars on time within two minutes, those on 
time within three minutes and the percentage more than 
three minutes off time. Cases where cars are more 
than three minutes off time are investigated. Sum- 
maries are also made up for each line comparing the 
riding during each half -hour period of one day against 
the corresponding half-hour period of another day." 



July 8, 1916] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 67 



EQUIPMENT AND ITS MAINTENANCE 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical Practices 
in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for at Special Rates. 



Drying Out Motor Generator Sets 

BY J. G. KOPPEL 

Electrical Superintendent of Bridges, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

During the rainy season while installing a 400-kw., 
600-volt, d.c. to 2200-volt 600 hp. a.c. motor-generator 
set, the windings were exposed to moisture to such an 
extent that the insulation resistance fell to 1 megohm. 
This being a low value, it was decided to dry out the 
stator winding. 

The incoming line was three-phase, 60-cycle, 24,000- 
volt, and the voltage was stepped down to 2200 by three 



Line' 1 



Liuu' r 2 



Incoming line 
24,000 volts 



ji-L. 



Primary 
oil switch 



[VVVrx/VVrvVV) 



Operating transformers 
primary voltage 
24,000 volts 



Secondary voltage 




Auxiliary 
transformers 
connected 



rVVVVTVWVi open Jelta 

-I | 2200/220 volts 



800 h.p. motor stator 
wound for 22C0 volts 



DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS FOR DRYING OUT STATOR OF 
MOTOR-GENERATOR SET 

single-phase transformers, each of 185-kva. capacity. 
The transformers were connected delta-delta and fed 
the motor stator directly. The leads running from the 
oil switch to the motor were disconnected, and two 2200 
to 220-volt auxiliary transformers were connected in 
as shown on the accompanying diagram. The trans- 
formers, which were brought to the door of the substa- 
tion in a box car, were secured from the central station 
supplying the power. A temporary line was run out 
from the operating transformers to take the primary 
leads of the auxiliary transformers, and another tem- 
porary line was employed to bring in the secondary 
220-volt leads to the motor stator. 

' It required 48 amp. to raise the temperature of the 
stator windings to 90 deg. C. Readings of temperature 
were taken every fifteen minutes and an insulation test 
was made every twelve hours. At the end of three 




MOTOR-GENERATOR SET READY FOR DRYING OUT PROCESS 

days and three nights the insulation resistance had 
been brought up to 15 megohms, after which the dry- 
ing was discontinued and current was cut in for operat> 
ing the set. 



Foundation Resilience and Rail 
Corrugation 

BY T. NORMAN JONES, JR. 

Chief Engineer Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

This company has had, within the last few years, some 
very interesting experiences with rail corrugations 
which developed on approximately 2 miles of track. 
Prior to taking charge of this department in 1911, the 
writer had had no experience with girder rails in paved 
streets. His personal experience, therefore, with cor- 
rugations dates from 1911, although he found well de- 
veloped corrugations op many sections of track at that 
time. 

After having carefully inspected various sections of 
girder rail tracks constructed on various types of 
foundations, the writer, in the spring of 1912, reached 
the definite conclusion that track constructed on a re- 
silient foundation was superior to track constructed on 
a rigid foundation, and that the use of a resilient 
foundation would greatly retard the development of cor- 
rugations. He, therefore, recommended the abandon- 
ment of concrete foundations in Richmond, and the use 
of crushed stone or washed gravel under and partly be- 
tween the ties, with a slab of concrete partly between 
and on top of the ties, to support the paving. 

Having succeeded in convincing the street committee 
of the City Council that a change from concrete founda- 
tion to crushed stone would be desirable from the city's 
standpoint, as well as that of the company, the manage- 
ment of the road was permitted by the city to adopt a 
resilient type of construction. During the summer and 
fall of 1912 a considerable amount of track was con- 
structed on crushed-stone foundation, which type has 
been standard with the company ever since. 

Confirmation of the writer's belief in the superiority 
of a resilient foundation over a rigid one is found in the 



68 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



Rail*l-59 Lineal Feet Corrugations I Rail*l-238 Lineal Feet Corrugations 
„ #2-58 " " " and] •• #2 - 330 V N 

55 " " Trace 



liail*l -156 Lineal Feet Corrugations 

" #2 - 343 " 




Dash Lines = = =9 Girder Lorain 114-340 Rail; Carnegie Steel Tie, M-25 Embedded in Concrete 
SolidLines == » ' ■• >> ; Creosoted Ties, Tie Plates, Screw Spikes, Crushed Stone Ballast 

Dotted Lines :=--—= " " " '< White Oak Ties, Cut Spikes, Crushed Stone Ballast 



, MAP OF TRACK LAYOUT IN RICHMOND, VA., SHOWING DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION AND LOCA- 
TION OF CORRUGATED SECTIONS 



data given in the accom- 
panying illustration, which 
shows the tracks on Broad 
Street from Ryland to Rob- 
inson Street and on Robin- 
son Street from Broad to 
Main Street, Richmond. 
The most interesting com- 
parison is to be found in 
the section of track be- 
tween Ryland and Allison 
Streets. During 1908 or 
1909 a 6-in. concrete foun- 
dation was placed under 
the west-bound track from 
Ryland to Allison Street. 
It became necessary to re- 
new the rails and recon- 
struct both tracks in 1912. 
In the reconstruction of the 
west-bound track between 
Ryland and Allison Streets 
the concrete foundation re- 
ferred to above was utilized, as the concrete was of 
good quality and the whole base in excellent condition. 
In the existing concrete foundation, trenches were cut 
crosswise of the track at 8-ft. intervals. In these ex- 
cavations Carnegie steel ties were placed and bolted to 
the rails, and fresh concrete was placed around and 
under the Carnegie ties to secure them in place. 

In the construction of the east-bound tracks between 
the points above mentioned, the foundation was thor- 
oughly rolled before the placing of crushed-stone bal- 
last, after which the ties and rail were placed. For a 
portion of the distance, as noted in the illustration, 
white oak ties were used, the rails being fastened to 
them with cut spikes. In the remainder of this section, 
creosoted pine ties were used with tie plates and screw 
spikes. In order to eliminate the difficulty of working 
under traffic, a third or temporary track was con- 
structed, over which cars operated during the recon- 
struction of both tracks. 

Over both sections of track cars of the same type have 
been operated ; in other words, the same cars that oper- 
ate over the west-bound track return over the east- 
bound track. Some of these cars were equipped with 
cast-iron wheels, others with steel wheels. 

From the data given it will be seen that in both rails 
of the track on concrete, or rigid, construction there is 
a total of 1072 ft. of rail affected by corrugation, where- 
as in the same length of track constructed on a crushed 
stone, or resilient, foundation, only 8 ft. of corrugation 
is to be found. 

The writer, with an assistant, took the measurements 
noted but a short time ago. Only rail on which the 
wave length of the corrugation could be accurately meas- 



ured, was noted. On some other sections of the track 
constructed on Broad and Robinson Streets, corruga- 
tions have also developed to the extent indicated. 



Electric-Welded Joints Installed at 
Low Cost 

BY R. J. SMITH 

Construction Engineer United Light & Railways, 
Davenport, Iowa 

An accompanying illustration is of an Indianapolis 
welder which has been operated by this company for 
about two years, the average cost of installing several 
hundred joints being approximately $3.75 per joint. 

The standard Indianapolis "Simplex" plates were used 
in welding joints on this property. Of the 350 pairs 
used, 200 went into rehabilitation of old construction, 
and the other 150 pairs into new construction. Fifty 
pairs of these plates which were applied to a 7-in. tram 
girder section with a rather poor foundation have been 
in service nearly two years, while the other 300 pairs 
which were applied on track with an excellent founda- 
tion, and with light traffic, have been in service for 
only a few months. From this it follows that only the 
fifty pairs first mentioned can be regarded as having 
complied with a satisfactory test so far as the mechan- 
ical service of the joint is concerned. Electrically, how- 
ever, they are perfect. 

In addition to the above, at Cedar Rapids, we have 
fixed up some old 45-lb. angle-bar track in paving by 
putting in new bolts, spotting them with the welder and 




BUILDING UP JOINTS BY ELECTRIC WELDING PROCESS; RIGHT- 
HAND VIEW SHOWS JOINT INSTALLED 



July 8, 1916 | 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



69 



welding the bases of rails to V-i-in. bearing plates placed 
beneath the joints. This work, however, which was un- 
dertaken merely as an experiment, is unlikely to pro- 
duce desirable results because of the generally run-down 
condition of the track structure as a whole, and should 
not be given serious consideration. As far as joint 
work is concerned, the above constitutes the very limited 
experience of this company, the welder being chiefly en- 
gaged in building up cups and in special work. 

If a great deal of this kind of welding was to be per- 
formed the costs might be slightly reduced through the 
adoption of an efficient motor-generator set. A power 
test of the Indianapolis welder made on our property 
gave the following results: Trolley voltage, 545; cur- 
rent under normal conditions of operation, 198 amp. ; 
current when the welding point was held directly on the 
rail, 210 amp.; voltage around arc from cable to rail, 
25 to 40, average 30 ; total kilowatts used under normal 
conditions of operation, 107.9 ; total kilowatts used at 
the arc in the process of welding, 5.94; kilowatts lost in 
resistance 101.9; efficiency 5*2 per cent. The total en- 
ergy per weld was about 50 kw.-hr. The cost of in- 
stalling the regular "Simplex" joint on this property 
was as follows : 

Cost of one pair of plates $2.05 

Cost of two bolts 0Y 

Cost of power 60 

Cost of labor 65 

Cost of welding metal IS 

Total $3.55 

If no more than 10 per cent for time lost in delay due 
to schedule is allowed, three men will install ten joints 
per day of ten hours, and in exceptional cases a maxi- 
mum of fourteen. The costs just enumerated do not in- 
clude overhead charges, interest, depreciation or repairs 
of plant. These items have been estimated at 20 cents, 
making a total cost of $3.75 per joint. 

The company is at present installing joints complete 
on about 1 mile of double track, which is laid with Penn- 
sylvania Steel Company's 80-lb. section No. 238 rail, 
that has been in light service for ten years. This track 
was poorly laid with four-hole channels and compressed 
terminal bonds and has been loosened, battered, and 
kinked at all of the joints although the greater part of 
the rail is but little worn. The joints were originally 
laid even, greatly facilitating the rehabilitation, which 
consists of renewing joint and shoulder ties, replacing 
the ballast for a distance of 6 or 8 ft. each side of the 
joint, substituting welded plates for the channels and 
bonds, inserting "dutchmen" where expansion had 
originally been allowed, grinding and occasionally build- 
ing up cups, the placing of 6 in. of 1:3:6 concrete pav- 
ing base and 1 in. of 1 :4 grout bed or "cushion," and 
the relaying of the old brick with a sand filler. 

The detailed costs are not yet available but a close 
approximation based upon the installation of 100 joints 
with labor at 20 cents per hour is as follows : 

Cost Per Joint 

Miscellaneous labor (excavating:, tamping ,etc.) $5.00 

Ballast 1.50 

Ties 2.00 

Concrete 3.00 

Brick 25 

Plates installed 3.75 

©rinding 50 

General 25 

Total $16.25 

About 10 per cent waste in this relaying is being sup- 
plied from a stock of second-hand brick. In this work 
we "cock" the joint up about V2 in. in the endeavor to 
counteract both the ballast settlement and the set of the 
ends of the rails downward due to the battering that 
they had received. 



New Type of Door Engine 

The Consolidated Car Heating Company has recently 
brought out a new type of pneumatic engine for closing 
car doors, illustrated herewith. The engine is electro- 
pneumatically controlled by the valves which are placed 
one on each end of the engine. The air is cut off the 

engine at each end 
of the stroke. This 
economizes on the 
amount of air used 
as it eliminates all 
questions of leather 
leaks. At the same 
time it permits of 
atmospheric check 
or cushioning which 
has proved to be the 
most reliable. 

The engine has a 
safety feature by 
which a small 
amount of pressure 
exerted by the pas- 
senger will hold up 
the door in case of 
premature closing. 
Further, the door 
may be pushed open 
5 in. when fully shut 
to release clothing 
or anything that 
new door engine for new york might be caught in 
municipal railway the door. This is 

the limit of emer- 
gency opening, there being a positive stop to prevent a 
false opening. The engine is extremely light on account 
of its construction, the cylinders being of brass tubing. 
The arm, rack and pinion are made of cast steel and 
are all accurately machined. The engines are controlled 
by the standard Consolidated type push button for door 
control, which has been perfected for the past four 
years. 

Fifty equipments of these engines are being installed 
on fifty cars of the New York Municipal Railway. 




A Cast-Steel Wheel with Manganese 
Tread and Flange 

A one-life, cast-steel wheel with a manganese-steel 
tread and flange and a ductile steel plate around the 
hub, has recently been introduced in the electric rail- 
way field by the American Steel Foundries of Chicago, 
111. This product is known as the Davis steel wheel, 
and its first cost approximates that of a rolled steel 
wheel. Its wear life, however, is similar to the wear 
life of a cast-steel wheel or even better because of the 
tough wheel tread and flange produced by manufactur- 
ing them of manganese steel. The method by which 
the two kinds of steel are incorporated in one casting 
was devised especially for the manufacture of the Davis 
steel wheel. It includes revolving the mold in which 
the first metal entering is treated with ferro-manganese 
during its passage from the ladle into the mold where 
the centrifugal action throws it to the wheel tread and 
flange. As the pouring continues, the manganese steel 
rim is gradually blended into a ductile-steel plate and 
hub by tapering off the ferro-manganese treatment. 

The manufacturers claim the advantage of this wheel 
is that it retains the one-wear principle of the cast-iron 
wheel and at the same time secures greater strength, 
safety and a lower maintenance cost. It also avoids 
the disadvantages of a rolled steel wheel introduced by 



70 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 




CAST-STEEL WHEEL RECEIVING HARDNESS TEST 



turning which must be followed by adjustments in the 
bearings and brake rigging whenever wheels are 
changed. The following are service data for 83,000 
Davis wheels under 40- and 50-ton equipment. 



Periods of Service : 

4,000 in service for 3 years and 11 months. 
10,400 in service for an average of 3 years and 7 months. 
59,600 in service for an average of 2 years and 7 months. 
S3, 000 in service for an average of 2 years and 4 months. 
Record of Service : 

Worn wheels removed 69 ( 1/12 per cent) 

Damaged wheels removed 60 (1/15 per cent) 

Defective wheels removed 56 (1/15 per cent) 

Slid-flat wheels removed, reground and re- 
turned to service 482 ( 7/12 per cent ) 

Total number removed, eliminating "slid- 
Hats." which have been reground and put 

back in service 1X5 ( 1/5 per cent ) 

Only fifty-six wheels were removed because of defects, out of a 
total of 83,000. 



Other important claims for this one-life, cast-steel 
wheel are that cars are not held out of service as long as 
would be the case when wheels are turned, and the 
higher resistance to wear maintains a practically uni- 
form wheel diameter throughout their life in the trucks. 
Fewer wheels are also required in stock because turn- 
ing is unnecessary and this also tends to reduce the 




CAST-STEEL WHEEL UNDERGOING DROP TEST 




TRUING CAST-STEEL WHEEL BY GRINDING 



labor materially. In order to insure perfect rotundity, 
the treads of all Davis wheels are ground to contour, 
and this greatly minimizes the possibility of wheels 
sliding when the brakes are applied, hence the possi- 
bility of slid-fiats with this particular type of wheel 
is practically removed. Wheels undergoing this grind- 
ing treatment are shown in one of the accompanying il- 
lustrations. 

It is also of interest to note that every wheel is sub- 
jected to a drop test. Each wheel is laid on an anvil 
with three points of support, where it is given a blow 
with a 500-lb. hammer dropped from a height of about 
6% ft. This test is made after the wheels have been 
ground true and tempered. The impact test is made 
sufficiently severe to reveal all casting imperfections, 
and at the same time not permanently to affect the 
strength of the wheel. In addition to this each 
wheel is tested with a scleroscope for uniform hardness 
and it is also taped to determine the uniformity of diam- 
eter. A view showing the application of the hardness 
test and a wheel undergoing the impact test are shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. 

The extraordinary strength and resistance to wear ob- 
tained by the combination of metals in the Davis steel 
wheel, makes it possible to produce them in weights 
lighter than could be obtained with any other metal. 
Moreover, being a one-wear wheel it carries no added 
thickness at the rim and this, together with other re- 
ductions in the wheel sections, makes it approximately 
20 per cent lighter than the cast-iron or the multiple- 
wear steel wheels. Actual tests have shown that this 
product has a flange strength of approximately eight 
times that of a cast-iron wheel under an impact test and 
four times that of a cast-iron wheel under a static load 
test. These tests also indicate that these wheels have a 
strength equivalent to that of rolled-steel wheels. 

The tests from which these results were obtained 
were conducted by Prof. L. E. Endsley of Purdue Uni- 
versity, at the East St. Louis, 111., plant of the Ameri- 
can Steel Foundries, November, 1913. The average 
maximum static load on the flanges of the Davis wheels 
was 381,000 lb., that for the rolled-steel wheel was 386,- 
500 lb., and that for the cast-iron wheel 111,250 lb. Un- 
der the impact test the strength of the rolled-steel wheel 
and the Davis steel wheels was about the same, while 
the cast-iron wheel flange was broken with every 10-in. 
blow of a 1640-lb. hammer in a standard M. C. B. coupler 
drop-testing machine. In no case were the flanges of 
the Davis or the rolled-steel wheels broken off under 
this height and, in fact, fifty 10-in. blows did not cause a 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



71 



single failure. Neither the Davis wheel nor the rolled- 
steel wheel flange failed after fifty blows with a drop 
of 20 in., and each Davis wheel stood at least four blows 
with a 40-in. drop of the hammer before a fracture oc- 
curred. In actual tests none of the steel wheels were 
broken under less than a blow from a height of 80 in. 

Professor Endsley also made friction tests in a 
standard M. C. B. brake shoe testing machine with a 
standard cast-iron brake shoe and a rail shoe made of a 
piece of 80-lb. rail bent to conform to the wheel con- 
tour and of the same length as the standard cast-iron 
brake shoe. This test showed that the coefficient fric- 
tion between the Davis wheel and the standard cast-iron 
brake shoe was approximately the same as that for the 
cast-iron shoe and the rolled-steel wheel. The coeffi- 
cient of friction between the Davis wheel and the rail 
shoe, however, was from 9 per cent to 48 per cent higher 
than that for either the cast-iron or the rolled-steel 
wheels. This quality is of great advantage in starting 
acceleration as it reduces the amount of wheel slippage. 




Single-Truck, Arch-Roof Cars of the 
United Traction Company, Albany 

An instructive example of superior service econom- 
ically rendered is afforded by the substitution of modern 
single-truck cars weighing 22,000 lb. each for double- 
truck cars weighing 48,000 lb. each on the Belt Line 
of the United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. The 
headway has been cut from seven to five minutes with 
considerable satisfaction. 

The United Traction Company now has in service 
fifteen of these cars, built by the Wason Car Company, 
and ten more are under construction by the Laconia Car 
Company. The first three cars went into operation on 
March 25, 1916. Their general dimensions and other 
data are given in the accompanying table. 

The bottom framing is of steel throughout with %-in. 
steel girder plates bent around the corner posts from 
bulkhead posts to bulkhead posts and riveted to the 
lower sill angle, which is made in one length and spliced 
in the center of the end sill. The cross joists are 
punched to receive 1%-in. loricated motor wiring con- 
duit. All door posts, corner posts, belt rails, letter- 
boards and carlines are of steel ; the side and corner 
posts are riveted at the bottom to the lower sill angles 



EXTERIOR VIEW OF ALBANY CAR 

and side girder plates and at the top to a steel letter- 
board, which is L-shaped with a web of sufficient depth 
at the top to make a suitable fastening for the steel roof 
carlines. The roof is of plain arch type, with steel car- 
lines with poplar roof boards. It carries six Automatic- 
ventilators. 

The interior finish is red cherry. The inside lining 
below the sash rests of the car body is V-j-in. cork glued 
to the side plates and covered with 3/16-in. Agasote in 
fourteen cars and of Nevasplit in one car. The head- 
lining is of 3/16-in. Agasote. The cars are painted 
olive-green with gold lettering. 

The cars are arranged for double-end pay-within 
operation, with two double-hinged folding doors on both 
sides of each platform, folding outward and closing 



Length over bumpers 33 ft. 4 in. 

Length over corner posts 21 ft. 8 in. 

Length of platform from outside of dash to corner 

posts 5 ft. 4 in. 

Width over girder plates S ft. 2 in. 

Height from under side of the sill to the top of the 

roof S ft. 7% in. 

Height from rail to the top of the floor at the cor- 
ner posts, maximum 33 in. 

Height from floor to the top of ( in center of car 27% in. 

the sash pocket cover \ at corner post 29% ' n - 

Width of opening between vestibule corner post 

and the car-bodv corner post 40 in. 

Width of letterboard 9% in. 

Weight of body completely equipped within 10,000 !b. 




ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF ALBANY SINGLE-TRUCK CARS 



72 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 




FRONT PLATFORM OF ALBANY CAR 

against the edge of the platform. The doors are hand- 
controlled in connection with a folding step, and are 
operated in connection with the National Pneumatic 
Company's interlocking safety door control, which does 
not permit the cars to start until all doors are closed. 
The successive levels of these cars are as follows : 

Ground to step L 

Step to platform n ; n ' 

Platform to body floor „ . " 

Ramp to center of car 

The cars are fitted with the new Brill Renitent posts. 
Curtain Supply Company's window fixtures, and Pan- 
tasote curtains. The seating is made up of twelve trans- 
verse seats, four longitudinal corner seats and one fold- 




INTERIOR VIEW OF ALBANY CAR 



ing seat in each vestibule. These seats, furnished by 
Heywood Brothers & Wakefield, are of wood with re- 
versible backs and have pedestals and ends of pressed 
steel. 

Each car is mounted on a Taylor truck carrying two 
Westinghouse 323-B motors. The control is K-36. The 
heaters, thermostatic control and passengers' buzzers 
are Consolidated. The fare collecting equipment em- 
braces Dayton straight-cash fare boxes and Interna- 
tional R-5 registers. 

The safety features of these cars include Peacock 
improved brakes for service applications, Brill vertical 
wheel brakes for emergency use on steep grades, Mason 
treads for all steps, Rico anti-climbers, Providence 
fenders, De Witt Simplex sanders, and Crouse-Hinds 
headlights. 

Power Station Records in Havana 

The annual report for 1915 of the Havana Electric 
Railway, Light & Power Company gives some interest- 
ing statistics in regard to the operation of the com- 
pany's new power plant, described in the Electric 
Railway Journal for May 15, 1915. Although com- 
pleted in 1914, and in continuous operation since Octo- 
ber of that year, it was necessary to keep some of the 
old power plants in operation until the entire distribu- 
tion system was completed, so that it was not until June 
of last year that the new plant furnished all of the 
power used by the company in Havana and its suburbs. 
The following facts and statistics of operation appear 
in the report. 

There are three turbine-generators each of 12,500 
kw. capacity for continuous operation and 15,000 kw. 
maximum capacity, and the turbines are now fitted and 
adjusted for best economy at 10,000 kw. The highest 
hour during 1915 was 12,700 kw. and the largest ob- 
served load was 13,400 kw. The average load during 
December, the heaviest month of the year, was 5364 
kw., which is 53.64 per cent of the most economical 
capacity of one generating unit. A serious disadvan- 
tage which no large steam plant in Havana can avoid 
is the high temperature of the condensing water, which 
averaged 80.7 deg. Fahr., with a maximum of 88 deg. 
and a minimum of 71 deg. Even this, however, is better 
than the water of the Gulf Stream, which laves the 
north shore of this part of Cuba and averages about 
83 deg. The harbor water is a little cooler, due to the 
flow from inland streams. 

Statistics of Power Plant Operation 

1914 1915 

f * s December 

12 months First half Second Half 1915 

I 'Units in operation.. 3-4 3 11 

Net output, kilowatt- _ _ „„„ 

hours 39,688,427 20,536,737 21,649,365 3,970,366 

Coal consumed, tons • „ 

(gross) 74,797 26,870 20,234 3,613 

Coal per kilowatt- 
hours, pounds 4.26 3.026 3.095 2.040 

Total number of _„„ 

plant employees... 239 229 100 9S 

The report says that the kilowatt-hour total output 
during 1914 and the first six months of 1915, shown in 
the preceding table, is probably too high, because the 
measuring instruments in the old power plants were 
antiquated and not nearly as reliable as the new equip- 
ment, and the load is known to have increased during 
the year, due to the growth in both railway and lighting 
and power demands. Hence the contrast between coal 
used per kilowatt-hour should be greater than that 
shown. The coal rate and other costs of operation in 
the power plants already compare favorably with those 
of large modern plants in the United States, in spite of 
the very small proportion of the plant capacity now 
employed, and as the output increases the company 
expects that the cost will decrease still further. 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



73 



NEWS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



THOMPSON TOUCHES MANY TOPICS 
Committee at Work Since Spring of 1915 Concludes Its 
Sessions — Will Report to Next Legislature 

The Thompson legislative investigating committee ended 
its official existence on July 1 without developing anything 
in the nature of a sensation. The brief session was devoted 
almost entirely to the hearing of testimony relative to the 
illuminating concerns doing business in New York City. 

Recent witnesses before the committee have included 
Comptroller Prendergast of New York City; Walter G. 
Oakman, formerly a director of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company and a trustee of the estate of the late 
Andrew Freedman; Daniel L. Turner, assistant chief engi- 
neer of the Public Service Commission; Howard Abel, audi- 
tor of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company; Henry B. 
Seaman, formerly chief engineer of the Public Service Com- 
mission; William H. Allen, head of the Institute of Public 
Service and formerly with the Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search; Col. T. S. Williams, president of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company; William Merican, president of the New 
York Newsdealers Association, and August Belmont. 

The session at which Mr. Belmont was examined on June 
29 was staged amid unusual surroundings. It had to do 
for the most part with the exclusion of the Masses, a social- 
ist publication, from the newsstands in the subway by Ward 
& Gow, who hold the contract for the newsstand privileges. 
There were many well-known persons on hand to listen to the 
testimony. Among those of national prominence who at- 
tended the session were Mrs. Rose Pastor Stokes, Rev. 
Percy Stickney Grant, Inez Milholland Boissevain, Warden 
George W. Kirchwey of Sing Sing, Mr. and Mis. Amos 
Pinchot, Lincoln Steffens, Prof. John Dewey and Prof. 
Charles Fagnani. The questions directed at the witness had 
to do entirely with the reasons of the exclusion of the paper 
from the newsstands. Previous to the introduction of this 
testimony, Mr. Oakman refused to permit the committee to 
examine the private papers of the Freedman estate. He 
said that he did this on the advice of counsel. Other mat- 
ters inquired into recently by the committee were the re- 
moval of the offices of the Public Service Commission from' 
the Tribune Building to the Equitable Building, the prob- 
able returns to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company 
under the dual subway contracts and the attitude of Comp- 
troller Prendergast with respect to the rapid transit con- 
tracts. Artemas Ward explained that the lease originally 
held by his company for the newsstand privileges in the 
present subway had been renewed in December, 1915, to run 
for fifteen years from Jan. 1, 1914. The Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company received about $900,000 a year for the 
newsstand rights. Ward & Gow had 1200 stands on the 
lines, and last year their profit was about $1 a stand. Mr. 
Ward said that the rental paid under the new contract 
was about double that on the previous contract and that 
the privileges were about the same. The hope of the com- 
pany lay in the prospects for business on the new lines soon 
to be opened. 

The legislative committee, of which Senator George F. 
Thompson was chairman, was appointed in the early spring 
of 1915 for the avowed purpose of investigating the Public 
Service Commissions. The committee held a number of ses- 
sions during the first weeks of its existence and examined a 
score or more witnesses, including the Public Service Com- 
missioners. William Hayward was then counsel to the com- 
mittee. The committee filed charges against three of the 
Public Service Commissioners, including Chairman Edward 
E. McCall, but they were dismissed by Governor Whitman. 
The committee kept at its investigation in a desultory 
fashion during the summer of 1915, and then adjourned 
until September. From the middle of last September until 
July 1 the committee had been in almost continuous session. 
The most far-reaching result gained was the removal or 
resignation of all the Public Service Commissioners who 



were in office when the committee began its work. Chair- 
man Edward E. McCall was removed by Governor Whit- 
man when charges were filed against him a second time; 
Commissioner R. C. Wood resigned and later was indicted 
by the Grand Jury on a charge of soliciting a bribe; Com- 
missioner George V. S. Williams resigned under threat of 
charges, and Commissioner J. Sergeant Cram was not re- 
appointed when his term expired. The term of office of Com- 
missioner Milo R. Maltbie expired soon after the appoint- 
ment of the commission, and William Hayward was appoint- 
ed in his place, Mr. Maltbie accepting the position offered to 
him by Mayor Mitchel of Chamberlain of New York City. 
An entirely new set of commissioners came into office with 
Oscar S. Straus as chairman. 



SPRINGFIELD AND WORCESTER WAGES ADJUSTED 

A uniform increase of 25 V 2 cents a day has been granted 
to all conductors, motormen and messengers in the em- 
ploy of the Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway. The in- 
crease represents an advance of 11 per cent for the em- 
ployees in the minimum grade and an advance of approxi- 
mately 9 per cent for the employees in the maximum grade 
of the service. The present day rating, based on nine in 
eleven hours, has been retained. The agreement reached by 
the officials of the company and the representatives of the 
men has been ratified by the men. All employees in the other 
branches of the service have received material wage in- 
creases. 

The principal changes in the new agreement relate to 
wages and conditions. The life of the agreement will be 
two years instead of one, as heretofore, provision being 
made for an adjustment of differences that might arise 
by means of a conference board and as a last means arbi- 
tration. The new wage scale provides an increase for the 
men in the employ of the company during the first six 
months, from $2.30 a day to $2.55y 2 ; for the second six 
months of service an increase from $2.45 to $2.70 V 2 a day; 
for the second year men an increase from $2.60 a day to 
$2.85 y 2 a day; for the third year men, an increase from 
$2.70 a day to $2.95 V 2 a day; for the fourth year men and 
thereafter, an increase from $2.85 a day to $3.10 V 2 a day. 
All messengers, motormen and conductors doing work on 
the sand cars from midnight till 4.30 o'clock in the morning 
will be paid time and half-time. This same rating will 
apply for storm-work. All motormen, conductors and mes- 
sengers who are called on to instruct new men receive 5 
cents an hour additional for this service. 

It is provided that all unclassified service employees 
shall receive an increase of 12% per cent over their present 
ratings. This, however, is exceeded in the minimum grades 
of the service. In such cases common laborers receive a 
minimum of $2 a day. The section of the agreement per- 
taining to the minimum schedules provides that where the 
12 y 2 per cent does not bring the present wage up to $2, 
then such wage shall be increased to that amount. If the 
increase added to the present wage of any employees brings 
the wage to more than $2 and less than $2.25, then the 
wages of this class shall be increased to $2.25 a day. The 
shop, carhouse, track and line employees, who have always 
worked eight hours on Sundays and holidays, will also re- 
ceive full pay for eight hours on Saturday. This, however, 
affects only men who work the full seven-day schedule. 
These men are now granted time and a half for all overtime 
instead of straight time, as before. Men called out for emer- 
gency work on Sunday are assured pay for a day's work. 
Where the full day is worked the rate of pay is made on an 
overtime basis of time an a half. 

A similar agreement covering the wages of employees of 
the Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway has 
been approved by the men on that property. The lines in 
Springfield and Worcester are controlled by the New Eng- 
land Investment & Security Company. 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



CENTRAL'S WEST SIDE IMPROVEMENT PLANS 
INDORSED 

At a special meeting on June 30, the Chamber of Com- 
merce of New York approved, without a dissenting vote, 
the report of the committee on harbor and shipping, indors- 
ing the proposed contract between the city and the New 
York Central Railroad, known as the West Side plan, which 
contemplates the removal of the railroad's freight tracks 
from grade, their electrification, and the organization of a 
modern terminal system on the west side of Manhattan. 
The committee said in part: 

"Your committee believes that it is not within the province 
of a commercial body to pass judgment upon the intricate 
engineering and financial details necessarily a part of such 
a contract. Approval or disapproval by this chamber must 
be based upon broad principles, and the committee accepts 
the statement of the terminal committee of the Board of 
Estimate that the financial features of the proposed contract 
have been carefully safeguarded and the engineering and 
landscape details have been approved by competent profes- 
sional judgment. It is natural that a difference of opinion 
should arise over the merits of many details of a matter of 
such far-reaching importance, but the committee submits 
that the views of the city officials who have given long and 
intimate study to the problem should be upheld, unless a 
positive and important reason to the contrary be advanced." 

The advisory council of real estate interests, which has 
approved the plans for the New York Central's improve- 
ment of the west side of Manhattan, has made public its 
report of investigations of the several objections raised by 
civic and property owners' associations to some of the tech- 
nical details in carrying out the agreement between the city 
and the railroad company. The report said: 

"Mr. Olmsted seems to fear that if the tracks are covered 
over between Seventy-second and Eighty-second Streets 
there would result a mound which could not be treated artis- 
tically. Mention is also made of contours. The great artist 
is he who can take conditions as he finds them and produce 
good results. 

"There is no doubt in my mind that Mr. Olmsted is a 
great artist and could produce a satisfactory park with real 
good landscape effects if he were given the job after the 
tracks were all in and covered over as now planned. 

"In regard to the second point raised by Mr. Olmsted, 
namely, the cutting off of the view from Riverside Drive, it 
does seem as though this is a minor matter, as the part in 
question is only for about two blocks. I doubt very much 
if the view of the river would be cut off as much as Mr. 
Olmsted says would result." 



HAITIAN DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED 

According to the Wall Street Journal plans have just been 
completed for the creation under New York State laws of 
the Haitian-American Corporation to acquire existing pub- 
lic utilities in Haiti. These consist of terminal facilities, a 
railroad, electric light plants and a tramway in the capital 
city of Port-au-Prince and the adjoining agricultural val- 
leys of Cul de Sac and Leogane and an electric light plant 
in the city of Cap Haitien. The public utilities to be ac- 
quired are owned by Europeans and have been in existence 
for some years and are operated under concessions from 
the Haitian Government. The financial structure of the 
new Haitian-American Corporation will consist of $6,000,000 
of 7 per cent cumulative, convertible preferred stock, of 
which $5,500,000 will be issued and $500,000 will be reserved. 
This stock will be retirable at 110. Of $12,000,000 of 7 per 
cent non-cumulative common stock, further participating 
after payment of both preferred and common stock divi- 
dends, $6,000,000 will be issued, of which $250,000 will be 
held as treasury stock, and $6,000,000 will be reserved. 
There will be 60,000 founders' common shares, entitled to 
one-third of the remaining earnings after payment of fixed 
dividends on both preferred and common stocks. 

Financing of Haytian-American Corporation will be 
undertaken by Chicago and New York banking interests, 
which include Lawrence Turnure & Company, New York; 
Breed, Elliott & Harrison, Chicago, and P. W. Chapman 
& Company, Chicago and New York. Interests associated 
with the Cuban-American Sugar Company and the South 



Porto Rico Sugar Company are expected to be in charge of 
sugar developments. The West India Construction Com- 
pany, identified with these two sugar companies, will take in 
hand the Haytian-American Corporation plans. 

AGREEMENT REACHED ON CINCINNATI WAGES 

By a vote of 1100 to 139, taken on June 29, the employees 
of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company accepted the 
wage agreement formulated by the representatives of the 
union and of the company during the previous week. Under 
this agreement the wages are advanced each year for three 
years. The new scale went into effect on July 1. 

For the year 1916-1917 first-year men receive 23 cents 
an hour; second-year men, 25 cents; third-year men, 26 
cents; fourth-year men, 27 cents; fifth-year men, 28 cents; 
sixth-year men, 29 cents, and seventh-year men, 30 cents. 
For the year 1917-1918 first-year men will receive 24 cents; 
second-year men, 26 cents; third-year men, 27 cents; fourth- 
year men, 28 cents; fifth-year men, 29 cents, and sixth- 
year men, 30 cents. For 1918-1919 first-year men will re- 
ceive 24 cents; second-year men, 27 cents; third-year men, 
28 cents; fourth-year men, 29 cents and fifth-year men, 
30 cents. 

During the first year of the agreement men will have 
to be in the service for six years before they will receive 
the maximum wages. During the second year they will 
have to be in the service for five years, and during the 
third year they will have to be in the service for four 
years. Under the old agreement men were required to be 
in the service seven years in order to receive the maximum 
wage. Overtime is to be paid for as time and one-third. 

Men operating the owl car service are not to be asked 
to do extra work at any time. All straight day runs are 
runs through a continuous period of not less than nine nor 
more than nine and a half hours. All day runs are to leave 
the carhouses not later than 7 a. m. and all afternoon runs 
of nine hours or more are to be considered late runs. Where 
it is shown that short runs can be coupled so as to make a 
full run this is to be done. All substitutes are to be guar- 
anteed a minimum of $52.50 per month. 

At divisions where pay-enter cars are operated the com- 
pany is to supply each conductor change amounting to not 
less than $10 for each regular run taken out. All griev- 
ances are to be submitted to the company and if an agree- 
ment cannot be reached, they are then to be submitted to 
arbitration. The board in each case is to consist of three 
men, one chosen by the company, one by the union and 
these two are to choose a third. If the two cannot agree 
upon a third, the board of arbitration and conciliation is to 
make the selection. 

Among the things asked by the men was the employ- 
ment of union men only, an increase of the minimum wage 
from 20 cents to 25 cents and the maximum from 27 cents 
to 33 cents. The first demand was not granted. The fig- 
ures for wages noted previously represent a compromise 
agreeable to the men. 



ROCHESTER COMPANY TO MEET RECOMMENDA- 
TIONS IN JITNEY CASE 

At an informal conference with the Public Service Com- 
mission for the Second District of New York at Albany on 
July 5 officials of the New York State Railways indicated 
that they will render substantial compliance to all the rec- 
ommendations imposed by the commission when it dis- 
missed the applications of the Rochester jitneys for permis- 
sion to compete with the electric railway. The conference 
on July 5 did not concern subjects such as new lines and re- 
routing old ones, upon which the Rochester Chamber of 
Commerce had asked the commission to withhold final ac- 
tion. With regard to rearrangement of the company's pres- 
ent facilities for better service the company indicated that 
it would do all that was required. 

Horace E. Andrews, president of the New York State 
Railways; Robert M. Searle, vice-president, and E. J. Cook, 
general manager of the Rochester lines, promised that two 
new emergency trucks would be put into service immediately; 
that the equipment of electric switches would be added to 
and that checks of travel would be made anew. The officers 
of the company believe that their present telephone system 



July 8, 1916 | 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



75 



is adequate, but will confer with Charles R. Barnes of the 
commission with a view to possible improvements. Addi- 
tional seats and a crosstown bus line for the north side will 
also be the subjects of conference as to details. 

The removal of the cause for delays at the State Street 
carhouse is up to the city, according to Mr. Andrews. All 
that is needed to enable the company to take the network of 
tracks out of State Street and to so arrange the carhouse 
that movements can be made absolutely without delay is the 
approval of the company's plans by the city authorities. 
These plans, submitted to the commission on July 5, provide 
for putting all of the switches within the building line on the 
company's own property. The additional property needed 
for this is under option and will be bought as soon as the 
city approves. Better transfer facilities between the local 
and interurban cars for Fairport will also be the subject of 
a conference into which the lines of the Empire United Rail- 
ways, Inc., will be asked to come. Mr. Andrews told 
the commission that the company had made no progress to- 
ward lines through Chili Avenue, Clarissa and Alexander 
Streets. He said that a few persons by standing on their 
rights as property owners, are preventing the proper devel- 
opment of these lines. 

In order to accommodate the traffic conditions on the north 
and east sides, the company evidently, from remarks made 
at the hearing on July 5, contemplates the establishment of 
a north side crosstown bus line over the Driving Park Ave- 
nue Bridge. The president of the company stated, however, 
that if the company adopted this plan he could not guarantee 
a flat rate charge of 5 cents for the service. He believed 
that the plan could be worked out satisfactorily with an ad- 
ditional charge for the transfer which would have to be used 
in connection therewith. This matter is to be taken under 
consideration. 



CONDITIONS IN FRENCH ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY 
SHOULD INTEREST AMERICANS 

The issue for June 28 of the Daily Consular and Trade 
Reports, published by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, Department of Commerce of the United States, 
was devoted entirely to a review of conditions in France by 
Consul General A. M. Thackara at Paris. In discussing the 
electrical industry, Mr. Thackara said: 

"There was great activity in the electrical industries of 
France during 1915. The plants were kept well employed 
in supplying the heavy demands for electrical material of 
every kind for the equipment of factories. There were large 
orders placed for direct-current motors for operating ma- 
chine tools and other machinery, and important contracts 
were made for the equipment of hydroelectric plants. 

"None of the leading French railway companies contracted 
for the new electrification of their roads in 1915, and trade 
in material for electrical railways and tramways was con- 
fined almost exclusively to repair work. 

"There was a notable increase in the manufacture of 
metal-filament lamps in France during 1915 and the output 
would have been much greater had there not been a great 
scarcity of glass bulbs. 

"Prices in the electrical lamp trade, which had been seri- 
ously depressed by foreign competition before the war, be- 
came much more favorable, notwithstanding the great in- 
crease in the cost of production. As a rule all the prices for 
electrical products have advanced considerably. As most of 
the output was furnished to plants working on war orders 
the question of prices was not as important as that of 
speedy deliveries. 

"The prospects for the French electrical industry appear 
bright. After peace is restored there will be a period of 
intensive activity. Many of the important industrial plants, 
especially mining and metallurgical industries, are situated 
in the invaded districts and probably have been either de- 
stroyed or badly crippled, and for the re-establishment of 
these plants and for the creation of new industries that are 
projected for manufacturing in France many products that 
were imported from enemy countries, a great quantity of 
electrical and other machinery will be required. The situa- 
tion is of intense interest to American manufacturers, as 
they will undoubtedly be called upon to supply many of the 
wants of the French consumers." 



ADDITIONAL TAXES CONSIDERED IN TOLEDO 

Mayor Milroy and Director of Finance Diemer met with 
the sub-committee of the Milroy street railway committee 
at Toledo, Ohio, on June 23 in order to learn the opinion of 
the members on a plan to assess the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company for the use of the streets and the interurban 
companies for the use of the bridges. N. D. Cochran said 
that when a public utility company was assessed an extra 
tax for any purpose it simply charged it to operating ex- 
pense and in one way or another exacted the sum from the 
patrons of the service. Low fares would come only as the 
taxes of the company were kept down. Johnson Thurston, 
president of the commission, expressed the opinion that it 
was manifestly unfair to raise funds from the company 
for any purpose other than the purchase of the road. It 
was important to gather funds as rapidly as possible for 
the purchase of the property, but the wants of the people 
had become so great that it seemed necessary to raise 
money from other sources than the tax duplicate. For this 
reason he did not oppose the movement at this time. Sec- 
retary Usher expressed a similar opinion. All the mem- 
bers agreed that the people would vote in favor of a spe- 
cial bond issue to supply the needs of the city when they 
were shown the need of it in the right manner. They be- 
lieved that it was a mistake for the city to make too many 
special assessments. They also went on record as favoring 
a more equitable distribution of the tax burden. 



Boston Wage Offer Rejected. — The compromise offer of 
the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway of a flat increase of 
1 cent an hour for the first year, x fa cent an hour for the 
second year and 1 cent an hour for the third year was 
rejected by the union of employees at a meeting on the 
night of June 30. 

Increase for Bristol Employees. — The Bristol & Plain- 
ville Tramway, Bristol, Conn., operating 13 miles of line, 
has increased the pay of its trainmen from a sliding scale 
ranging from 24 cents to 29 cents an hour to one ranging 
from 26 cents to 32 cents an hour. Ten cents an hour 
extra is paid for overtime. 

Battery Car Service Between High Point and Thomasville. 
— The Carolina & Yadkin River Railroad has placed a stor- 
age-battery car of the Railway Storage Battery Car Com- 
pany in regular service on its line between High Point, N. C, 
and Thomasville, a distance of IV2 miles. There is a thirty- 
minute service between the terminals. The fare is 15 cents. 
The car is charged at the station of the railroad in High 
Point. 

Detroit Carhouse Burned. — Service on the Chene Street 
extension of the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway was inter- 
rupted on June 26 due to a fire which destroyed the North 
Detroit carhouse, two .double-truck cars and a single-truck 
car. Only two cars kept at this house were untouched — 
a double-truck car and a trailer, which, luckily, were out- 
side of the carhouse and some distance away. The loss is 
estimated at $35,000. 

Richmond Company to Pay Employees With Colors. — 
The Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va., 
has announced that it will pay all regular employees who 
are called to the colors an amount which, together with 
the compensation they receive from the Government, will 
equal their present salary. This applies to men on the 
monthly pay rolls. Other employees will be paid an 
amount which, together with the compensation received 
from the Government, will equal the average pay received 
for the three months prior to June 1, 1916. The men will 
be reinstated in their old positions on their return from 
military service. Thirteen employees from the Richmond 
Division and nine from the Norfolk Division have left with 
their companies. There are nineteen more from the Nor- 
folk Division who are members of military companies that 
are likely to be called at any time. 

W r ages of Third Avenue Men Increased. — On June 29 
F. W. Whitridge, president of the Third Avenue Railway, 
New York, N. Y., addressed the following communication to 
the men in the employ of the Yonkers and Mount Vernon di- 
visions of the company: "Conductors and Motormen. — Begin- 
ning with the first week in July, 1916, the rate of wages to be 



76 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



paid conductors and motormen, operating other than stor- 
age battery cars, will be as follows: 26 cents an hour for 
first year men; 29 cents an hour for second, third, fourth and 
fifth year men; 30 cents an hour for all over five years. 
Inspectors and Starters. — Beginning with the first week in 
July, 1916, the pay of all inspectors and starters employed 
upon the system will be increased $1 a week. Storage Bat- 
tery Cars. — Beginning with the first week in July, 1916, the 
rate of wages to be paid conductors and motormen, operating 
storage battery cars in Manhattan, will be as follows: 23 
cents an hour for first year conductors; 26 cents an hour 
for first year motormen; 24 cents an hour for after first 
year conductors; 27 cents an hour for after first year motor- 
men." 

Installation of Railless Trolley Postponed. — On account 
of the war the Corporation of Bristol, England, has decided 
to apply to the Board of Trade for an extension of the 
time allowed in the act for the exercise of powers relating 
to the proposed railless trolley installation, and for the 
granting of additional powers in regard to motor omni- 
buses. The railless trolley powers expire in 1917. The 
motor omnibus clause permits the operation of such vehicles 
on the authorized trolley routes pending the construction 
of the railless undertaking. Under an earlier act of 1903 
the Council had also obtained powers to run omnibuses on 
specified routes, but it has never been exercised. It has 
now been decided to apply for the amendment of the two 
acts in order to acquire a general power of running omni- 
buses without limitation, in accordance with the present 
practice in the granting of motor omnibus powers. Au- 
thority is also to be sought to enable the corporation to 
lease the right to run omnibuses with the consent of The 
Board of Trade. A similar provision is contained in the 
Hove corporation railless trolley act. 

Auto Accidents Increase in New York.— According to the 
report of the National Highways Protective Society on ac- 
cidents due to vehicular traffic on the streets of New York 
City for the month of June, thirty-five persons were killed 
by automobiles, two by electric railways and seven by 
wagons, as compared with twenty-four by automobiles, eight 
by electric railways and eight by wagons during the corre- 
sponding month last year. For the first six months of 1916, 
152 persons were killed by automobiles as against 137 for 
the corresponding period last year. Deaths due to wagons 
have decreased in New York State. Outside of New York 
City twenty-three persons were killed by automobiles, two 
by electric railways and three by wagons during the month 
of June. In New Jersey, during the same period, automo- 
biles caused the death of fifteen, and electric railways one. 
In New York State, including New York City, for the first 
six months of 1916, 252 people were killed by automobiles, 
as against 241 for the first six months of 1915. During 
June this year three persons were killed at highway rail- 
road grade crossings in New York State, and six in the 
State of New Jersey. All of these were occupants of auto- 
mobiles. 

Twelve Tons of Rubbish Removed from New York's Sub- 
way Daily. — The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York, N. Y., has published statistics on rubbish accu- 
mulation and removal in the subway for the first six months 
of the year. Here are some of the items: Five tons of 
newspapers and IV2 tons of dirt were cleaned off the steps 
and platforms of the subway stations every twenty-four 
hours. This refuse would have blocked the tracks com- 
pletely if the cleaners had left off work for any consider- 
able period. Passengers to the number of 728,000,000 
tramped 1500 tons of dirt into stations and dropped news- 
papers sufficient to make 36,000 bundles weighing 15 lb. 
each in the period for which the records were kept. The 
services of 100 porters, at an expense of $40,000, were 
required to keep the stations clean for six months. The 
porters used 42 doz. corn brooms, 18 doz. hair brooms, 120 
cases of polish, 72 doz. mops, 42 doz. scrubbing brushes, 
60 cases of ground soap, 1000 lb. of cotton waste, 18 doz. 
wringers, 36 doz. sponges, 18 doz. huge cans of brass polish, 
and 180 gal. crude oil. In the various stations 750 rubbish 
cans were utilized in the period, and every station was 
cleaned four times a day. The tiling was cleaned four times 
each week, and each night work trains picked up from 300 
to 350 cans of dirt and 300 bundles of newspapers. 



I 

Financial and Corporate 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



United Gas & Electric Corporation 

The comparative results of operation of the subsidiaries 
of the United Gas & Electric Corporation, New York, N. Y., 



for the calendar years 


1914 and 1915 are shown 


in the fol- 


lowing statement: 






1915 


1914 




$13,564,410 


$13,129,132 


Operating expenses . . 


6,836,119 


6,912,293 




$6,728,291 


$6,216,839 




821,428 


761,050 




$5,906,863 


$5,455,789 




3,419,897 


3,344,298 



Balance available for renewals, financ- 
ing and dividends $2,486,966 $2,111,491 

Note. — The figures prior to 1915 have been adjusted by elimination 
of earnings of properties subsequently disposed of, etc. 



The operation of the subsidiary properties of the cor- 
poration shows that the gross earnings for the year in- 
creased $435,277 or 3.3 per cent. The taxes increased 
$60,378 and operating expenses decreased $76,174, making 
an increase in net earnings of $451,074 or 8.3 per cent. 
During the last few months of 1915 a considerable improve- 
ment was shown, the gross earnings in the last quarter 
gaining $273,996 or 8.1 per cent and the net earnings 
$251,480 or 17.8 per cent. 

During 1915 an amount of $1,199,135 was expended and 
charged to operating expenses by the subsidiary properties 
for maintenance, and in addition a renewals and replace- 
ments reserve of $543,076 was set aside, making a total 
of $1,742,211 appropriated out of current earnings. The 
balance in the renewals and replacements reserve on Dec. 
31, 1915, was $1,075,303. The current surplus earnings of 
the subsidiary companies, after paying their preferred 
stock dividends, amounted to $1,840,767, of which amount 
$543,076 was transferred to the renewals and replacements 
reserve, and $534,536 was left for contingencies or invest- 
ment in betterments and improvements and $763,155 was 
paid out in common stock dividends. The combined sur- 
plus of the subsidiary companies (after all adjustments 
by the auditors for current and previous years), not de- 
clared in dividends, but largely used by them for improve- 
ments, betterments and other corporate purposes, was 
$3,129,260 at the end of the year. 

During 1915 $1,168,945 was expended for additions, bet- 
terments and extensions, this amount including $102,428 
for the Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company and 
$382,810 for the International Railway. 



Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company 

The statement of income, profit and loss of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., for the year ended Dec. 31, 1915, is as shown 
below: 



Gross earnings from operation $2,954,119 

Operating expenses 1,762,223 



Net earnings $1,191,895 

Taxes 149,322 



Operating income $1,042,573 

Other income : 

Dividends on stocks owned, etc $131,329 

Sale of power 115,477 

246,806 



Gross income $1,289,379 

Deductions and rentals : 

Bond interest $778, 46S 

Dividends 219,500 

Interest on notes 33,798 

Maintenance of organization — leased lines... 3,000 

1.034,766 



Surplus $254,613 

Sinking fund 188,224 



Balance $66,389 

The total operating expenses of the railway, light and 



power departments for 1915 were 59.65 per cent of the gross 
earnings. Operating expenses were reduced from $1,866,- 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



77 



001 in 1914 to $1,762,223 in 1915, an amount of $103,778, or 
5.56 per cent. There was an increase of $6,377 in taxes paid 
in 1915. The total expenditures on account of maintenance 
of owned and leased lines for 1915 amounted to 18.49 per 
cent of gross earnings. During the year there was ex- 
pended and charged to capital account for added property 
the sum of $51,357, of which $32,654 was expended on 
leased lines and $18,702 on owned lines. 

In 1915 the company paid $188 224 to the trustees on ac- 
count of sinking funds. Up to Dec. 31, 1915, the total 
amount, par value, of bonds held for sinking funds, includ- 
ing cash in the hands of the trustees for the purchase of 
additional bonds, was $543,041. No dividends were paid on 
the company's preferred stock during the year, the surplus 
being invested for construction purposes. The total amount 
expended for construction purposes, for which no securities 
have been issued, to Dec. 31, 1915, amounted to $640,995 on 
owned lines and $282,177 on leased lines, a total of $923,- 
172. 

Since the beginning of 1916 there has been reported a 
substantial increase in the earnings of all divisions of the 
company, and also of the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Company, the stock of which latter railway is owned 
by the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany. 

Miscellaneous traffic and operating statistics of the com- 
pany for 1915 follow: 



Passengers carried — interurban lines 8,007,107 

Passengers carried — city lines (Terre Haute and Rich- 
mond) 11,729,134 

Total passengers carried 19,736,241 

Freight handled (tons) 82,030 

Express handled, exclusive of Wells-Pargo (tons) 13,482 

Car-miles operated — interurban lines 5,739,795 

Car-miles operated — city lines 2,127,32s 

Coal consumed at power stations (tons) 194, 80S 



Power generated, main power stations (kilowatt-hours) 89,069,150 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company 

In 1913 the gross revenue from transportation of the 
Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company, Honolulu, T. H., 
was $613,137, and in 1914 $602,841, while in 1915 it fell to 
$586,588. This was $26,549 less than in 1913 and $16,253 
less than in 1914. The revenue from other sources — that 
is, from rents, miscellaneous income and the Aquarium — 
was for 1913, $12,584; for 1914, $12,741, and for 1915, 
$12,976. The operating expenses, not including taxes and 
car licenses, were— 1913, $371,242; 1914, $367,794, and 1915, 
$372,411, making the net revenue for 1913, $254,480; 1914, 
$247,788, and 1915, $227,153. While the operating expenses 
thus showed very little variation, the falling off in revenue 
was material. This is attributed almost wholly to the great 
increase in the number of automobiles in private and public 
use. In comparison with 1914 the passenger traffic de- 
creased 295,215 fare passengers and 6923 free passengers, 
while 2,975,395 transfers were issued, as compared to 2,878,- 
719 in 1914. 

On the other hand, general business conditions in Hawaii 
and Honolulu show much improvement over the average 
condition of the last three years, and a large increase in 
tourist travel is now noted. Beneficial results in street car 
traffic are already shown which offset in a measure the 
severe handicap that has been caused by the growing use of 
automobiles. 

Late in the year four motor buses of special design were 
procured at a cost of $17,314 to extend the service on free 
transfers on certain lines. The extended service to military 
posts has been well patronized, but owing largely to the poor 
condition of the streets and roads traversed has proved a 
costly undertaking. 

Miscellaneous comparative statistics for this company 



follow: 

1915 1914 

Average fare, revenue passengers $0.0488 $0.0488 

Revenue from transportation per car-mile 2955 .3072 

Revenue from transportation per car-hour. . . 2.748 2.820 
Revenue from operations other than transpor- 
tation per car-mile 0065 .0064 

Revenue from operations other than transpor- 
tation per car-hour 0608 .0596 

Operating revenue per car-mile 3020 .3136 

Operating revenue per car-hour 2.809 2.879 

Operating expenses per car-mile 1876 .1814 

Operating expenses per car-hour 1.745 1.720 

Per cent operating expenses to transportation 

revenue 63.48 61.01 

Per cent operating expenses to total operating 

revenues 62.11 59.76 



Washington Water Power Company 

The income, profit and loss statement of the Washington 
Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., for the calendar 



year 1915 follows: 

Gross operating revenues $2,743,876 

Receipts from interest on current balances 6,609 

Total revenues $2,750,485 

Operating expenses, including taxes 1,239,505 

Net operating earnings $1,510,980 

Deductions 787,323 

Net earnings $723 657 

Surplus from 1914 1,118,688 

$1,842,345 

Dividends paid $851,950 

Adjustments prior to 1915 3,450 

Surplus Dec. 31, 1915 $986,945 



The receipts from the 110 miles of street railway tracks 
operated by this company decreased 13 per cent during 
1915 on account of jitney competition and the increasing 
number of private automobiles. It b expected that the ef- 
fect of the former will be less in 1916. The railway ex- 
penditures for additions and betterments amounted to $71,- 
562 for the year. No extensions of tracks or additions to 
equipment are now contemplated. Some street paving may 
be required by city ordinance, and the separation of grades 
by the Northern Pacific Railway Company will probably be 
completed in 1916, requiring some expenditures in connec- 
tion with placing the street railway tracks at the new 
grades. 

The operating burdens of the railway system may be 
judged from the following comparative statement for re- 
cent years: 





Miles of 


Passengers 


Car-Miles 


Car-Hours 


Year 


Track 


Carried 


Run 


Run 


1906 


82.94 


13,915,570 


2.914,502 


378,263 


1907 


96.21 


17,249,527 


3,111,563 


398,820 


1908 


97.55 


19,520,942 


3,393,479 


420.836 


1909 


100.96 


21,842,767 


3,624,586 


435,541 


19111 


108.92 


24,730,145 


3,990,653 


465.516 


1911 


111.85 


23,691,820 


3,982,362 


467,813 


1912 


112.03 


20,726,062 


3,698.584 


432,213 


1913 


112.30 


19,437,009 


3,650,692 


423,455 


1914 


110.18 


17,840,796 


3.647,640 


414,200 


1915 


110.18 


15,714,753 


3,612,993 


407,157 


NOTE- 


—Statistics cover 


the whole 


system, excepting 


passengers 


larried, 


which are for ci 


ty lines only 





TAX ASSESSMENTS IN OHIO 
The 1916 valuation of street and interurban railways in 
Ohio, as assessed by the State Tax Commission, totaled 
$135,974 190 as compared to $131,768,260 in 1915, an in- 
crease of $4,205,930 or about 3.2 per cent. Of the eighty- 
one companies that were assessed in 1915, forty-one showed 
increases in 1916, twelve decreases and twenty-six no 
change, while two as yet have no 1916 valuations. The in- 
creases in most cases were not large, but the fact that there 
was a revision upward in so many cases made the aggre- 
gate large. A notable exception was the Cincinnati, New- 
port & Covington Railway, whose valuation was reduced 
from $1,020,620 to $500,000. This was done because the 
company owns a large amount of the stock of a Ken- 
tucky corporation of the same name, which is assessed in 
that State. The two companies operate the line serving- 
Newport and Covington, Ky., and connecting them with Cin- 
cinnati. The value of the Lake Shore Electric property re- 
mains the same as in 1915, as does that of the Ohio Electric 
Railway. 



Algiers Railway & Lighting Company, New Orleans, La. 

— D. Emerson, general manager of the New Orleans South- 
ern & Grand Isle Railway, has assumed charge of the 
Algiers Railway & Light Company properties as receiver, 
under appointment by Federal Judge Rufus E. Foster. 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies, Boston, Mass. — 
A quarterly dividend of 50 cents has been declared on the 
31,387 shares of preferred stock of the Boston & Suburban 
Electric Companies. This stock is without par value. The 
dividend is payable on July 15 to holders of record of 
July 3. In January and April, 1916, $1 each was paid. 
There is still $11.50 accumulated. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ohio. — The Cleveland Trust Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 



78 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



filed suit in the Common Pleas Court at Cincinnati on July 
1, asking - for a receiver to take charge of the properties 
of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company. This 
company is trustee under the mortgage securing the bonds 
of the company. The petition states that the company has 
defaulted in the payment of interest on the bonds since Jan. 
i, 1916. It further stated that holders of more than $2,200,- 
000 of bonds had requested that action be taken to fore- 
close the mortgage. The trust company claims that in 
order to preserve the franchises and property rights and 
continue the road in operation, it is essential to appoint a 
receiver. Judge Murphy of the Common Pleas Court of 
Butler County recently announced that he would appoint a 
receiver for the company, but he has not yet done so. For 
some time the Ohio Electric Railway, which has been oper- 
ating the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo line underlease, has 
been turning the earnings over to a bondholders' protective 
committee. 

Cities Service Company, New York, N. Y. — At a meeting 
of stockholders of Cities Service Company held on June 29 
(.lie authorized amount of Cities Service preferred stock was 
increased to $60,000,000 and the authorized amount of com- 
mon stock was increased to $40,000,000. This prepares the 
way for the exchanges of securities of Cities Service Com- 
pany for the stocks of Electric Bond Deposit Company, 
Toledo Traction, Light & Power Company, Lincoln Gas & 
Electric Light Company, and Montgomery Light & Water 
Company. It is expected that the final determination of the 
basis for these exchanges will be announced soon. 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — Kissel, Kinnicutt & Company, New York, N. Y., are 
offering for subscription at 98 and interest, yielding 5.12 
per cent, a block of $100,000 of Columbus Railway, Power & 
Light Company's first refunding and extension mortgage 
5 per cent sinking fund bonds due on Oct. 1, 1940, with 
interest payable on April 1 and Oct. 1. They are redeemable 
at 105 and interest. The bonds will be a first mortgage on 
the electric light and power and the heating properties of 
the company on the retirement of certain underlying issues, 
which have been called for payment, and are a mortgage on 
the street railway subject to prior liens secured by closed 
mortgages, for the retirement of which certain of the first 
refunding bonds are reserved. 

Fort Wayne & Decatur Traction Company, Decatur, Ind. — 

The Indiana Public Service Commission on June 23 approved 
the purchase of the Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway by 
the Fort Wayne & Decatur Traction Company, and also 
authorized the issue of $90,000 of ten-year gold bonds and 
$150,000 of common stock at par to pay for the property 
which has been taken over. 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. — The 

Georgia Railway & Power Company has secured control 
of the Gainesville Railway & Power Company through the 
purchase of the holdings of W. A. Carlisle, W. H. Slack 
and H. H. Dean. The Gainesville property consists of 8 
miles of street railway line in the city and 2 miles to the 
suburbs, the electric lighting system of Gainesville and a 
hydro-electric plant on the Chestatee River rated at 1500 hp. 

Sacramento & Woodland Railroad, Chico, Cal. — The Cali- 
fornia Railroad Commission has issued a supplemental order 
authorizing the Sacramento & Woodland Railroad to issue 
its demand notes for $45,000 to the First National Bank, 
San Francisco, $20,000 of this amount at 6 per cent and 
$25,000 at 7 per cent. These notes are to cancel similar 
amounts to the same bank. 

Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn. — The direct- 
ors of the New London & East Lynne Street Railway have 
voted to recommend the sale of the outstanding stock of the 
company to the Shore Line Electric Railway, which now 
operates the l oad under lease. 

Standard Gas & Electric Company. Chicago, 111. — The 
entire outstanding balance of the issue of $3,000,000 of 6 
per cent collateral trust notes of the Standard Gas & 
Electric Company dated June 1, 1913, was paid on June 1, 
1916. The company's outstanding convertible 6 per cent 
sinking fund gold bonds, due 1926, are being reduced by 
$1,911,500 with funds secured from the sale to the Northern 



States Power Company of its holdings of Northern States 
subsidiaries' bonds at call figures. This brings the present 
outstanding bond issue down to $7,040,500, which will be 
further reduced on July 1 through operation of the $58,800 
cash now in sinking fund when tenders will be accepted of 
convertible 6 per cent bonds. 

Topeka (Kan.) Railway. — The stockholders of the Topeka 
Railway have voted to increase the capital stock from 
$1,210,000 to $2,250,000, and have filed application for such 
increase with the Kansas Public Utilities Commission. It is 
reported that the company is planning to build an interurban 
line from Topeka to Lawrence. 

Union Traction Company, Coffeyville, Kan. — The stock- 
holders of the Union Traction Company, which operates be- 
tween Parsons and Coffeyville, have approved the purchase 
of the Kansas-Oklahoma Traction Company, which operates 
between Coffeyville and Nowata, Okla, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Corporation Commission of Oklahoma and 
the Public Service Commission of Kansas. 



DIVIDENDS DECLARED 

Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., quar- 
terly, IVi per cent, preferred. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, first 
preferred. 

Boston (Mass.) Suburban Electric Companies, quarterly, 
50 cents, preferred. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Covington, Ky., quarterly, 1V S per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, 1% per cent, common. 

Citizens Traction Company, Oil City, Pa., . quarterly, 75 
cents, preferred. 

Columbia Railway, Gas & Electric Company, Columbia, 
S. C, quarterly, IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway, Dayton, Ohio, quarterly, 
1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1*4 per cent, common. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway, quarterly, 1% per cent. 

Kentucky Securities Corporation, Lexington, Ky., quar- 
terly, IV2 per cent, preferred. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark., 2 per cent, common and preferred. 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, Cal., quarterly, 
1% per cent, common. 

South Carolina Light, Power & Railways Company, Spar- 
tanburg, S. C, quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway, Springfield, Ohio, 1% per 
cent, preferred. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. r 
quarterly, 50 cents, common. 

Youngstown & Ohio Railway, Leetonia, Ohio, \ x k per cent, 
preferred; one-fourth of 1 per cent, preferred extra. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

BROCKTON & PLYMOUTH STREET RAILWAY, PLYMOUTH, 

MASS. 



Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 
Period Revenues Expenses Income Charges Income 

lm., April, '16 $8,403 *$8,258 $145 $1,096 f$951 

1 " " '15 7.407 *8,431 U.024 1,110 t2,134 

12 1fi 117,963 *9S,444 19,519 13,370 6,149 

12" " '15 121,522 *101,198 20,324 13,375 6,949 

CAPE BRETON ELECTRIC COMPANY, LTD.. SYDNEY, N. S. 

lm., April, '16 $28,234 *$18,296 $9,938 $6,499 $3,439 

1 " " '15 25,164 *15,337 9,827 6,449 3,378 

12" " '16 374,920 *218,58S 156,332 78,830 79,502 

12 15 342,908 *207.651 135,257 78,145 57,112 

JACKSONVILLE (FLA.) TRACTION COMPANY 

lm., April, '16 $54,593 *$34,645 $19,948 $15,439 $4,509 

1 15 52,075 *36.425 15,650 16,254 f604 

12 16 615,221 *424,264 190.957 179,363 11,594 

12 " " '15 677,607 *459.907 217,700 160,143 57,557 

KENTUCKY TRACTION & TERMINAL COMPANY, 
LEXINGTON, KY. 

lm., April, '16 $65,564 $34,666 $30,898 $20,574 t$14,496 

1 " " '15 63,611 33,152 30,459 19,754 tl5,192 

10" " '16 705,579 362,519 343,060 204,133 J163.848 

10 " " '15 673,217 358,307 314,910 197,748 1144,690 

PADUCAH TRACTION & LIGHT COMPANY, PADUCAH, KY. 

lm., April, '16 $24,384 *$15,899 $8,485 $7,137 $1,348 

1" " '15 22,193 *14,866 7,327 7,749 f422 

12 " " '16 296,777 *179,699 117,078 89,444 27,634 

12 15 297.981 *190,134 107,846 91,767 16.079 



♦Includes taxes. fDeficits. ^Includes non-operating income. 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



79 



Traffic and Transportation 



PITTSBURGH OWL CAR RATE HEARING 
Summary of Testimony in Case Involving an Increase in 
Fare from 5 Cents to 10 Cents 

The Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania held a 
public hearing at Harrisburg on June 30 on the proposed 
increase of fare from 5 to 10 cents on the owl cars of the 
Pittsburgh Railways. As a result of the points raised by 
counsel for W. M. Jacoby, the complainant, and the city of 
Pittsburgh, co-complainant, against the proposed increase, 
the Public Service Commission will be compelled to make a 
new ruling as to what constitutes proper notice to the public 
of a change of rates. The commission decided to consider 
only one of the complaints filed — that of whether the public 
received proper notice of the increased night rate fare by 
schedules posted as required by law. After hearing wit- 
nesses for the complainants and the company, the commis- 
sion announced it would hand down a decision in the near 
future. 

Counsel for the Pittsburgh Railways contended that all 
requirements of the law had been met — that the company 
had notified the commission of the proposed increase, and 
had placed tariff schedules at the main office of the com- 
pany and at all stations where tickets were sold thirty days 
before the proposed increase went into effect. The com- 
plainants alleged that it is insufficient notice of a change of 
rates to place a schedule where only those who inquire may 
find it, and that actual posting "where all who run may 
read" is necessary. The hearing of witnesses on this one 
point consumed all morning and afternoon, and no testimony 
was taken as to whether the proposed increase is justifiable. 
The Pittsburgh Railways will be forced to withdraw its 
schedule and make publication of a proposed increase anew 
if the commission sustains the complainants. However, if 
the company is sustained, the complainants will have to pro- 
ceed with arguments to prove that the rate increase is not 
justifiable as they contend. Meanwhile the public will re- 
ceive rebate coupons issued by the company, at the com- 
mission's order. 

P. N. Jones, general manager; C. S. Mitchell, comptroller; 
J. M. Loftis, superintendent; W. B. Carson, secretary; J. W. 
Welsh, James W. W. Ash, traffic agents, and Attorneys A. 
W. Robertson and David Reed attended the meeting for the 
company. 

Commissioners Ainey, Brecht, Ryan, Magee and Rilling 
sat to hear the case in the house of the legislature caucus 
room, but before beginning the hearing of testimony it was 
announced that Commissioners Magee and Brecht would not 
participate, and Messrs. Ainey, Ryan and Rilling heard the 
case. Messrs. Magee and Brecht are residents in the terri- 
tory in which the Pittsburgh Railways operates. 

James W. W. Ash, traffic agent, demonstrated the manner 
in which copies of the new night rate schedule were filed at 
stations and other public places in Pittsburgh. He said 
copies of the new tariff were given to the agents, with in- 
structions that they be placed on file and kept for public 
reference. This notice to the agents was sent on May 22, 
and the proposed increase notice was filed at stations, car- 
houses and waiting rooms. 

At Chairman Ainey's request, copies of the agents' in- 
structions were exhibited. It was brought out that the only 
notice to the public was through the filing of the new sched- 
ule and no other notice was posted until the day before the 
increase was effective, when posters announcing the doubling 
of the fare were placed in the cars. Witnesses produced a 
list of places where the new rates were filed, including car- 
houses and the company waiting rooms and offices. Adver- 
tisements were produced from the Pittsburgh papers of the 
date of June 23 as the first printed concerning the increase. 
One of the posters placed in the cars on June 21 was also 
identified by witnesses. 

Councilmen and investigators for the complainants then 
gave testimony relating to their search for the posted rate 
increase notification, and all declared that no notification 



could be found in a public place and that at many of the 
waiting rooms and offices the new tariff schedule was pro- 
cured with difficulty. 

P. S. Joyce of the law department of the city of Pitts- 
burgh said that he visited carhouses and failed to find notices 
of the advance, and declared the schedules were not acces- 
sible. Photographic views of some carhouses were produced 
as part of his evidence to show the alleged inaccessibility 
of these places. 

Attorney David Reed objected to this testimony, but 
Chairman Ainey said he "considered it a lack of opportunity 
for publicity." 

Councilman John S. Herron, who was called to testify in 
regard to excess receipts, stated that he saw a number of 
passengers who did not get such receipts even when they 
asked the conductor for them. Notice to the public to ask 
for receipts issued by the company was read from the poster 
and made an exhibit. Mr. Reed, for the company, declared 
that every effort had been made to comply with the commis- 
sion's order relating to excess receipts, and insisted that 
there was no attempt to evade or disobey that body's order. 

Commissioner Ainey said that a passenger's getting an 
excess receipt should not depend on whether the passenger 
asked for that receipt. Passengers were entitled to them 
and every passenger should get one. The burden rested on 
the company to see that passengers did receive excess re- 
ceipts. 

Mr. Brown, for the complainant, held that a notice in bold- 
faced type should have been posted to call the public's atten- 
tion to the increased night fare, and asked how a patron of 
the company could have knowledge of the change unless he 
made inquiry every day where tariffs were on file. 

Counsel for the Pittsburgh Railways offered in evidence 
tariff circulars and other documents, including the original 
tariff schedule and two supplements, one of them the night 
rate schedule. David A. Reed, for the company, declared 
that the 10-cent fare on owl cars was the custom until 
1907, when an act was passed, forbidding more than a 5-cent 
fare in any city in Pennsylvania. This act was later de- 
clared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and Mr. Reed 
pointed out that the company was merely going back to its 
old rates, in effect for forty years before the passing of the 
act of 1907. 

Commissioner Ryan asked what the schedule of rates con- 
tained to indicate an increase or decrease. Mr. Reed said: 

"It is simply an amended page, and it cannot be inter- 
preted as an increase or decrease. The statement of varia- 
tion is plain, as it says it 'applies to night fares.' " 

Commissioner Ryan asked if it was not a fact that the 
commission was formed to protect the public in just such 
matters as this. Mr. Reed said he believed the public suffi- 
ciently intelligent to care for itself and insisted that the 
notice given by the company met all the requirements of the 
law. After argument on the meaning of the word "posted" 
the commission adjourned. 

INSURANCE PLAN ANNOUNCED FOR BALTIMORE 
EMPLOYEES 

William A. House, president of the United Railways & 
Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., has announced that the 
company has completed an insurance plan for the employees. 
About 4500 employees are affected by it. The plan follows 
quite naturally the progressive step of the company taken 
in 1914, when it established a pension plan for the em- 
ployees who had reached a certain age limit. The letter 
from Mi*. House announcing the terms of the plan as worked 
out is as follows: 

"As a further evidence of this company's interest in the 
welfare of its employees and their families, the board of 
directors has authorized the inauguration of an insurance 
plan, effective on July 1, 1916, under which the family of an 
employee will receive benefits from the company in the 
event of his death. Pensioned employees are included in 
this plan. The employees of the company have been divided 
for the purpose of the insurance plan, into three classes- 
as follows: 

"Class A — Will comprise those not married, having no 
dependents. 

"Class B — Will comprise married employees having no 
children and those not married having dependents. 



80 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



"Class C — Will comprise married employees, with wife 
and children. 

"The following table shows the amounts payable to bene- 
ficiaries of employees who have been in the company's 
service for the periods named, according to the designated 

classes: 





A 


B 


C 




$100 


|150 


$200 


"After two years of service 


200 


300 


400 


"After three vears of service 


300 


450 


600 


"After four years of service 


400 


600 


800 


"After five years of service. . . 


500 


750 


1,000 


"The one year of service 


provision will be 


waived 


with 


respect to those employees 


now in the service 


of the 


com- 



pany, who are otherwise eligible to the benefits of this 
plan. Those entering the employ of the company after 
July 1, 1916, will become eligible after one year of con- 
tinuous service. 

"The entire expense of this insurance plan will be borne 
by the company. 

"It is believed that those in the company's service will 
find much comfort in the thought that, in case of death, 
their families will, to this extent, be provided for, and this 
action on the part of the company will undoubtedly serve 
to engender still further that feeling of loyalty which has 
been so strongly evident in the past. 

"The plan in detail will be posted at the headquarters 
of your department." 



HEARINGS CONTINUE ON BAY STATE FARE CASE 

A report on the Bay State Street Railway was presented 
recently in connection with hearings before the Public Serv- 
ice Commission on the pending petition for fare increases, by 
George W. Bishop, formerly a member of the commission 
and now head of its inspection department. A special ex- 
amination of the equipment was made by John W. Ogden 
and Arthur W. Hodges, inspectors for the commission, and 
Philip Scott, assistant inspector. 

The report criticises the original construction of the con- 
stituent roads now making up the Bay State system, and 
points out that light-weight rails, small ties and insufficient 
roadbed are typical of portions of outlying lines. The man- 
agement has in recent years been engaged in correcting this 
situation, the report says. In the interests of safety, the 
first available funds should be used to repair and reconstruct 
parts of the roadbed and track. The amount considered nec- 
essary is $1,659,720, about half of which should be expended 
during the present season. Of the 2,350,000 odd ties in the 
system, 1,855,834 have been placed during the last thirteen 
years. Mr. Bishop's estimate of the average life is twelve 
years; hence he deduces that there is a shortage of nearly 
700,000 tie renewals on all Bay State lines. Of the 116,000 
tons of rails on the system, about 47 per cent is 90 to 105 lb. 
girder rail and 53 per cent 40 to 75 lb. T-rail. The average 
life is estimated at eighteen years, requiring 6500 tons an- 
nually for repairs. The company reported 59,658 tons 
placed during the last fourteen years, of which 11,610 tons 
were used in construction, 46,384 tons in reconstruction, and 
1664 tons in maintenance, a deficiency of more than 30,000 
tons on the eighteen-year estimate. 

An improved signal system is recommended. About 340 
miles of the total 556 miles of single track are protected as 
follows: 240 miles by 343 blocks of hand-throw signals, 
eighty-eight miles by 124 blocks of non-counting signals, and 
twelve miles by thirty-three blocks of counting signals. Ow- 
ing to the exposure of hand-throw signals to malicious inter- 
ference, it is recommended that $5,000 be expended to secure 
them against this depredation. It is estimated that the cost 
per block of hand-throw signals is $75, and their annual 
maintenance $10, while figures for both non-counting and 
counting signals are $600 and $50, respectively. About 
$280,000 would be required to replace the older types with 
counting signals, and their annual maintenance would cost 
about $20,000. About $180,000 more would protect the sin- 
gle track not now supplied with signals. Safety and eco- 
nomical operation favor the installation of a standard type 
on all lines. 

The Bishop report estimates the cost of improved car- 
house and shop equipment at $2,120,400; improvements in 
power stations and feeder lines call for $910,500; the total 
estimated requirement to bring the property to first-class 



condition being $5,150,620. This amount should be spent dur- 
ing 1916 and 1917. 

Peter Witt, formerly railway commissioner of Cleveland, 
Ohio, was examined June 26 and 27, on a study made at the 
request of R. S. Bauer, representing Lynn and Essex 
County. Mr. Witt recommended the housing of cars in a 
few large carhouses and storage yards; the speeding up of 
service generally; the use of one-man cars on a number of 
city and suburban lines; the scrapping of all open cars and 
a large number of box cars, and other radical measures. 
He thought that the installation of fare boxes would result 
in substantial increases of revenue, perhaps 10 to 15 per 
cent. The accident hazard of the open car, and the dupli- 
cation of equipment it involves for all-the-year operation, 
make that type very uneconomical. Mr. Witt did not con- 
sider the argument that open cars encourage summer rid- 
ing as forceful at the present time. Mr. Witt held that the 
one-man car would successfully combat jitney competition. 
Mr. Witt referred to the twenty-two passenger, two-ton- 
body car adopted by Stone & Webster for certain of their 
Southern systems. He said that such cars have not been 
adopted in Cleveland because the headways there are close, 
and large cars are more advantageous. Instead of the pre- 
vailing 15-minute headway in Lynn he would operate one- 
man cars on 7.5-minute headway and leave the jitney little 
patronage. Such operation would stimulate noonday riding. 

On June 28, Alton D. Adams, consulting engineer em- 
ployed by the remonstrants, was examined by Albert P. 
Worthen, counsel for the remonstrants. 



TRENTON FARE CASE STILL BEFORE COURTS 

The Trenton & Mercer County Traction Corporation is 
availing itself of every legal course to have its rights 
defined in the dispute with the city of Trenton over the 
sale of six tickets for 25 cents. The city claims that the 
company is obligated by the ordinances under which it is 
operating, and by the sale of the tickets for so many years, 
to continue to sell six tickets for 25 cents. The company 
claims that under its franchise it has the right to demand 
a straight 5-cent fare. The suit in the federal court is to 
determine the city's power to interfere with the operation 
of cars, as the city has threatened to do, should the company 
discontinue the sale of tickets. The suit in the New Jersey 
Supreme Court is for a review of the findings of the State 
Public Utility Commission, which ordered the company to 
continue the sale of the tickets. Neither court has ren- 
dered an opinion in the case. The company's application 
for an order to the United States District Court to restrain 
the city from interfering with the operation of cars is now 
on the calendar for final hearing. It is not likely that the 
case in the federal court will be moved until the question 
is determined before the State Supreme Court. The case 
was carried into the Supreme Court on certiorari proceed- 
ings after a decision by the utility board. The Supreme 
Court, after argument, will hand down its opinion, and 
then an appeal will probably be taken to the Court of 
Errors and Appeals. 



Booklet Describing Kansas City. — The Kansas City (Mo.) 
Railways has issued a booklet filled with pictures and de- 
scriptions of Kansas City's parks and boulevards — particu- 
larly the parks, which are widely scattered. It is some- 
what in the form of a railway folder. All the beauty spots 
of the city, and many outside' the city, can be reached for 
a single 5-cent fare. 

Ban on Left-Hand Turns to Be Removed. — Acting on com- 
plaints of the Automobile Club the Board of Public Safety 
of Louisville, Ky., has announced that immediately on in- 
stallation of semaphores which are planned for several of 
the important downtown intersections, the rule against the 
left-hand turn, so as to cross the street, will be lifted for 
a while at least. The Automobile Club members contend 
that instead of obviating congestion the system actually in- 
creases confusion on the busy streets. 

Two-Cent Fare in Grant County to Continue. — Two cents 
per mile will remain the fare to be charged by the Union 
Traction Company of Indiana in Grand County, Ind., until 
the September term of court, as a result of the decision of 
Judge Paulus not to set the date for the argument on a 
demurrer in the case of the town of Fairmount, Ind., against 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



81 



the Indiana Public Service Company and the Union Traction 
Company. The order of the commission eliminating the low 
passenger rates imposed by franchise conditions in Indiana 
was referred to in the Electric Railway Journal of April 
22, page 799. 

New Emergency Ticket in Brooklyn.— The New York Con- 
solidated Railroad (Brooklyn Rapid Transit System) notified 
the Public Service Commission for the First District of New 
York that on June 15 the company would put into effect a 
system of issuing block or emergency tickets on the elevated 
and subway lines in Brooklyn. In the case of a block on any 
elevated or subway division, tickets will be issued to pas- 
sengers who have paid their fare and will be good within 
forty-eight hours not only on any other elevated or subway 
line but also on any surface line in the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit System. 

Excursion from Peoria to Niagara Falls. — The Illinois 
Traction System, Peoria, 111., conducted an excursion to 
Niagara Falls on June 24, tickets being sold via the Toledo, 
St. Louis & Western Railroad at Ridge Farm, 111., where 
connection is made with the Illinois Traction System. The 
passengers were conveyed from Ridge Farm to Toledo by 
the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroad, thence by the 
Lake Shore Electric Railway to Cleveland, thence via the 
lake vessel SeeandBee to Buffalo and over the International 
Railway to Niagara Falls. Liberal stop-overs were allowed 
and many side visits of interest were provided. 

California Line Reduces Fare. — The Central California 
Traction Company, Lodi, Cal., with the approval of the 
Railroad Commission of California has put into effect for 
the summer a one-way fare of $1 from Sacramento to 
Stockton and a round-trip fare of $1.50 good only for the 
date of sale. The old rate was $1.45 for one way and 
$2.90 for the round trip. The fare between Stockton and 
Lodi has been cut to 25 cents for the round trip, good for 
the day of sale only. Heretofore the round trip rate has 
been 50 cents, and 35 cents for one way. It is stated that 
the reduction was sought largely on account of the com- 
petition offered by the auto bus. 

Suit Over a Pig. — Construction of an old agreement, as- 
serted by the plaintiff in the case, will result from a suit 
filed in the Quarterly Court at Louisville by S. W. Duncan 
against the Louisville & Interurban Railway, in which the 
plaintiff claims $4 for the death of a pig. He asserts that 
when the railway received a right-of-way through his prop- 
erty it was agreed that the promoters would build and main- 
tain a fence which would keep his cattle and hogs off the 
right-of-way. Mr. Duncan says this agreement has not 
been lived up to by the company, and that he was refused 
payment on presentation of his claim for the pig, which 
got through the fence onto the track and was run down. 

Topeka Jitney Ordinance Declared Operative. — The 
ordinance regulating jitneys in Topeka, Kan., requiring 
practically prohibitive license on certain streets where 
street cars operate, will go into effect unchanged. The de- 
lay of a month granted by the City Commissioners was 
not improved by the jitney owners. They established a 
transfer system, but got into a squabble over the exchange 
of transfers and the distribution of territory. It seemed 
that it would be impossible to maintain a permanent agree- 
ment on service to all parts of the city, and on the main 
streets, and that the service itself was subject to the oppor- 
tunities of the jitney owners to make more money occa- 
sionally with special fares. 

Burlington County Fare Increase Still Before Commis- 
sion. — The petition for the Burlington County Traction 
Company for permission to increase its fare from 20 cents 
to 30 cents from Moorestown to Burlington, N. J., is still 
before the Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New 
Jersey. In the meantime the utility board has directed the 
company to comply with certain minor directions as to 
roadbed, equipment and other incidentals. When the com- 
pany announced that it would ask the commission to allow 
it to increase its fare the citizens of Burlington County 
objected and a committee was appointed to prevent the 
increase. The citizens announced, however, that if the com- 
pany would provide better equipment, roadbed and service 
they would sanction the increase. 



Louisville Suburban Lines Recover Traffic. — In spite of 
increased competition the Louisville & Interurban system of 
electric lines shows a gain in business, according to the 
figures which have just been compiled for May of this year. 
The country lines of the Louisville system were the last to 
feel the effects of the late depression and have been the last 
to recover. The increase in May was the first gain for a 
number of months. Competition is now to be contended 
with on all the lines of the company running out from 
Louisville, passenger automobile service and freight service 
by motor trucks both being encountered. The method by 
which the service of the railway lines is extended by motor 
truck beyond the terminus of the Shelbyville line is proving 
up to expectations and recommends itself as one way in 
which electric railways can off-set the business taken away 
by the motor trucks. 

Hearing Fixed for Order on Turn Backs. — The Public 
Service Commission for the First District of New York on 
June 9 last issued an order to all surface railways in Greater 
New York, forbidding the turning back of cars before reach- 
ing the destination for which they started, unless some ex- 
cellent reason for that procedure could be shown. The com- 
panies were directed to make daily reports to the commis- 
sion, showing the number of cars turned back on the pre- 
ceding day and for what reason. The Third Avenue Railway 
wrote to the commission, stating that compliance with the 
order would upset its traffic arrangements, and that the 
order was a serious matter and should not be enforced 
without first giving the corporations a chance to present 
their side of the case to the commission. The commissioners 
thought it but fair to accede to the Third Avenue Railway's 
request and all the companies have been notified to have 
representatives at a public hearing on the question to be 
held at the office of the commission on July 11. 

Brooklyn Safety Prizes Awarded. — Five hundred children 
from fifteen public schools which were winners of the dis- 
trict prizes in the 1916 safety essay competition held by the 
Bureau of Public Safety under the auspices of the Brooklyn 
Institution for Safety (Brooklyn Rapid Transit System) 
gathered at the assembly hall of the Central Branch Y. M. 
C. A. in Brooklyn on the evening of June 22 to witness the 
award of the district prizes and of the three grand prizes 
given in this competition. The principals of the schools 
winning the district prizes and a considerable number of 
teachers and parents attended with the children. The judges, 
of the competition, Gen. George W. Wingate, president of 
the Brooklyn Institute for Safety, and Dr. Gustav Strauben- 
muller, acting City Superintendent of Schools, found that 
the essays of Allen Savage of P. S. No. 73 and of Benjamin 
Brook of P. S. No. 178 tied for first place in the competition 
and accordingly the first and second grand prizes of $50 
and $30 were divided between these schools, $40 for each 
school. The third grand prize was won by Harry Rankin of 
P. S. No. 147, whose safety essay brought $20 to his school 
in addition to the $10 district prize. 

McAlester's Jitney Policy Recommended for Emulation. — 

The Ardmore (Okla.) Ardmorite said recently, in the course 
of an editorial: "McAlester has had some trouble with its 
system of electric ears and has learned to appreciate what 
a car line means to the city and has begun a campaign to 
protect the receipts of the line by making war on the jitney. 
A high license fee is charged, a $10,000 bond is required, 
children under five are required to be transferred free and at 
half price between five and twelve years, and the jitney is 
required to give continuous service from 6.30 a. m. to 10.30 
p. m. The McAlester people are to be congratulated upon 
the work done in this direction. Jitneys will never build a 
city, while street cars will settle additions and make living 
conditions more wholesome. The salaried man can depend 
upon the street railway to get him to his work on time, 
while no one can depend on the jitney for continuous service 
in any kind of weather. A street railway gives the family 
of small means a chance for recreation and the man of good 
common sense who has worn the novelty off his automobile 
will patronize the street car for many of his outings instead 
of using his car. Ardmore has an opportunity, or will have 
within a short time, to co-operate with its street railway 
line, and everything possible should be done to make the 
system a success." 



82 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



I. C. C. Denies Through Routes and Joint Rates. — The In- 
terstate Commerce Commission has refused to compel the 
Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Railway, Holland, Mich., 
to establish through routes and joint rates with the Indiana 
Transportation Company. It was held that the evidence 
failed to show a public necessity for the physical connection 
between the two carriers. The Grand Rapids, Holland & 
Chicago Railway operates an interstate electric railway for 
the transportation of freight and passengers between Hol- 
land, Mich., and Grand Rapids and over a branch line be- 
tween Holland and Saugatuck, connecting at Holland with 
the Graham & Morton boat line operating between Holland 
and Chicago. In its finding the commission said: "Through 
routes between Chicago and these Michigan points now exist 
to all points which would be reached by the proposed 
through route, and complainant does not attack the rea- 
sonableness of existing joint rates nor does it present any 
testimony seeking or tending to show that lower joint rates 
should be made over the proposed route than the existing 
joint rates over the present route. Defendant shows that 
the cost of the service to it would be greater over the pro- 
posed route than over the existing route. No testimony was 
offered upon which to base a finding as to the amount of 
the proportional rates from Saugatuck, and the prayer 
for proportional rates seems in effect to have been aban- 
doned." 

Accident Prevention Effort at Byllesby Railway Proper- 
ties. — The four street railways of H. M. Byllesby & Com- 
pany, located at Pueblo, Col.; Ottumwa, Iowa; Fort Smith, 
Ark., and Fargo, N. D., are making an effort to reduce the 
number and the seriousness of street railway accidents 
through the education of school children. Blotters showing 
accident possibilities to children playing in the streets, 
jumping on street cars for free rides, etc., have been dis- 
tributed to every child in the cities where the companies 
operate street cars. A part of the educational effort in- 
cludes a moving picture film entitled "Staking Their Lives," 
which illustrates the dangers of being careless or forgetting 
the street cars, and shows many kinds of accidents which 
are likely to follow such carelessness. Five prizes are being 
offered to school boys and girls in each of the cities in- 
volved for the best accident prevention suggestions received 
up to Jan. 1, 1917. A series of twelve newspaper advertise- 
ments will be published, calling attention to the prizes of- 
fered and suggesting ways and means for the public, pas- 
sengers, automobile and vehicle drivers to assist the com- 
panies in eliminating accidents. The campaign is based upon 
the belief that care and watchfulness can best be engen- 
dered through inducing the children to give the matter seri- 
ous consideration, as they will undoubtedly discuss the mat- 
ter with their elders and in this way direct favorable at- 
tention to the newspaper advertising of the various com- 
panies. 

Messers Ham and Hanna Discuss Proposed Service 
Standards. — At the hearing in Washington, D. C, on the 
subject of standard of car loading proposed by the Public 
Utilities Commission of the District of Columbia the Wash- 
ington Railway & Electric Company was represented by 
W. F. Ham, vice-president, and the Capital Traction Com- 
pany by J. H. Hanna, vice-president. Engineer Commis- 
sioner C. W. Kutz as chairman of the body explained in 
detail the Dronosed reouirements. These were set forth 
briefly in the Electric Railway Journal of June 3, page 
1063. Mr. Ham said that the public needed to be educated. 
With the co-operation of the public better conditions would 
exist on the cars. He declared the subject had been investi- 
gated by experts in various cities and that before any 
standard schedule was fixed by the commission some 
measure of determining what was adequate service should 
be taken up. Mr. Hanna said that it did not appear to his 
company that the establishment of any standard of car 
service was one of particularly vital necessity. Standards 
of car service, in order to be of practical use, should be so 
flexible as to allow variations to meet the different condi- 
tions which exist on different lines and at different times of 
the year. Mr. Hanna said the disagreement of the railway 
with the commission over the proposed schedule was largely 
as to details and that the companies believed that continued 
conferences between the commission and railways would 
eliminate many of the points at issue. 



Personal Mention 



J. T. Kemp, formerly with the Aetna Chemical Company, 
Drummondville, Que., has been appointed general super- 
intendent of the Sherbrooke Railway & Power Company, 
Sherbrooke, Que. 

Charles Johnstone, formerly accountant of the Sherbrooke 
Railway & Power Company, Sherbrooke, Que., has been 
appointed acting manager of the company to succeed J. H. 
Trimingham, who succeeded Maj. N. C. Pilcher, killed in 
action in France. 

J. H. Trimingham, superintendent of power of the Sher- 
brooke Railway & Power Company, Sherbrooke, Que., who 
acted as general superintendent of the company during the 
absence of Maj. N. C. Pilcher in Europe, has been appointed 
sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Motor Boat Patrol Serv- 
ice, and has left Canada for England. 

William N. De Neale, who has been in continuous service 
with the Washington Railway & Electric Company, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and its predecessors for forty-two years, has been 
relieved of the duties of superintendent of the eastern divi- 
sion of the company's lines and made special agent of the 
transportation department. When he completed his forty 
years' service with the company Mr. De Neale was sum- 
moned by the board of directors and presented with $100 in 
gold in recognition of his faithful and meritorious service. 

P. J. Kealy, president of the Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 
and since last November Lieutenant-Colonel of the Third 
Regiment, M.N.G., has been elected Colonel of the regi- 
ment, succeeding Col. Fred A. Lamb, resigned. The choice 
was popular in Kansas City, where the citizens appreciate 
deeply the service of Colonel Kealy in organizing the regi- 
ment in good order, and recruiting it to full strength for 
mustering into the federal service. Colonel Kealy has also 
secured for the regiment a measure of support locally that 
it had not enjoyed, obtaining equipment badly needed, his 
appeals for motor trucks and other things meeting instant 
response. During Colonel Kealy's temporary absences, or 
during his long absence in case the troops should go beyond 
the border, James E. Gibson, general manager, and Chester 
C. Smith, assistant to the president, will put Mr. Kealy's 
policies into effect. 

E. J. Burdick has been appointed general manager of the 
Detroit (Mich.) United Lines. Mr. Burdick was born and 
educated in Wisconsin. He began work with the Brush 

Electrical Manufacturing 
. -i Company, Cleveland, and 




four years later he was em- 
ployed by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, where he re- 
mained until he became as- 
sociated with the Detroit 
Electric Railway in May, 
1895, in charge of the elec- 
tric apparatus. At the time 
of the consolidation of the 
various properties into the 
Detroit United Railway, Mr. 
Burdick was placed in 
charge as superintendent 
of the power and overhead 



_ „_ departments, where he has 

E. J. burdick served up to his recent ad- 

vancement. Mr. Burdick is 
a member of the city commission of the Board of Boiler 
Rules, is past president of the Detroit Engineering Society 
and has served the American Electric Railway Association 
and the Central Electric Railway Association in many ca- 
pacities. Mr. Burdick is thoroughly acquainted with all the 
properties of the Detroit United lines. His work has 
brought him in close touch with the details of railway prac- 
tice. His training and experience are extensive. The ap- 
pointment is an extremely popular one within the company. 
Mr. Burdick entered upon his new duties on July 1. 



July 8, 1916 J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



83 



Construction News 



Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously reported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 

*Lakeland, Bartow and Winterhaven Interurban Railroad, 
Winterhaven, Fla. — Application for a charter will be made 
by this company to construct a line from Lakeland to 
Bartow and Winterhaven. Capital stock, $700,000. Officers: 
J. L. Wilson, Altoona, Pa., president; E. B. Nelson, Balti- 
more, Md., vice-president and general manager; A. X. 
Erickson, Lakeland, Fla., secretary, and G. A. Wilson, 
Phillipsburg, Pa., treasurer. 

Akron Belt Line Railroad, Akron, Ohio. — Incorporated to 
construct an electric railway from Akron to New London. 
Capital stock, $250,000. Glen Brown, Akron, is interested. 
[May 13, '16.] 

*Pittsburg County Railroad, McAlester, Okla. — A charter 
has been granted to the Pittsburg County Railway. Cap- 
ital stock, $600,000. Incorporators: C. H. Mason, Mont- 
clair, N. J.; Ernest B. Osborne, New York; S. M. Beachman, 
Orange, N. J.; Walter H. Vorce and C. H. King, Jr., 
McAlester. 

FRANCHISES 

*Clearwater, Fla. — Martin Carabello has asked the Coun- 
cil for a franchise to construct a line through Clearwater. 
It is proposed to construct a line from Tampa to Suther- 
land, with branches from there to Lake Butler and Tarpon 
Springs and to Dunedin, Clearwater, Belleair, Largo and 
St. Petersburg. 

Newport, Ky. — By a vote of four to one a new street 
railway ordinance was passed by the City Commissioners 
on June 27. It is said to be much the same as the one 
repealed by the commissioners when referendum petitions 
were secured some months ago. The ordinance provides 
that the company operating the street railway lines shall 
pay the city $6,000 a year as rental for the streets used. 
Several factions here are dissatisfied with the ordinance 
and threaten to initiate one to their own liking and bring 
it before the voters at the November election. The Cin- 
cinnati, Newport & Covington Street Railway Company 
and its Kentucky associated companies will probably be the 
only bidder for the franchise. 

Baltimore, Md. — The United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany has received a franchise from the Council to construct 
a double-track line over the new Hanover Street bridge 
which spans the middle and southwest branches of the 
Patapsco River. 

Kansas City, Mo. — The lower house of the City Council 
of Kansas City, Mo., has killed an ordinance providing for 
removal of the Kansas City Railway's tracks on McGee 
Street from Fifteenth to Nineteenth Streets. The removal 
of the tracks would probably have obviated the necessity of 
building certain connecting tracks provided for in the fran- 
chise, at Nineteenth Street. 

Lancaster, N. Y. — The Buffalo & Depew Railway has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council to lay track on Central 
Avenue. 

Rochester, N. Y. — The New York State Railways have 
asked the Council for permission to make a number of 
track changes in connection with the State Street carhouse. 
In the petition the company sets forth its desire to lay a 
single track in Commercial Street from State Street to 
Plymouth Avenue to connect with the tracks in those two 
streets; a single track wye from the Commercial Street 
track to a ladder track running parallel to and 14 ft. from 
the east line of Frank Street, from which there will be five 
loading branches into the various tracks of the carhouse; a 
single track beginning at the Plymouth Avenue end of the 
Commercial Street track and running on a curve in a 
northeasterly direction into the carhouse; a single track 
running in a southeasterly direction from the carhouse to 



the south-bound track in State Street; permission to aban- 
don all the switches in State Street except three at the 
northerly end, one of which is to be used for emergency 
purposes and the other two to remain until a freight and 
express terminal is located. 

Columbus, Ohio. — In order to make its securities saleable, 
the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway Company has 
asked the commissioners of Franklin County to grant it a 
twenty-five-year franchise to be effective at the termina- 
tion of its present grant, which has seven years yet to run. 
The company had promised to lay new tracks and make 
other improvements on the county road which is to be 
paved, and $105,000 in receiver's certificates had been au- 
thorized. The company found, however, that because of 
the short period its franchise has to run it could not sell 
the securities. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — It is reported 
that this company has awarded a contract to the Missouri 
Valley Bridge Company for the construction of a steel 
bridge over the American River, also for a bridge over the 
Feather River near Oroville, which will cost approximately 
$55,000. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Plans are 
being considered by the City Council of Los Angeles for the 
construction of a viaduct at Sherman Drive over the tracks 
of the Pacific Electric Company. The viaduct, according 
to plans, will cost about $30,000, and it is proposed that the 
Pacific Electric Railway shall pay one-half of the cost, the 
other half to be divided equally between the city at large 
and an assessment district covering the property directly 
benefited by the crossing. 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway. — This company an- 
nounces that it has three plate girder bridges, aggregating 
1020 ft. in length, consisting of fifty plate girders 30 ft. 
long and 3 ft. deep; forty plate girders 60 ft. long and 5 ft. 
deep, and steel supporting towers for sale. The bridges were 
fabricated by Milliken Brothers, Staten Island, under Robert 
W. Hunt & Company's inspection for mill and shop. The 
bridges were not erected and the steel is new and in excel- 
lent condition. Plans and specifications may be obtained 
upon application to the purchasing department. 

Peoria, Galesburg & Western Railroad, Peoria, 111. — It is 
reported that plans are now being made to finance this com- 
pany's proposed lines from Peoria to Galesburg, via Farm- 
ington. [April 17, '15.] 

Peoria (111.) Railway. — It is reported that this company 
is considering the construction of an extension out Wash- 
ington Street to Bloomington Street, East Peoria. 

Quincy (111.) Railway. — This company will construct a 
loop at the terminus of its State Street line at Twenty- 
second and Washington Streets. 

*Springfield, Ilk — Plans are being considered by the 
Springfield Commercial Association for the construction of 
an electric railway from Springfield to Hillsboro, 50 miles. 
The plan proposed contemplates the building of the road 
from Springfield in a direct southerly route through 
Pawnee and other towns located south of Springfield to 
Hillsboro and eventually to Cairo. 

Indianapolis, Chicago & Meridian Railway, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — It is reported that plans are being considered to re- 
vive the project of this company to construct a line from 
Indianapolis to East Chicago, which was abandoned about 
two years ago because of lack of funds. John A. Shafer, In- 
dianapolis, is reported interested. [Dec. 6, '13.] 

Topeka (Kan.) Railway. — This company has asked the 
Kansas Public Utilities Commission for permission to in- 
crease its capital stock from $1,210,000 to $2,250,000. It is 
reported that the company plans to construct a line from 
Topeka to Lawrence. 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway, Covington, 
Ky. — It is reported that this company will construct a 1%- 
mile extension of its Fort Thomas line to Cold Springs. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 
The Public Service Commission of Maryland has instructed 
the United Railways & Electric Company to extend its Co- 
lumbia Avenue line and Orangeville line. 



84 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



Moncton Tramways, Electricity & Gas Company, Ltd., 
Moncton, N. B. — This company will probably remove its 
track on Main Street between Weldon and High Streets and 
on High Street between Main and Park Streets and place 
the same on Weldon Street from Main to Park Streets, 
thence on Park Street to High Street, about % mile. 

*Pennsgrove, N. J. — Plans are being considered for the 
construction of an electric railway from Pennsgrove to At- 
lantic City. The Chamber of Commerce of Pennsgrove may 
give information. 

Five-Mile Beach Electric Railway, Wildwocd, N. J. — The 
Board of Public Utility Commissioners has granted per- 
mission to the Five-Mile Beach Electric Railway to abandon 
a portion of its line on Rio Grande Avenue, Wildwood. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

The contract for the construction of the 180th Street yard 
on Route No. 18, the White Plains Road elevated extension 
of the Lenox Avenue branch of the first subway in the 
Bronx, has been awarded by the Public Service Commission 
for the First District of New York to the Thomas J. Buck- 
ley Construction Company, New York, the lowest bidder, at 
$269,222.50. The yard is to have capacity for about 275 
cars, and must be completed within twelve months from the 
delivery of the contract. The commission has authorized 
the chairman and secretary to advertise for bids, to be 
opened on July 17, for the construction of a railroad duct 
line for the Lexington Avenue subway. The duct line is to 
consist of a line of thirty ducts extending through Walton 
Avenue and East 157th Street from a point near 153d Street 
to River Avenue, in the Borough of The Bronx. The method 
of construction will be by trench excavation, and the work 
must be completed within two months from the delivery of 
the contract. 

Asheville, N. C. — iA report from the Kenilworth Develop- 
ment Company states that the company is constructing V2- 
mile of track on which a gasoline car will be operated. 
[June 10, '16.] 

Carolina & Yadkin River Railway, Greensboro, N. C. — 
Electric operation has been begun by this company between 
High Point and Thomasville, 7M> miles, a storage-battery 
car being used. 

Pictou County Electric Company, Stellerton, N. S. — This 
company has received an extension of time from the Nova 
Scotia Legislature in which to construct various lines which 
its predecessor, the Egerton Tramway Company, was au- 
thorized to build in 1902 and which have not been built. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. — 

Dissatisfied with the concession of the Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light Company to build only $35,000 worth of street 
car extensions in Canton, a delegation of business men and 
officials of that_ city appealed to the Public Utilities Com- 
mission of Ohio~for extensions amounting to $300,000. After 
hearing the demands of the delegation, the commission sug- 
gested that the Canton people call into conference Charles 
Currie, general manager of the company, present their 
needs to him and ask the company to issue additional bonds 
to make the extensions. Mr. Currie said that such an ar- 
rangement was agreeable to him. The city wants six ex- 
tensions of lines aggregating 9 miles. These are chiefly 
into ;ections of the city in which new industrial plants have 
been built. 

Oakwood Street Railway, Dayton, Ohio. — Plans are being 
considered by this company for the construction of an ex- 
tension to the Dixie Highway. It is proposed to follow the 
river to Webster Street, then across the new Webster Street 
bridge and out the Dixie Highway. The new Webster Street 
bridge is being constructed with provisions for double-track 
service. 

East Liverpool Traction & Light Company, East Liver- 
pool, Ohio. — This company will re-route one of its lines, 
which will necessitate the laying of about IV2 miles of track 
and overhead lines. 

Lake Erie & Northern Railway, Brantford, Ont. — Opera- 
tion on this company's extension from Brantford to Simcoe 
Was begun on May 30. The cars now operate from Gait to 
Simcoe, 43 miles. The 8-mile extension from Simcoe to 
Port Dover is expected to be open for traffic about July 15. 



Hamilton (Ont.) Street Railway. — Work will be begun at 
once by this company on the construction of track on Kenil- 
worth Avenue from Barton to Burlington Street. 

Toronto (Ont.) Suburban Street Railway.— The Ontario 
Railway Board has granted permission to the Toronto Sub- 
urban Street Railway to deviate its track on Dundas Street 
near Lambton, in order that it might connect with the To- 
ronto & Western Radial line, which operates a line from the 
suburbs of Toronto to Brampton and Guelph. 

*Medford, Ore.— The city of Medford has voted $300,000 
of bonds for the construction of a 30-mile railroad to the 
Blue Ledge mining district, subject to the ratification by the 
voters on July 10 of a contract for the construction of the 
road with the Southern Oregon Traction Company, Medford. 

North Branch Transit Company, Bloomsburg, Pa. — Work 
will be begun at once by this company repairing its tracks 
on East Front Street. 

Port Jervis & Delaware Valley Railroad, Matamoras, Pa. — 

It is reported that work will be begun early this month on 
this company's proposed line from Port Jervis to Matamoras 
and Milford, about 7V 2 miles. The work will include 21,000 
cu. yd. of earth excavation, 15,000 cu. yd. of embankments, 
one 60-ft. steel girder bridge and two camel-back trusses, 
300 ft. spans to be reinforced. There will also be about 
300 lineal feet of trestle and 250 cu. yd. of masonry. Most 
of the material has been contracted for. J. A. Vandegrift & 
Company, 149 Broadway, New York City, are to finance and 
build the line. W. E. Soden, 19 Hubbard Building, Port 
Jervis, N. Y., treasurer and engineer. [June 17, '16.] 

Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I. — Work will be 
begun at once by this company on the double tracking of its 
line on Randall Street from Charles Street to North Main 
Street. 

Carolina Rapid Transit Company, Clinton, S. C. — Prelim- 
inary surveys will be begun about July 10 by Reid Tull, 
Spartanburg, for this company's proposed line to connect 
Spartanburg, Union, Woodruff, Enoree, Laurens and Clin- 
ton, about 85 miles. J. F. Jacobs, Clinton, is interested. 
[June 17, '16.] 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway. — All overhead lighting 
and power wires of the El Paso Electric Railway in the 
business district of El Paso will be installed in underground 
conduits within the next year. Work will be begun in about 
ninety days. It is estimated that the cost will be about 
$325,000. 

Spokane & Inland Empire Railway, Spokane, Wash. — It 

is reported that this company has decided to extend the 
Manito Park car lines from Thirty-third Avenue to Thirty- 
eighth Avenue, actual work to begin as soon as the paving 
of Grand Boulevard is begun. 

Kanawha Traction & Electric Company, Parkersburg, W. 
Va. — This company contemplates the construction of a 
bridge above Boaz Stop. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway. — This company's car- 
house at North Detroit, containing two double-truck cars 
and a single-truck car, was destroyed by fire on June 26. 
The loss is estimated at $35,000. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. — 
It is reported that this company is receiving bids for the 
construction of an office and terminal building and con- 
course. The structure will be 84 ft. x 155 ft., of brick, 
stone, concrete and steel, and will be four stories. Franz 
C. Warner, Cleveland, architect. 

Portland & Oregon City Railway, Portland, Ore.— This 
company will construct a new station on East Third and 
East Clay Streets near Hawthorne Avenue, Portland. A 
station will also be built at Clackamas River, which will be 
called the Carver Station. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Knoxville Railway & Light Company, Knoxville, Tenn. — 

This company has received a contract from the city of Knox- 
ville for installing a white-way system in the business dis- 
trict at $9,000. 



July 8, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



85 



Manufactures and Supplies 



PREDOMINANCE OF SAFETY FEATURES IN 
CAR DESIGN 

An article on page 1148 of the Equipment and Its Main- 
tenance department in the issue of this paper for June 17, 
describing recent practice in Brooklyn, emphasizes the extent 
to which safety is the dominating feature of much of the car 
design of the present day. It does not take a very long mem- 
ory to reach back to the time when the fender was about 
the only device used on an electric car in which safety was 
the primary purpose for its use. Gradually, however, other 
devices were adopted. Probably one of the first of these 
was the safety gates used on the platforms of the cars 
in a few cities, notably in Minneapolis and St. Paul, but the 
idea that the car platform should be inclosed did not be- 
come generally accepted until well along in the history of 
prepayment design. Finally, the pay-within car was put on 
the market with a completely inclosed rear platform, and 
the principle that the passenger should be protected against 
himself when boarding and alighting became a standard 
feature in the practice of many American electric railways. 
Another early device was the protection of the bumper by 
an oblique shield so as to make it impossible for boys or 
others to stand on the rear bumper outside the dashboard 
either as passengers when the car was crowded or to steal 
a ride. 

The purpose of this article is not to establish claims for 
priority of use for any of the different safety appliances 
or even to attempt to enumerate all of them but to call 
attention to the large number which have been put upon the 
market during the past few years and have become rec- 
ognized as standards of equipment with many companies. 
Most of these have been developed during the past few years 
and have received a great stimulus from the safety-first 
movement, if indeed they were not largely responsible for 
the movement itself. It is a notable commentary upon the 
enterprise of the American electric railway manufacturer 
and electric railway manager that they should have de- 
veloped and adopted so many of these devices and thus have 
helped to make the modern electric car almost "foolproof." 
To mention some of them, it might be well to begin with 
the outside of the car. 

Here the fender naturally attracts first attention, and 
while the idea of the fender is twenty years old or more, 
the fender of the present day bears little resemblance to 
the crude device which was attached to the front of the 
early electric cars. A modern fender is not only far more 
reliable in operation but is also much less liable to cause 
accidents to the unwary pedestrian on the streets than its 
predecessor. We have already referred to platform gates 
and doors, but the modern devices of this kind are also far 
removed from the original Twin City gates. They are 
often operated by air power and have so delicate a closure 
as not to cause injury in case a person should be caught be- 
tween the closing door and the jamb. Underneath the door 
on an end-platform car in many cases are folding or dis- 
appearing steps, while the steps themselves are usually 
fitted with non-slipping treads. In the front of the car 
on the bumper is an anti-climber to prevent cars riding 
during a collision. 

As one boards a car, the first equipment with which he 
comes in contact is the platform railing which enables him 
to maintain his balance as the car is starting and is a sub- 
stitute for the old grab handle on the outside of the car. 
These platform railings also serve in many cars to divide 
the stream of ingoing from outgoing passengers, but they 
are quite as much for safety as to avoid platform conges- 
tion. Inside the car there are, of course, the car-seat 
handle or the sanitary strap to enable the passenger to keep 
himself erect when the car starts or stops suddenly or is 
passing around a curve. 

These are, of course, only a few of the many devices 
of a safety pattern used on cars, but we believe that enough 
have been enumerated to demonstrate the claim made at the 



beginning of this article that safety has become a primary 
purpose in the design of many cars which are being built 
to-day. 



ROLLING STOCK 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, Gloversville, 

N. Y., noted in the Electric Railway Journal of June 10 
as being in the market for two cars, is considering the pur- 
chase of two single-truck all-steel cars, 33 ft. 4 in. over all. 

Three Rivers Traction Company, Three Rivers, P. Q., has 
ordered a single-end combination baggage car and snow 
plow from the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company, Ltd., 
Ottawa, Canada. The car will be of wooden construction with 
a heavy side-wing plow on one side and a heavy nose plow 
in front. It will be 30 ft. over all. 

TRADE NOTES 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., has re- 
ceived an order for thirty-two Berg folding type fenders 
for the sixteen cars of the Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway 
being built by the Cincinnati Car Company. 

T. L. Smith Company, Milwaukee, Wis., announces that 
E. R. Marker, district manager, has moved to 609 Wells 
Street, Milwaukee, Wis., where he will take charge of the 
business of the company as Wisconsin representative. 

Chattanooga Brass & Machinery Company, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., composed of W. L, Case, Carl Flatter, John Fort and 
W. F. Norman and capitalized at $15,000, has been formed 
for the purpose of manufacturing ball-bearing, self-lubricat- 
ing trolley wheels. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., is reported to have purchased 440 acres of 
ground in Tinicum Township, Pa., fronting on the Delaware 
River, on which it may establish a plant, although it has not 
definitely been decided. 

George R. Law, who for some time has been New England 
representative of the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Com- 
pany, has severed his connection with them and is now man- 
ager of the mechanical department of the Electrical Sales 
Company, 176 Federal Street, Boston, Mass. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has re- 
ceived an order for double-motor and control equipment 
for the seventy storage-battery cars being built by the 
Southern Car Company for the New York (N. Y.) Railways. 
Bush Terminal Company has ordered a 60-ton electric loco- 
motive from this company. 

W. H. Ivers, formerly with Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
has been appointed Southwestern representative of Gold 
Car Heating & Lighting Company, with headquarters at 
St. Louis, Mo., succeeding George F. Ivers, who has re- 
signed to become manager of the railway supply department 
of Shapleigh Hardware Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Holden & White, Chicago, 111., announce the appointment 
of the O. H. Davidson Equipment Company as their repre- 
sentative in Utah, Idaho, Montana, eastern Nevada and 
western Wyoming. The office of this company, at Salt 
Lake City, is in charge of L. Brandenburger and will here- 
after represent Holden & White in the sale of Wasson 
bases, Garland ventilators and Perry-Hartman side and 
center bearings in that territory. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has sold to the Rochester Railway & Light 
Company, Rochester, N. Y., for its new hydroelectric plant 
in that city two 12,500-kva., 11,000-volt, three-phase, 
60-cycle, 180-rpm, vertical a.c. generators with direct-con- 
nected exciters. This company has received an order from 
the Pennsylvania Lines, West of Pittsburgh, for four 600- 
amp. electric arc welding equipments. This company also 
reports the receipt of a number of other important orders. 

American Car & Foundry Company, St. Louis, Mo., an- 
nounces the following changes in officers: J. M. Buick, 
formerly vice-president, has been elected vice-president and 
general manager; William M. Hager, formerly secretary, 
has been elected assistant to the president; H. C. Wick has 
been elected secretary to fill Mr. Hager's place. Mr. Wick 



86 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 2 



has been with the company for the last twelve years, acting 
as assistant to the secretary and also secretary to F. H. 
Eaton, the late president of the company. The entire board 
of directors was re-elected. 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
reports that at the present time it has unfilled orders on its 
books that will take the entire production day and night 
for fully five months. Not all is for immediate shipment, 
but it cannot promise better than about ninety days' delivery 
on most of the orders now being accepted. This abnormal 
schedule comes about through difficulty in getting raw ma- 
terial and on account of the tremendous amount of busi- 
ness recently placed with this company. Many of its large 
customers have placed anticipatory orders for delivery the 
latter part of this year or early next year. These deferred 
delivery orders now total 2910 gears and 4894 pinions, from 
such companies as the following: Public Service Railway, 
Newark, N. J.; New York (N. Y.) Railways; Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Company; Chicago Elevated Railways; Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company; Colorado Springs & Interurban 
Railway; Kansas City Railways; Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Company; United Railroads of San Francisco; Grand 
Rapids Railway; Nashville Railway & Light Company; 
Easton Transit Company; Bay State Street Railway, and 
American Railways, Altoona and Joliet. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 
Laclede-Christy Clay Products Company, St. Louis, Mo., 

is distributing a circular on fire brick and other refractory 
shapes. 

Roller-Smith Company, New York, N. Y., has issued Bul- 
letin 200 which describes and illustrates its direct reading 
bond testers. 

MacGovern & Company, New York, N. Y., recently issued 
an illustrated catalog listing the electrical, hydraulic, steam 
and gas power machinery they have on hand. 

Sprague Electric Works of General Electric Company, 
New York, N. Y., have issued Bulletin No. 48906 describing 
and illustrating their %-ton and 1-ton electric hoists, Type 

s-i. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111., has 

issued Bulletin E-41, superseding E-32, which describes and 
illustrates Duntley portable electric tools for street and 
interurban railways. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has issued an illus- 
trated circular on Crouse-Hinds Imperial headlights, for 
which it is general sales agent, as noted on page 44 of the 
Electric Railway Journal of July 1. 

The Texas Company, New York, N. Y., is circulating an 
illustrated booklet entitled "About Texaco Crater Com- 
pound." The booklet describes the uses of this product by 
electric railways and other industries, and also gives di- 
rections for applying it. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, has issued 
a circular containing testimonial letters from C. B. Wells, 
recently with the Denver Tramway Company, and L. D. 
Mathes, general superintendent electrical division, Norfolk 
Southern Railroad. Both speak in high terms of the Ohmer 
fare register system. 

Gurney Ball Bearing Company, Jamestown, N. Y., has 
just issued a very attractive catalog of forty pages. No 
attempt is made in it to illustrate the application of the 
bearings to different forms and parts of machinery, as 
these applications are taken up in a series of engineering 
bulletins issued by the company, but the general principles 
of the bearings are explained and illustrated. 

Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has just issued 
a pamphlet entitled "Axles and Forgings for Steam and 
Electric Railway Service; Standard Axles, Designs and Speci- 
fications." The pamphlet, which has eighty-eight pages, con- 
tains a brief introduction explaining the conditions under 
which Carnegie axles are made and sold. The specifica- 
tions for axles of the American Society for Testing Ma- 
terials, the Master Car Builders' and the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association are then given and are followed 
by the standard axle designs of the M. C. B. and A. R. M. M. 
and the American Electric Railway Association. A few 
convenient calculating tables complete the pamphlet. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Trolley Wayfinder, Official Street Railway Guide of New 
England, published by the New England Street Rail- 
way Club, Boston, Mass. Price 10 cents. 
This is the authority for trolley trips in New England 
and is a good example of the constructive work which 
a sectional organization can do in the way of developing 
electric railway traffic. Of course, in New England, much 
of the summer traffic is from tourists, so that the "Way- 
finder" gives considerable space to the scenic attractions 
and points of historical interest reached by the different 
lines, but it should also be of great help to the commercial 
traveler and others who are traveling for business purposes. 
The "Wayfinder" contains a good index and many maps as 
well as timetables showing distance, fare, total elapsed 
time and headway on all of the principal interurban and 
suburban lines in New England. 

The Engineer in War, by P. S. Bond, Major, Corps of En- 
gineers, U. S. Army, McGi-aw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
New York, 187 pages, illustrated, price $1.50. 
The present political situation makes this book, which is 
made up from a series of articles originally appearing in 
the Engineering Record, of great interest and value. It is 
intended primarily to teach the non-military engineer the 
fundamentals of military engineering, and this is done in 
so clear a way that the book will hold the attention of the 
reader even if he is not intending immediately to apply the 
principles laid down. The author believes that no army 
ever had an excess of engineer troops, and says that the de- 
mands made upon the engineers in every army have in- 
evitably been greater than their capacity. Moreover, 
the tendency of modern warfare is more and more to de- 
pend upon the engineer. Under our present military sys- 
tem, the engineer corps as well as the army have to be 
recruited from volunteers, so that even in peace the civilian 
engineer should become acquainted with at least the rudi- 
ments of military engineering. The book is one which 
could profitably be read by every engineer, even by those 
beyond military age. 



JITNEY'S EFFECT IN PORTLAND 

The Portland (Ore.) Telegram, commenting editorially 
in its issue of May 26 on a request which had been made re- 
cently for an extension of the railway facilities of the Port- 
land Railway, Light & Power Company, said in part as fol- 
lows : 

"For the first time since the jitney converted a street 
railway asset into a liability the Portland Railway, Light 
& Power Company has been asked to make a new invest- 
ment here. Request comes from the Franklin Parent- 
Teacher Association to extend the Richmond line a distance 
of eleven blocks to the new Franklin High School. A 
roseate prospectus is presented. One thousand pupils will 
attend at the opening of the next September term, and 
after all the units of the new building are completed there 
will be 2000 pupils. 

"This request opens up the important question of intra- 
city transportation in its larger aspects, and it is pertinent 
to inquire whether there is a reasonable probability that 
present corporations in any city will extend existing lines 
or build new lines so long as jitney competition reduces 
income to a point below the outgo. Surely no new com- 
panies will enter an old field where the jitney offers a 
menace that has proved to be disastrous. Looking forward 
two or three decades how are we to increase our home- 
owning population if present street railway lines are not 
extended and no new districts developed? Shall the bulk 
of city population, as in New York, for instance, live in ten- 
ements ? 

Thus far regulation of the jitney has failed. Of course a 
city could operate street railway systems at a continual 
loss. This is precisely what the Portland Railway, Light 
& Power Company has been doing for more than a year. 
It will be no easy job to induce the corporation to throw 
good money after bad. We fear the students at Franklin 
will have to walk part of the way to school. The jitney 
never ventures away from the car tracks." 



Vol. XLVIII 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

ay Review 



Consolidation of Street Railway Journal ami K ki run: Railway Review i JUL ^ 



— ) 

NEW YORK SATURDAY, JULY 15, 1916 No. 3 



AN ADVOCATE Not often does a public service 

OF FAIR commissioner overcome his re- 

PLAY 

luctance to discuss publicly spe- 
cific questions that have come or might come formally 
before him for judgment, and when he does it may be 
deemed certain that the natural reserve of his quasi- 
judicial position has been broken through only because 
of the dictates of fair play and sound equity. A case 
in point has to do with the recent remarks of Commis- 
sioner Campbell, noted elsewhere, in regard to condi- 
tions confronting the Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company, Portland, Ore. Here is a company, Mr. Camp- 
bell says, that is giving service as good as or better 
than that of any similar railway in the United States, 
but it has been and is operating at a loss. Of course, 
the company has suffered from the especially acute busi- 
ness depression in the Northwest, but serious contribut- 
ing causes to the unfavorable showing have been the 
continued competition for light and power business, and 
particularly the unlicensed and unregulated competition 
of jitneys. Unless these conditions improve, it is said, 
the company will be compelled to come to the commission 
for relief. This warning is the result of Mr. Campbell's 
three-year study of the case, and his words ought to be 
accepted by the citizens of Portland as authoritative. 
Some others in the Northwest are alive to the need of 
stopping utility oppression, as is evident from the recent 
editorial exhortation of the Portland Oregonian that the 
public silence the demagogues and invite capital to come 
in by giving it a square deal, but the Northwest needs 
many more apostles of such a gospel of fairness. 

BEARING THE At a recent hearing before a pub- 

BURDEN OF lie service commission the state- 

OBSOLESCENCE ment was made that by rep i ac i ng 

obsolescent apparatus and handling its cost through a 
suspense account, "future generations" are inequitably 
compelled to pay for the retirement of apparatus used 
by their ancestors. This is an assertion that hardly 
finds justification in either engineering or accounting 
theory. Obsolescence is caused by advances in the art 
which render certain apparatus uneconomical for use, 
as compared to other types of later development and of 
greater efficiency. Hence if a piece of property is re- 
placed because of obsolescence it naturally follows that 
the use of the new apparatus will save enough money to 
pay all charges for making the change. Good engineer- 
ing will not recommend it unless this is so. Outside au- 
thorities, of course, may force the replacement of prop- 
erty before it is really obsolete, but then the cost bur- 
den cannot be said to fall without fairness upon the 



patrons who will henceforth enjoy the improvement. 
But even if the replacement occurs when economically 
desirable, "future generations" are not harmed by the 
fact that the property has become obsolete. Rather are 
they benefited by the more favorable showing possible 
with the new property than if the old had been kept 
in operation. Once there might have been a danger to 
future patrons of a steadily increasing suspense ac- 
count used simply to defer unduly the proper propor- 
tional charges to the annual operating expense, but the 
present official restrictions upon the creation and use of 
a suspense account for obsolete property chargeable to 
operating expenses makes this danger negligible. 

THE RAILWAY We are pleased to note that Gen. 
OFFICIAL AS George H. Harries was honored 

A CITIZEN hy his fellow citizens in Omaha 

by being chosen to deliver a public address on Memorial 
Day and again on Flag Day this year, and that he 
discussed the very live issue of military preparedness 
on which he is, of course, an authority. It is not the 
subject of the addresses nor their treatment to which 
we wish to call attention at this time, however, in spite 
of the great popular interest in the subject of prepared- 
ness. It is to the opportunity which civic events of 
this kind offer for men engaged in different kinds of 
business in the same city to become acquainted and to 
the probability that if they do so they will learn that 
they have many similar aims, and in most cases are 
guided by the same principles and lines of thought. We 
believe that if more public utility officials took an active 
part in civic affairs there would be less distrust of the 
motives of public utility corporations. The public 
would find by contact that those directing the affairs 
of the utility are reasonable-minded men who do not 
want extraordinary profits but only that fair return on 
their investment which every city should be willing to 
give every enterprise within its borders an opportunity 
to earn, and, conversely, we believe that the utility man- 
ager would often find by acquaintance that some of the 
strenuous complainants of his service are men who were 
animated only with the desire of seeing that the city 
and the citizens obtained what they considered fair 
treatment from the utility. If they can be convinced 
that this is the case, their objections will disappear. We 
realize that it is not every manager who is able to 
act as an orator on patriotic occasions, but every of- 
ficial can, or ought to be able to, take an active part in 
the affairs of citizens' associations, such as boards of 
trade and chambers of commerce, and their participa- 
tion in such direction should be of great benefit to all. 



88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



THE BAY STATE CASE 

The report of B. J. Arnold to the Massachusetts Pub- 
lic Service Commission, containing the results of his 
study of the Bay State Street Railway, materially ad- 
vances the final settlement of this celebrated case. Mr. 
Arnold's report was summarized in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for July 1, on page 13 et seq. In brief, 
Mr. Arnold, acting as the transportation expert of the 
commission, concludes that economies in operation 
amounting to nearly $700,000 per year can be attained 
but that when the savings estimated are considered, in- 
cluding an adequate depreciation allowance, the gross 
revenue of the property is insufficient to return 5 per 
cent on the investment. He inferentially recommends 
that this increased revenue be secured through the use 
ot prepayment cars, the adoption of the one-man car for 
use on short lines in suburban territory during at least 
the greater part of the day, the attraction of traffic 
through higher schedule speed, an increase of interurban 
fares to 1.5 cents or 1.75 cents per mile, a more extended 
development of express and freight business and a cur- 
tailment of service through a rearrangement of sched- 
ules on certain portions of the system. Such conclu- 
sions, when made by a disinterested expert retained by 
and reporting to the commission, must have great 
weight with that body. 

Looked at from another angle, Mr. Arnold's findings 
fully support the position taken by the officials of the 
Bay State Street Railway in the wage controversy arbi- 
trated in the early part of 1915. The company contend- 
ed that it could not afford to advance wages unless it 
were forthwith permitted to increase its earnings. In 
spite of this contention, wages were advanced by the 
board of arbitration, as it now appears, to the disad- 
vantage of the stockholders. The position of the street 
railway was very similar to that of the railroads. Wages 
were advanced without any provision being made to 
produce the required additional revenue. The stock- 
holders were obliged to bear the brunt and wait in the 
hope that tardy relief would be provided. 

Fortunately for the Bay State Street Railway, the 
precedents of decided cases are distinctly in its favor. 
The Massachusetts Public Service Commission has not 
heretofore hesitated to advance fares or give proper 
relief when it had been shown that existing conditions 
worked a hardship to the investors in public service 
companies. It may be confidently expected that this en- 
lightened policy will be continued. Even though the 
commission gives the company the necessary authority 
to increase its revenues, the stockholders will not have 
received full and exact justice. There will be at least 
a year's delay between the time that the wage increase 
was granted and the time that the increase in revenues 
was provided for. 

It does not appear to be possible as yet to secure 
recognition of the fact that in passing upon wage ques- 
tions, the security holders' interests must receive equal 
consideration with the needs of the workmen. Wages 
should not be advanced unless a company is, at the 
same time, enabled to pay the advance and still return 



a fair profit to its owners. t If the earnings of the com- 
pany do not justify added expenditures, an increase in 
wages should not be made unless the earning power of 
the company is concurrently increased by appropriate 
action. In the present case, as in most disputes of like 
character, the board of arbitration passing on the wage 
controversy had no authority over fares. The existence 
of such a situation is intolerable. 



TESTS FOR COLOR BLINDNESS 

Railway men, like mariners, have to deal with the 
ability of employees to distinguish the color of signals, 
and we wonder whether those whose duty it is to test 
employees are finding the same trouble which is reported 
to have been experienced in the testing of men for the 
navy, that is, the inability on account of the war to get 
a reliable supply of the colored worsteds or the neces- 
sary dyes for the method of testing commonly used. It 
is reported that the navy authorities are in great need 
of material. As our readers know, the commonest test 
for the color vision of employees is the use of the Holm- 
gren worsteds, a set of little skeins of worsted yarn 
dyed according to a very carefully worked out scheme in 
colors, the selection of which affords a very convenient 
index of color vision. These skeins have to be handled 
and assorted by the men under test, eventually get dirty 
or faded, and then are liable to cause trouble. In de- 
fault of either a supply of the wools themselves or of the 
necessary dyes to prepare them, carrying out of vision 
tests is a rather difficult proposition as well for railway 
men as for the navy. 

At this juncture it seems particularly pertinent to 
suggest that a good time has arrived for changing the 
system of testing from the worsteds, so difficult to ob- 
tain, to the well-known lantern tests used by a number of 
our large railway systems, for instance, the C. B. & Q. 
The lanterns are made in America, do not get faded or 
soiled or out of order, and in many respects are much 
more satisfactory than the older system even more gen- 
erally used. From the standpoint of psychology the 
lantern has an enormous advantage, for the man being 
tested does not feel that he is on a sort of old woman's 
job of matching colors. Not understanding the signifi- 
cance of his bad matches he sometimes feels seriously 
aggrieved at being thrown down by reason of what to 
him is a very trivial matter, although to the examiner 
it may imply defects which would render the man under 
test very liable to confuse a green and a red light with 
disastrous results. In the lantern test the objects seer 
may be made to simulate exceedingly well the signal 
lights as they will have to be observed in their natural 
state, through haze or fog, and at a considerable dis- 
tance. It looks like a practical man's test even to the 
most casual observer, and having its own uniform light- 
ing system it is independent of the daylight in which 
the worsteds are intended to be examined, and is, on the 
whole, quite as simple and more reliable. 

The difference between a clouded day and a bright 
blue sky may lead, in doubtful cases, to false conclu- 
sions with the Holmgren test, while the lantern is re- 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



89 



liable, first, last and all the time. In addition, its in- 
dications are so definite that they can be seen by any 
onlooker with normal color vision, and if a man thinks 
he is being unjustly rejected, any observer knows bet- 
ter. More than once it has happened that a railway 
man, highly disgruntled, has been accompanied to a 
second test by some of his union officials who observed 
his mistakes with the lantern and gave him very cold 
comfort. It is unfortunate that the supply of well- 
known testing material has been cut off, but it may be a 
blessing in disguise both to the railways and to the 
navy in leading to the adoption of a more satisfactory 
and practical method. 



VISUALIZING ENERGY LOSSES 

It is worth quite a mental effort to visualize energy 
losses; to develop an instinctive feeling of their mag- 
nitude and of the practicability of reducing them. En- 
ergy is one of the most difficult quantities to grasp con- 
cretely. All that one can do is to translate it into 
terms which come nearest to his every-day life. A unit 
which is entirely comprehensible to a man engaged in 
one occupation may be Greek to one in a different line. 

In an editorial in the issue of this paper for June 24 
a general survey was taken of the losses involved in 
moving a car in city service. The purpose of this 
analysis was to render these losses somewhat more 
tangible. In order to do this the losses were roughly 
grouped into three approximately equal divisions: "in- 
ertia" losses, main friction losses, and electrical and 
sundry losses. In addition, the total loss in city service, 
assumed to average 125 watt-hours per ton-mile, was 
restated in mechanical terms, namely, as 166 ft.-tons. 
In other words, the amount of energy consumed per 
ton-mile in all of the above losses, involving an aver- 
age number of stops per mile, would lift a ton 166 ft. 
or 166 tons 1 ft. With the energy consumption at the 
rate assumed, 125 watt-hours per ton-mile, the total 
energy required for a car-mile would also raise the en- 
tire car 166 ft. 

In trying to visualize such a quantity of energy as 
125 watt-hours per ton-mile one man can see this best 
in the mechanical form such as that already suggested, 
166 ft.-tons, or as about 10 hp.-minutes. To another, 
the fact that this amount of energy will light a 20-cp. 
tungsten lamp for five hours will appeal strongly. To 
still another the fact that it will, barring radiation 
losses, raise the temperature of a cubic foot of water 
about 7 deg. Fahr. will make it seem most tangible. The 
man accustomed to reducing energy to financial terms 
will say to himself: "At 1 cent per kilowatt-hour that 
means 1*4 mills", or 'At the rate which I pay for 
residence lighting, say 10 cents per kilowatt-hour, that 
is the equivalent of iy± cents." 

Facility in translating energy from electrical into 
mechanical, thermal, financial or other terms, or vice- 
versa, requires practice, but such facility is very con- 
venient, not to say necessary, if one is to follow with 
ease the rapid development of energy-saving devices in 
car operation and elsewhere. 



LINE DEPARTMENT NEEDS SELF-PROPELLED 
TRUCKS 

There are few men in any electric railway organiza- 
tion who cannot get benefit from a careful reading of 
the leading article in this week's issue, that by J. D. 
Kent describing the experience of a large railway sys- 
tem with automobile trucks in maintenance work. The 
executive who has bills for equipment to approve will 
find reference data of value in checking line truck bills 
for reasonableness, while the foreman or the superin- 
tendent who feels that he could use one or more auto- 
mobile trucks to advantage can find ammunition here 
for a purse-string-loosening campaign. The author has 
set forth very clearly and frankly the salient facts of 
this subject which the practical man wants but finds it 
usually very difficult to get. 

In comparing the automobile truck with its horse- 
drawn rival, the considerations are: over-all costs per 
unit of work done, extent of field of application and 
general usefulness, degree of interference with street 
traffic, and reliability. The first two of these items 
must be considered together, for there is, of course, 
such a tremendous advantage possessed by the automo- 
bile truck in that it can do many things which the horse- 
drawn vehicle cannot do, or at least cannot do economi- 
cally, that a dollars-and-cents comparison is only fair 
when interpreted broadly. The automobile truck can 
be driven so much faster, can carry loads so much 
heavier, can produce so much more tractive effort for 
use on so many jobs, that a broad basis of comparison 
is necessary in considering the automobile truck from 
the financial side. Then there is the matter of block- 
ing the streets. By the very nature of its occupation, 
the line wagon or truck is bound to be more or less of 
a nuisance; it is a necessary evil on the streets. It Ls 
here that the compactness and the speed of the auto- 
mobile truck greatly favor its use, while its mobility, 
also, should not be overlooked. In shifting the position 
of a horse-drawn vehicle, the intelligence of the driver 
has to act through that of the horse, and much time, 
nervous energy and space are required for the simplest 
evolutions. 

In reading Mr. Kent's article one is impressed with 
the applicability of the automobile truck for all kinds 
of duties. Wherever powerful pulling, pushing or lift- 
ing has to be done, it is there with the horsepower 
behind it. There is no limit to its utility but that set 
by the ingenuity of the user. But how about relia- 
bility? says the manager from Missouri. Will not a 
few breakdowns under awkward circumstances more 
than offset the unquestioned advantages enumerated? 
These pertinent questions can now be answered from 
experience. Reliability is so essential that unremitting 
efforts have been exerted by manufacturers to secure it, 
and these efforts have been entirely successful. The 
automobile truck is so well established as the most eco- 
nomical device, in general, for the haulage of goods over 
short distances, and data regarding reliability are so 
easily secured, that there need be no question on this 
phase of the subject. 



90 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 





THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — EQUIPMENT USED ON UNION RAILWAY PREVIOUS TO INSTALLING AUTO TRUCKS 

Overhead Line Maintenance Trucks 
of the Third Avenue System 

By JAMES D. KENT 
Electrical Engineer Union Railway, New York City 

The Writer Describes Various Types mid Capacities of Gasoline Motor 
Trucks, Modifications in Them Developed by Experience, Valuable 
Special Uses, Means of Checking Operations and Facilities for Maintenance 



AS the line department of the Union Railway and 
allied roads in the Borough of the Bronx, New 
York City and Westchester County, forming part 
of the Third Avenue Railway system, has been using 
motor trucks since 1910, our experience in this field 
of equipment may have something of value to others. 
Except for one gas- 
electric truck, our ex- 
perience has been con- 
fined to gasoline-driven 
trucks. 

The trucks start out 
in the morning to do 
certain work, or to cover 
certain territory, and to 
inspect and repair the 
overhead where required. 
They do not report ex- 
cept by telephone nor do 
they return to the ga- 
rage until their day's 
work is done. Each 
truck carries a complete 
equipment of tools and 
necessary material. 
The tower-equipped trucks comprise the following: 
Union Railway, operating 150 miles of single track 
and 80 miles of street — one 3V2-ton gas-electric Couple- 
Gear, four-wheel drive; 16-ft. 7-in. wheelbase, length 
over chassis 21 ft. 2 in.; weight loaded, 14,000 lb., in- 
cluding men and tools (1500 lb.) ; height of tower down, 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — SAMPLE GRAPHIC RECORDS OF 
TRUCK PERFORMANCE 



11 ft. 6 in.; 48-hp. Schlosser four-cylinder engine di- 
rect-connected to 12-kw. variable-voltage compound- 
wound generator of 100 per cent overload continuously 
and 200 per cent overload capacity momentarily; one 
3-hp. motor of the same characteristics in each wheel; 
used for combination wrecking, emergency, and heavy 

construction in all over- 
h e a d and underground 
cable work. 

Four 3-ton T. C. Pack- 
ards, chain-drive; 12-ft. 
wheelbase; length 19 ft. 
over all ; height of tower 
down, 11 ft. 4 in.; width 
over all, 7 ft. 1 in.; 
weight, 10,000 lb. loaded, 
including crew and tools ; 
f o u r-cylinder, 32.4-hp. 
gasoline engine; in all 
respects, except body, of 
standard commercial 
truck construction; used 
on overhead work. 

One 1500-lb. two-cylin- 
der horizontally-opposed 
Buick truck, tool and small emergency wagon. This is 
soon to be replaced by a 1-ton Mack truck equipped with 
covered body similar to one now operated by the West- 
chester Electric Railroad. 

Westchester Electric Railroad, operating 37 miles of 
single track in the cities of Mount Vernon and New 



July 15, 191GJ 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



91 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — UNION RAILWAY GARAGE, SHOWING EQUIPMENTS AND CRANE 



Rochelle and adjacent villages — One 2-ton chain-drive 
Packard tower; four-cylinder gasoline engine of 26.4 
hp. with Trenton tower; used for line purposes. One 
1-ton worm-drive Mack truck with covered body, used 
for general purposes such as carting material, tools, etc., 
and for line work not requiring tower equipment. 

Yonkers Railroad, operating 42 miles of single track 
in the city of Yonkers, Westchester County — One IV2- 
ton chain-drive White, four-cylinder gasoline truck 
equipped with Trenton tower for line purposes ; one 3- 
ton chain-drive White four-cylinder truck, platform 
stake body, used originally for hauling material of all 
description; changed to tower equipment and now in 
the shop for change to combination tower, platform and 
reel truck. 

Adaptations to Railway Conditions 

All trucks are as purchased, with the following ex- 
ceptions : 

The 3V2-ton Couple-Gear truck was lengthened to 21 
ft. 2 in. over all. Its rear wheels were fastened in line 
to eliminate the four-wheel steer and increase the tool 
and material space; a General Vehicle Sprague Type- 
E16 electric winch was mounted at the left rear of the 
tower with "nigger-head," no drum, projecting over the 
left running board for pulling purposes when the truck 
is standing alongside the track in proper position ac- 
cording to traffic rules. This winch has a capacity of 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — 3-TON TRUCKS AND TOWERS, WITH TRAILER REEL WAGON 



3000 lb. pull at 50 ft. per minute and has proved ample 
for severe service. 

A 16-ft. 8-in. x 8-in. yellow pine boom, tapered to 5 
in. x 5 in., is mounted on the rear end of the truck, 
supported by an 8-in. channel-iron brace, with ratchet 

Summary, Including Horse Trucks 
Union Railway 
Four 3-ton Packard towers purchased 1911. 
One 3% -ton Couple-Gear, purchased July, 1910. 
One 1500-lb. Buick, express body, purchased 1913. 

Westchester Electric Railroad 
One 1%-ton White tower, purchased October, 1912. 
One 3-ton White, stake platform, purchased October, 1912, 
One 2-ton 2B Packard tower, purchased January, 1913. 
One 1-ton Mack, covered platform, purchased June, 1915. 

Horse Trucks 
Union Railway 
One tower carpenter's wagon. 
One 12-ft. reach pole wagon. 
One 1500-lb. pole gang tool wagon. 
One reel wagon trailer. 

hoisting and lowering device similar to the tower ap- 
paratus. The foot of this boom is supported on a roller 
made of an old pinion, with shrunken band, and is ad- 
justable for height by means of a small screw jack, so 
that in service practically all the weight of the boom and 
its load is carried on the pavement. The boom is not 
lowered when changing positions, for short distances, 
except when necessary to clear overhead structures. We 
removed all housing also in reconstructing this truck, 
partly for the sake of 'safety and partly for better work- 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



ing conditions, as it was extremely difficult for the 
driver to hear instructions when the men were working 
on the tower. 

One of the 3-ton Packards was equipped with 37-in. x 
5-in. single front and double rear pneumatic tires for 
the greater allowable speed of 15 m.p.h. as against 12 
m.p.h. possible with the Packards equipped with solid 
tires. Owing to the maintenance cost of this type of 
tire (although the truck manufacturers called our at- 
tention to the decreased wear of the parts on this truck 
as compared with the others when overhauled by them), 
the pneumatics have been eliminated and replaced with 
solid rubber. However, the front wheels have been re- 
placed with Sipe spring wheels to approximate the 
greater resiliency and greater mileage of pneumatic 
tires. These solid tires on Sipe spring wheels are guar- 
anteed for 20,000 miles in two years as against 8000 
miles in one year on rigid wheels, a ratio of 5 to 1. 

The 3-ton Packards cost approximately $4,000 each, 
delivered. They are thoroughly overhauled about every 
10,000 miles. Nearly all are equipped with Goodrich 
solid rubber wireless tires, which give an average of 
7000 miles and a maximum of nearly 16,000 miles on 
the solid rear wheels, and an average of more than 
12,000 miles on the Sipe spring wheels used at the front. 
We consider our service severe on tires. One reason 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — DRIVING WHEELS EQUIPPED 
WITH NON-SKID DEVICE, REINFORCED WITH SPAN WIRE 

is that as we operate the trucks at only one-third of 
the normal rated load capacity, they are not so flexible 
on their springs, and the vibration is greater. Hence 
they do not ride as smoothly as would a lighter truck, or 
one loaded to capacity. 

The 3-ton White truck has been equipped with a 
tower removed from one of the horse trucks, as it was 
found that there was not sufficient hauling for a plat- 
form truck on a 35-mile division. During its present 
regular overhaul we are widening the rear platform in 
order to carry a 1-mile reel of trolley wire between the 
tool boxes, and also to get more space for tools and al- 
low the hauling of freight that is not too long or too 
bulky. 

One horse-drawn tower truck is being used for re- 
pairs to the overhead trough work where the lines are 
operated under many miles of elevated structure. The 
pole (reach) wagon and reel wagon can be drawn by 
horses or used as trailers with auto trucks, whichever is 
more convenient. 

The Choice of Size in Trucks 

It has been our experience that for straight overhead 
line work, a capacity of IV2 tons or 2 tons is ample. 



This capacity permits greater cruising radius, is more 
economical and provides greater speed. Line depart- 
ment work requires a ruggedly-built truck, due to the 
twisting and straining received in climbing over high 
rails. Hence cars of the very best make will eventually 
prove the cheapest, even at higher first cost. The main- 
tenance costs are also contingent on having a reliable, 
conscientious mechanic in charge of repairs and on giv- 
ing him the opportunity to maintain his trucks at high 
efficiency with due regard to useless or unnecessary ex- 
pense. 

When our trucks were purchased 3 tons was the 
lowest load capacity we could get. Since then smaller 
units have been placed on the market. 

The question of mechanical starters on trucks for 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — REMOVING CABLE IN A STREET 
LOWERED 3 FT. WITHOUT INTERRUPTING SERVICE 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — COUPLE-GEAR TRUCK, PRESENT 
EQUIPMENT, SHOWING POLE HOIST 

this class of service is worth considering, especially on 
lines of greater headway than is possible in the Bronx, 
as the men have to be cautioned constantly to shut down 
their engines whenever possible. This would not be the 
case if the trucks had a simple and reliable starter. 

This is a special problem for electric railway men, 
due to the low mileage and the frequent starting and 
stopping. Hence its solution may not appeal to the 
manufacturers who do not meet this condition in other 
lines of truck operation, namely the necessity of allow- 
ing cars to pass and then to resume position on the 
tracks until the next car comes. Delays to cars in ex- 
cess of five minutes, due to tower trucks working on 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



93 



the track, are subject to explanation unless absolutely 
unavoidable. 

Comparison of Auto Trucks with Horses, 
Winter Service, Etc. 

It is rather difficult to compare the performance of 
auto towers with horse-driven vehicles, whether for 
mileage, standing time, or costs per mile of overhead 
line. Yet it is significant that a 40-per cent increase 
in overhead line mileage has been handled without an in- 
crease in equipment. During the time that we had but 
one unit, we promptly took care of two serious breaks 
which would have caused much delay to the transporta- 
tion department if horse equipment only had been avail- 
able. On that day the recorder registered 75 miles for 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — USE OF WINCH IN PULLING OUT 
AND DRAGGING POLES ABOUT 250 FT. 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — DRAWING CABLES OVER ROPE 
MATTING TO PROTECT LEAD SHEATH AGAINST ABRASION 

ten hours' work and a maximum speed of 20 m.p.h. The 
allowable speed has since been reduced to 15 m.p.h., 
which is ample in congested districts for a vehicle hav- 
ing a total weight of 7 tons. 

One of the best illustrations of the worth of motor 
trucks is shown by their records in heavy snowstorms. 
During the winter of 1913 and 1914 no delays due to 
truck breakdowns were recorded, except that once, on 
the night of the heaviest storm, a truck on call got stuck 
in a snowdrift with a broken driving chain. The driver 
left a helper on the truck as a watchman, returned to 
the garage, procured another truck, attended to his call 
and then returned towing the disabled car to the garage. 



In another fifteen minutes, the chain was replaced and 
the truck was ready for service again. 

During and after storms in the winter of 1914-1915, 
practically all the time of our crews was spent in pulling 
loaded automobile trucks off of the tracks. In one case 
a Packard truck pulled for ten blocks, a disabled auto 
truck loaded with 5 tons of coal, before a street was 
found into which the absence of high snow outside of 
the railway area would allow it to be placed. 

We have tried several kinds of skidding chains but 
only one, which is built similar to pleasure-car skid 
chains, has been really successful. Even this shears 
off very rapidly, due to the weight of the truck and to 
driving on and off of the car tracks so often. In an 
emergency, 5/16-in. span wire has been wrapped around 
the tire as shown. Such an anti-skid is comparatively 
cheap. Caution must be used to prevent the wire from 
cutting or wearing off and jamming in the driving 
chains. 

Special Uses of Motor Trucks 

A series of four pictures, reproduced on page 94, shows 
the use of the Couple-Gear truck in pulling wooden 
poles, (set for temporary use) on Webster Avenue in 
the Bronx during the construction of a trunk sewer. 
This was the first time the truck was used for that 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — UNION RAILWAY COUPLE-GEAR 
TRUCK WITH TOWER 



purpose. In six hours thirty-nine poles were removed, 
including one which could be removed by hand only 
and in much more time. In the same number of hours 
this truck enabled us to set twelve 900-lb. iron poles on 
a steel structure, including loading of the poles on the 
reach trailer, hauling them four blocks, unloading them 
on a bridge where 150 vehicles were passing per busi- 
ness hour with one roadway torn up, and placing each 
pole posed for bolting up. One pole was set in place on 
the stone abutment of the bridge alongside the bridge- 
tender's house, outside the railing, in less than forty- 
five minutes. This period included the time for build- 
ing the runway to get the car on the sidewalk, and 
maneuvering the truck in a space less than 2 ft. wider 
and 10 ft. longer than the truck without damage to the 
bridge gates or the truck. This was really a demon- 
stration of unusually good handling on the part of the 
truck driver, as he had only the width of one driveway 
to start with, the track section being torn up, so that 
he had to climb the curb. 

Two other pictures show how the equipment of the 
same truck is used to draw and pull in 6600-volt three- 
phase high-tension cable. They also illustrate the con- 



94 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — LINE EQUIPMENT ENTERING 
GARAGE AT MOUNT VERNON, N. Y. 

ditions under which most trolley roads operate. At 
the point in the picture showing the winch in service, 
the street grade has been lowered nearly 4 ft. in rock 
excavation. It was necessary to maintain cables in 
continuous service during drilling, blasting and ex- 
cavation, and to build a new duct line parallel to and 
below the old line, also in rock. The truck is shown 
making changes of cables from the old to the new duct 
line. The same rope mat used by the contractor to pro- 
tect his blasts was employed by us to cover the end of 
the duct line to avoid abrading the lead armor of the 
cables. These cables for a distance of 600 ft. were 
changed over one by one with no increase in cable 
nor any breakdowns to date. 

During structural changes at Manhattan Bridge, 
Manhattan Borough, it was necessary to remove the 
poles used for temporary purposes on the Manhattan 
side. Some of these poles were inaccessible owing to 
construction changes and the truck had to remain in 
the street more than 250 ft. away. By means of tem- 
porary gin poles and a 1%-in. rope used for installing 
feeder cable, these poles were drawn out in record time 
and dragged to the street to be loaded on to reach 
trucks and hauled away. 

Shortly after the same gasoline-electric truck was 
purchased, and before the installation of the winch, it 



THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — INTERIOR OF WESTCHESTER 
ELECTRIC RAILROAD GARAGE 

was necessary to remove from the Harlem River some 
submarine cables 600 ft. long. This truck, and a simi- 
lar one used as a tractor by a lumber company, were 
hitched tandem, pulling (by direct pull) the cables 
which were buried in the mud. The cables were thus 
withdrawn in a fraction of the time possible by any 
other method. For pulling purposes, the Couple-Gear 
truck cannot be excelled by a straight gasoline vehicle. 

Checking the Doings of 
Motor Trucks 

Practically all of our trucks are equipped with Jones 
recorders, Model D, which give an actual twenty-four- 
hour record of the performance of the truck, showing 
the speed at which it is operated, the distance trav- 
eled and the number and duration of the stops made. 
These records serve two purposes: They give assur- 
ance that the truck will not be abused, and they provide 
a check against the linemen's report for the distance 
traveled. When going to breaks, the men are instructed 
to reach them at the greatest speed for which the gov- 
ernor is set. For inspection, however, we know that a 
greater speed than 6 m.p.h. is not efficient when the 
lineman sitting on the front seat endeavors to locate 
by sight all wire or material likely to cause trouble, 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — WOOD POLE REMOVAL: TRUCK IN POSITION READY FOR HOISTING, POLE HOISTED AND CLEAR OF 
GROUND, LOWERING AWAY AND JOB COMPLETE, ALL AT THE RATE OF FIFTEEN TO TWENTY PER HOUR 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 95 



July 15, 1916] 

while the helper riding on the rear end of truck is ex- 
pected to watch materials and keep off intruders. 

The 4%-in. diameter chart, on which the Jones de- 
vice records all movements of a truck, is inserted in an 
eight-day clock movement every morning by the garage 
foreman or his helper. This chart shows the speed in 
miles per hour by the number of swings (of V2 mile 
each) to each five-minute interval, the time the truck 
leaves the garage in the morning and its return (by 
the number of Yz-mile changes), the distance traveled, 
as indicated by a straight line, and the stopping time, 
For example: The right-hand chart on page 90 was in- 
serted at 6.45 a. m., the truck left the garage at 7.22 
a. m., traveled 2 miles in thirteen minutes, speed not 
constant on account of doing repair work; between 7.35 
and 8.35 a. m. it was standing still most of time; it left 
at 8.35 a. m., traveled about 1% miles, made a stop 
of five minutes and then traveled about % mile, etc.; 
it stopped for the lunch hour at 12 o'clock noon ; re- 
sumed work at 1.05 p. m., and reached the garage at 
5.37 p. m. The night crew took the truck out on call 
at 6.50 p. m., made three stops in 8 miles, and returned 
to the garage at 7.55, remaining until 4.45 a. m. It 
then received another call requiring a trip of 4 miles, 
returning at 5.25 a. m. and remained until relieved by 
the day crew. It may be added that the night crew 
simply repairs breaks and returns to the garage to wait 
for calls. 

The only objection to these charts is that on extreme- 
ly short distances, such as moving the truck to allow a 
car to pass and then returning to the track, the record 
is so small that it looks almost like standing time. For 
their moral effect alone, however, these recorders have 
paid for themselves many times over. 

Costs 

The operating and maintenance costs of all our mo- 
tor trucks follow: 

1914 1915 

Total mileage 31,561 34,471 

Cost of gasoline per mile $0.0575 $0.0444 

Cost of oil and grease 0071 .0073 

Drivers' labor 1753 .1573 

Garage labor 0433 .0430 

Repair parts 0717 .0540 

Tires 0618 .0242 

Total cost per mile traveled $0.4167 $0.3302 



During the year 1914 we had an extra amount of 
overhauling work and changes in equipment. 

The Union Railway's trucks are housed in what was 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — 3-TON TRUCK ON ORIGINAL 
PNEUMATIC TIRES 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — 3-TON TOWER TRUCK 
IN SERVICE 

formerly the West Farms power house. The front of 
the old 75-ft. x 125-ft. engine room is used for the 
office, garage and shop, and the rear of the same room 
is used for storage of material and of trucks not in 
service. The 20-ton engine-room box crane, which 
spans the building, is ideally placed for loading trucks 
with heavy material, lifting up trucks to remove wheels 
and other work where a crane is of advantage. 

The shop erected in one corner is partitioned off 
by wire screening which does not obstruct light or air. 
The machinery is new and bought for the purpose. It 
comprises a drill press, a lathe, emery and buffing 
wheels, work benches, a small Apple generator set for 
charging sparking batteries, and a spare pulley and 
belt for revolving motors and bringing bearings into 
proper working condition before installing them in 
trucks. All tools are driven by an electric motor which 
is set on a concrete pedestal 4 ft. high, in accordance 
with insurance requirements. 

The gasoline is stored in a 250-gal. steel tank buried 
in concrete in front of the building and fitted with a 
vapor pipe to the roof line. The fluid is drawn through 
a Geyser gasoline measuring pump. 

An old extension to the building has been made into 
a locker room, furnished with steel clothes lockers, 
wash basins, toilets, 'urinal and shower bath with hot 




THIRD AVENUE LINE TRUCKS — TOWER TRUCK USED BY YONKERS 
RAILROAD 



96 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 8 



and cold water. The shower bath is well patronized in 
the summer time and is well worth its cost. 

The Westchester Electric Railroad houses its two 
trucks in a new one-story garage. This neat building 
harmonizes with the office building adjacent to it, and 
which was erected in 1913. (See article published in 
the Nov. 1, 1913 issue of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal.) The garage is provided with gasoline storage 
equipment, wash basins and toilet outfit. Its easterly 
end is partitioned off for line storeroom facilities. The 
wainscoting of the interior walls is faced with white 
enameled brick, capped with hardwood molding, above 
which it is hard white plaster finish like the ceiling. A 
novel feature of the cement floor is a raised step or 
platform carried along the walls, high enough to keep 
the wheels of trucks from climbing it and wide enough 
to prevent the hubs from striking and chipping off the 
enamel brickwork. 

The Yonkers Railroad's two trucks are housed in a 
portion of the carhouse at Buena Vista Avenue and 
Main Street. Owing to the contour of this property it 
was possible to partition off a portion of the second 
floor back of the offices and to enter it from a side 
street. The brick partition separates it entirely from 
the rest of the building. The easterly end of the orig- 
inal second floor transfer table was filled up with ashes 
and then covered with a cement floor, with a runaway 
inside of the garage to the street. This space was not 
adaptable for car purposes owing to the encroachment 
of the offices and association rooms, which have since 
been moved up from the ground floor for lack of space. 
This garage does not detract from the rest of the build- 
ing. It has proved to be a good investment, both as to 
garage charges and the concentration of all depart- 
ments in one building. 



Denver & South Platte Railway Saved 

A Sweeping Decision of Colorado Supreme Court 
Clearly Defines Powers of State Utilities 
Commission 

BY CHARLES B. WELLS 

Recently Assistant to Manager Denver Tramway Company 

TO carry passengers over a line 4 1 2 miles long and to 
receive no revenue for 1 mile of the haul is an experi- 
ence to which few electric railways are subjected. Yet 
this is precisely what the Denver & South Platte Rail- 
way Company has been forced to do for nine years. 

This company operates a line running southerly from 
a connection with the Denver Tramway Company's ter- 
minal at Englewood, to the town of Littleton. Believing 
that the Tramway Company would allow them a reason- 
able division of the fare, the promoters of the South 
Platte road entered into a contract with the town of 
Englewood to carry passengers between the Denver cen- 
tial loop and Cherrelyn, a point 1 mile south of Engle- 
wood, for a fare of 5 cents. On the ground that it was 
already losing money by carrying passengers from the 
center of the city to Englewood, a distance of 6.84 miles, 
for 5 cents, the Tramway Company refused to accede to 
any such arrangement. But notwithstanding that the 
South Platte Company was struggling for its very ex- 
istence, the town of Englewood insisted that it continue 
to carry passengers between Englewood and Cherrelyn 
free of charge. Many of the suburbanites living in the 
South Platte Company's revenue territory have made it 
a practice to walk long distances to Cherrelyn, and thus 
get the benefit of a free ride to Englewood. And so for 
nine years the owners of this property have faced the 
commercial shambles. 

When Manager R. C. Larkin took hold of its destinies, 
he realized that only by a solution of the fare problem 



could the South Platte investment be saved. Legal ad- 
visers whom he sought gave him little hope, on account 
of the fact that the company's contract with the town of 
Englewood was embodied in its franchise. Upon his 
own initiative, however, Mr. Larkin appealed to the 
Colorado Utilities Commission. This board immediately 
recognized the injustice of the company's contract and 
ordered that fare be collected between Englewood and 
Cherrelyn. The town of Englewood then took the case 
before Judge Class of the district court. They secured 
a ruling to the effect that it was not within the province 
of the utilities commission to abrogate any part of a 
contract existing between Englewood and the company. 

This action of the district court, affecting as it did 
every rate decision made by the commission up to that 
time, enlisted on behalf of Larkin and his company the 
services of Attorney General Fred Farrar, Frank C. 
West, his assistant, and H. M. Aylesworth, attorney for 
the Public Utilities Commission. These gentlemen ap- 
pealed the case to the Colorado Supreme Court, and on 
Monday, July 3, this tribunal rendered a sweeping de- 
cision reversing the finding of the lower court and defin- 
ing the powers of the utilities board. The supreme court 
says in part: 

"It fully appears that the Legislature intended to dele- 
gate to the Public Utilities Commission the administra- 
tion, supervision and regulation of all service rendered 
to the public throughout the State, including munici- 
palities. Rates and regulations fixed by contract are 
specifically included within the powers of the commis- 
sion. 

"From what has been said, it will be seen that the 
town of Englewood had no express authority to fix a rate 
of fare, so as to limit or prohibit the assumption of such 
power by the Legislature." 

While the rate of fare between Englewood and Cherre- 
lyn has not yet been fixed, it is probable that the con- 
sent of the utilities commission will be asked to sell fare 
tickets at ten for a quarter. 

The Public Utilities Commission of Colorado has from 
the beginning of its administration shown a disposition 
to co-operate in absolute fairness with the utilities of 
the State. It is to the enterprise of this body and to the 
spirit of men like Manager Larkin, who never know 
when they are whipped, that the South Platte Railway 
owes its future existence. 



Production of Pig Iron in 1915 

The production of pig iron, including ferroalloys, in 
the United States was 29,916,213 gross tons in 1915, 
compared with 23,332,244 gross tons in 1914, an in- 
crease of 28 per cent, according to figures published by 
the American Iron & Steel Institute on Feb. 26, 1916. 
The pig iron, exclusive of ferroalloys, sold or used in 
1915, according to reports of producers to the United 
States Geological Survey, was 30,384,486 gross tons, 
valued at $401,409,604, a gain of 36 per cent in quantity 
and 34 per cent in value. The average price per ton at 
furnaces in 1915 as reported to the survey was $13.21, 
compared with $13.42 in 1914. At the close of the year, 
however, prices of pig iron had advanced 35 to 40 per 
cent. 



The Pennsylvania Railroad conducts correspondence 
courses of instruction in which nearly 10,000 of its em- 
ployees are enrolled as students. Upward of 2300 of 
these are Italians who are studying the English lan- 
guage by mail and so are fitting themselves to be citi- 
zens and better workmen. The remainder of the 
students are enrolled in the courses in mathematics and 
practical electricity. 



July 15, 1916] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 97 



How to Appraise Public Utility Property 

Some Important Points to Be Borne in Mind About Planning Appraisals, Co-operating 
with the Employees of the Appraised Company, Handling 
Company Records and Designing Forms 
By GEORGE W. KUHN, M. E. 



THE object of the appraisal is fundamental in de- 
termining the nature and scope of the inventory. A 
variation in methods and in items considered will occur, 
dependent on whether the property is to be appraised on 
a basis of original cost, cost to reproduce new, reproduc- 
tion cost less depreciation or any other basis. Such 
matters as the use of the appraisal in connection with 
rate-making, sale of property, control of security issues, 
taxation or rentals, joint operation, etc., will also affect 
the procedure to be followed in making the inventory. 

Planning the Appraisal 

The inventory will, in general, be required to show 
the property in such detail as to distinguish used prop- 
erty from unused property ; to divide used property into 
that in public use and that not in public use; to give 
data regarding age and condition of property, etc. As 
to the amount of detail necessary, it is evident that, 
where the purpose is to approximate roughly the value 
of the property, much less detail will be required than 
where the appraisal is to be subject to criticism or close 
examination or where it is to form the basis for a per- 
petual valuation of the property. In the last case men- 
tioned, the detail required will probably be greatest in 
amount. 

Description of property should, in all cases, specify a 
definite date as of which the inventory is made. It 
should also refer to location, type, size, method of oper- 
ation, date of installation, estimated condition and 
whatever other matters may be needed to identify the 
property absolutely for the information of the apprais- 
er. In short, the description should be so detailed that 
it will be possible to check the inventory against the 
company's books and accounting records and to identify 
and allow for new additions and late retirements of 
property. 

It is a fact to be borne well in mind that an inventory 
or appraisal having the lowest first cost is not neces- 
sarily the most economically prepared. There must also 
be considered such matters as the total allowable ex- 
penditure of time and money to complete the entire 
work; the probable amount of extra information which 
will be required by the regulating commission; the 
amount and arrangement of information available at 
the company's office, and the probable amount of co-op- 
eration which may be expected from the company. The 
cost of developing and expanding the organization and 
performing the work should also be weighed against the 
cost of engaging outside specialists to handle part or all 
of it. All of these things and more should be kept in 
view during the drafting of the general plan of pro- 
cedure, so that it may be made possible to keep the ex- 
pense as low as possible while at the same time provid- 
ing an amount of carefully detailed information capable 
of being used as a reliable foundation for any con- 
clusions which may have to be based on it. 

The plan of procedure should, of course, be as com- 
plete as possible before the work is started. It will be 
found to be the almost invariable rule, however, that 
changes in and additions to the original plan will be 
necessary because of unforeseen conditions and happen- 



ings. Such changes and additions, when incorporated 
into the plan of work, should be made to apply to the 
past as well as to the present and future work, so that 
the results of the modified plan will form a complete 
and consistent whole. 

The Filing System 

Probably the most important feature to be considered 
in recording an inventory is the arrangement of its 
subdivisions. While many schemes may suggest them- 
selves as convenient and economical means of recording 
the various items of property, the ultimate uses to 
which the results will necessarily or probably be ap- 
plied, should be listed and used as the basis of choice. 
The groups of property should be segregated according 
to some standard logical system which will definitely 
assign each item of property to one of the groups. The 
particular uniform system of accounts in use by the 
company being examined is recommended as the best 
basis, for the reason that the results of the appraisal 
so obtained may be most readily compared and checked 
against the bookkeeping records of the company. Such 
arrangement will make possible the comparison of the 
groups with similar groups belonging to various other 
companies whose accounts are kept according to the 
same uniform system. 

When finally chosen, the filing scheme, based on the 
general classification used, should cause the data gath- 
ered to be classified automatically as recorded and to be 
readily accessible during and after completion of the 
work. It should necessarily afford complete flexibility 
and expansibility to allow the inventory to be prepared 
in an orderly and systematic manner. A system of 
filing as outlined above has been evolved by the writer 
and will be explained in a second section of this paper. 

The Appraisal Force 

The engineer in immediate charge of the work and 
his assistants should be men of experience in construc- 
tion and appraisal work. They should also have a work- 
ing knowledge of accounting methods and should make 
themselves familiar with the particular accounting pro- 
cedure followed by the company being investigated. 
They should be thoroughly familiar with the object and 
the scope of the appraisal and the general policy ac- 
cording to which the same is to be made. The subordi- 
nate force should be composed preferably of men hav- 
ing experience in appraisal work and a thorough 
technical knowledge of the kinds of property being ap- 
praised. It is evident that men having such qualifica- 
tions can most intelligently interpret records and cover 
in the notes of their field inspections such data referring 
to type, physical conditions, etc., as are necessary. In- 
telligent working knowledge of results desired and of 
the property being examined serves very often to elim- 
inate errors and inconsistencies in the records of the 
company. 

In so far as time and convenience will allow, the men 
in charge should endeavor to instruct all the men in the 
various branches of the work. This may be accomplished 
by means of personal talks, written instructions and 



98 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



shifting of men from one kind of work to another. If 
office record transcription work be interspersed with ex- 
amination of actual construction work in the field, the 
results will be an increased ability and interest in the 
work, greater familiarity with detail and a greater 
amount of work done. Another most important result 
will be the possibility of using the men as instructors 
for new men in case it may be necessary to expand the 
force quickly or to any marked extent. 

To obtain the greatest efficiency in carrying on the 
work, the man directly in charge of the appraisal should 
assign to each of his principal assistants the responsi- 
bility for obtaining desired data on specified classes of 
property, arranged preferably by accounts. By con- 
stant and close supervision of the work of such assist- 
ants and by conferences with them the engineer in 
charge eliminates practically all possibility of duplica- 
tion of work and inconsistency in applying methods. 
By transmitting all general instructions in writing, the 
matter in hand is made more clear both to the man in 
charge and to the men instructed, the responsibility is 
placed definitely and possible future misunderstandings 
are largely avoided. 

Prices Obtained from Records 

The first step in the determination of prices is the 
fixing of the basis on which they are to be considered. 
The general instructions should specify the informa- 
tion which is to be gathered, and written notice of the 
same should be given to the men in charge of the work. 

Prices have at least as important an effect as have 
quantities in the appraisal of property. They are de- 
pendent more on judgment and are subject to more ex- 
tended examination and criticism than are the quanti- 
ties, which are almost entirely dependent on fact. Price 
study usually involves considerable work on the premises 
of the company, especially as regards unit-labor costs. 
It is recommended that the work of pricing should be 
carried forward along with the preparation of the in- 
ventory and that, in so far as possible, the men in 
charge of the inventory of particular groups of prop- 
erty should confer frequently with the men in charge 
of the work of pricing these groups. 

In the work of pricing it should be remembered that 
certain classes of property consisting of similar units 
varying in type, price, etc., may have total values of 
comparatively small consequence in determining the 
total value of the plant. Care must be exercised to keep 
the expenditure for the study of such classes as nearly 
proportionate as possible to their effect on the final re- 
sult. The cost of failure to exercise such care will em- 
phasize too late the necessity of determining in ad- 
vance the amount of detail required and may have a 
serious effect upon the possibility of obtaining much 
more important information about other groups of prop- 
erty examined later on in the work. 

Co-operation with Appraised Company 

As part of the general preliminary work, conferences 
should be held with the officers of the company, the 
character and the extent of the records ascertained, the 
company's consent obtained for the use of such records 
by the appraisers, arrangements made for the assign- 
ment of office space, and general provision made for 
co-operation between the company's employees and the 
appraisal force. 

Attempts should be made to secure the co-operation 
of the company by affording an opportunity for its rep- 
resentatives to be present to observe in detail the meth- 
ods used in the inventory of the property. This is es- 
pecially valuable in the case of engineering represent- 
atives, because questions of fact can be settled at once 
and at first hand. The work of the inventory is facil- 



itated if certain groups of the property are listed by 
the employees in charge of such groups and familiar 
with them. This applies particularly to groups of prop- 
erty made up of many items of small importance or low 
cost, since the inventory by the company's employees 
may be quickly checked by the appraisers, and the dou- 
ble examination eliminates errors which might creep 
into a single inventory made by the appraisers. 

Instructions should be issued by the company's offi- 
cials to all employees in charge to pass the appraisers 
into the several premises of the company, and passes 
should be issued to the appraisers so that unnecessary 
telephone communication may be avoided and the in- 
trusion of strangers may be prevented. 

In addition to the examination of the graphic and 
written records of the company's property, the oppor- 
tunity should be sought constantly to confer with offi- 
cials, foremen and other employees of the company who 
are familiar with past and present practices regarding 
methods, costs and records. Information obtained from 
such sources will often prove of exceptional and unique 
value in solving problems that arise. 

The forces of the examining or regulating body 
should also see to it that they co-operate among them- 
selves to the fullest possible extent. Thus the engi- 
neering, legal and accounting bodies interested in the 
work of carrying on a given appraisal should all recog- 
nize their interdependence upon one another and should 
confer as frequently as may be necessary to keep the 
basic policy to be pursued clearly outlined before all 
and to prevent divergence from such plan. There 
should be no hesitation in recognizing the particular 
ability of each department to carry on the part of the 
work assigned to it, and information useful to a given 
department should be freely asked and received from 
another department when it can best be obtained by the 
latter. 

Examining Office Records 

In the handling of office records of the company's 
property it will be found advisable to examine them on 
the premises of the company, because such records are 
more or less in constant demand by the company's em- 
ployees and much time would be wasted if it were neces- 
sary to go any considerable distance to consult them. 
Besides this, the records are often very valuable and 
rather perishable, and serious damage might result to 
them if they were moved. 

The company's consent should be obtained for the 
placing of special check marks by the appraisers on 
items listed in the company's records as such items are 
included in the inventory. The advantages here are 
that men listing items will be warned against listing an 
item a second time by the sight of the check mark and, 
by a quick examination of the entire original record 
later, omissions will be evident because of the absence 
of such check marks. Moreover, such marking is neces- 
sary because the original records are subject to con- 
stant use and daily change by employees in accordance 
with current construction work while still under exam- 
ination by the appraisers. To avoid interference with 
the work of the appraiser or delay in the current work 
of the company, the work should be so divided that sev- 
eral sets of records may be used by the appraiser at the 
convenience of the company. This may be readily done 
without confusion, by requiring that progress records 
showing degree of completion of work on the several 
files be kept by those engaged in the work of listing. 

The preparation of the inventory is generally started 
before and may not be completed until after the date 
as of which the appraisal is to be made. In case the 
transcript of the record of the different classes of prop- 
erty should be practically completed before that date 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



99 



(and also in connection with the examination, which is 
not completed until subsequent to the date of the ap- 
praisal), careful provision and arrangement must be 
made for obtaining a record of changes in groups of 
property effected between the date of completion of 
the record and the date of the appraisal. These changes 
may be additions or retirements in both the groups 
whose inventory is completed before and the groups 
whose inventory is not completed until after the date 
of the appraisal. The company record may not show 
construction, even though extensive, which is in prog- 
ress only, because it has been but recently constructed 
and is not yet reported and incorporated into the record. 

By careful study the appraiser should so familiarize 
himself with the record-keeping routine of the company 
that he will be able to make intelligent allowance for 
such conditions as are mentioned above. During the 
examination of records, it happens frequently that the 
record of a given item or property group lacks some of 
the detail required. Where such detail cannot be ob- 
tained by reference or from some other source, the mat- 
ter should be disposed of at once by estimate assumption 
of type, date of installation or other fact in question. 
Such assumption should be made only occasionally and 
in matters of relatively small import, and it should 
never be made without the knowledge and approval of 
the one in charge. In considering the advisability of 
making the assumption, the man in charge should give 
due regard to the probability in the case, should base 
his act on knowledge of the construction and recording 
practices of the company and the time order in which 
they were instituted. He should have all such estimated 
items indicated clearly by means of remarks or conven- 
tional symbols and should keep a record of the same so 
that uniformity may be obtained and possible later re- 
vision or checking may be facilitated. 

Where the company keeps, for the convenience of the 
separate departments, two or more sets of records cov- 
ering the same class of property, such multiple records 
are usually on at least slightly different bases. They 
are often found to be very valuable as cross checks, and 
their use makes for greater accuracy in the inventory. 

Forms to be Used 

The matter of forms to be used is probably second in 
importance to no characteristic of the record, except its 
accuracy. A set of forms intelligently designed after 
some amount of study will make possible and convenient 
the gathering of information in such arrangement of 
detail that much time and expense will be saved after- 
ward in the preparation of information from the data 
listed. In designing forms to be used, provision should 
be made for recording the date, the geographical or 
corporate divisions in which the property is appraised, 
the age, the condition, type, extent of ownership and 
matters of like nature. Reference space should be 
allowed in which to record the authority or source of 
information and, if possible, some spare space should 
be left for future use, although the need for such space 
may not be very apparent at the time of laying out the 
forms. 

To economize time and space, symbols, abbreviations, 
etc., should be used provided clearness can be preserved 
and complexity avoided. Flexibility is obtained by list- 
ing on one sheet or group of sheets only such property 
as is included in one division, whether that division be 
an account, age-group, location by street, or like matter. 
Where ready reference is desired, it will often prove 
very convenient to have information grouped in alpha- 
betical, numerical or other order depending on sequence, 
although such systems should be carefully compared 
with systems depending on location, ownership, use and 



other like matters, before choice is made. The general 
rule which has been found to give the best results calls 
for the listing of property so as to gather into groups 
the items having as many similar characteristics as pos- 
sible, while at the same time the items are left free for 
redistribution. It is of vital importance that the record 
of the property be taken in sufficient detail to enable the 
regulating body to identify any portion of the property 
at any time in the future in connection with the exam- 
ination of additions and retirements, petitions for issue 
of securities, etc. Such detail greatly facilitates the 
checking of the inventory by inspection of the property 
and usually is worth the cost of preparation many times 
over. 

The flexibility obtained by correct form-designing is 
illustrated by Form I (10% in. x 8V 2 in.). By the 
use of this form it is possible so to list overhead cir- 
cuits from the map sections on which they are laid out, 
that a systematic and convenient record may be obtained 
showing the street, the limits of the run on the street, 
the street distance occupied, the size of the wires, the 
number of wires, the insulation, and the wire length for 
each size. When the street is completely listed, the 
sheets for that street are ready to be handed to the man 



o 



Is 



^ ^ Length 



^ ^ Length 



APPRAISAL WORK — FORM I — FORM FOR LISTING OVERHEAD CIR- 
CUITS SHOWING FLEXIBILITY OBTAINED BY CORRECT DESIGNING 

making the field check. When checked by him in the 
field, it is possible to show the totals for the various 
wires listed, either by sheets, by streets, by circuits or 
by sizes without regard to circuits, as may be most 
convenient. It is to be noted that the items are in such 
shape that totals on any or all of the bases mentioned 
may be obtained conveniently and without the least in- 
terference. 

By careful advance consideration a general form may 
often be prepared which will serve equally well, after 
slight adaptations, for several classes of property. The 
reduction in the number of forms to be prepared will 
result in reduction of cost of printing and a saving of 
time due to supplies being available. In so far as pos- 
sible, the original listing forms should be so arranged 
that summations may be made without regrouping or 
further tabulations. 

In the case of property recorded graphically on maps 
and charts or listed on card files, care must be used to 
prevent duplication or omission of items which might re- 
sult from error on the part of the appraiser or because 
of incomplete or duplicate data on the records of the 
company. Such duplication occurs very frequently 
where graphic records of the company show intersec- 
tions of streets for each of the streets involved, where 
the two sides of a street are shown in separate places in 



100 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



the record, and under similar circumstances. An accu- 
rate and non-overlapping record may be obtained most 
conveniently by showing the structures and property 
involved, such as duct lines, manholes, pole lines, trans- 
formers, etc., diagrammatically and in some specified 
sequence on forms arranged to accommodate sketches 
as well as lists. When complete, such records are val- 
uable, not only because they eliminate duplications and 
omissions but also because they permit reference to the 
location of individual structures by pages and item 
numbers instead of requiring lengthy and less specific 
written description. At the same time they afford the 
fullest detail description of the structures mentioned. 
In the absence of an extensive field check to verify the 
written records, such sketch records serve to show the 
property as a consistent whole, furnishing a valuable 
check on the reasonableness of the inventory. When 
used in conjunction with field verification, either ran- 
dom or complete, their advantages as bases for com- 
parison are readily apparent. 

The use of sketches to accompany lists of property is 
shown by Form II (double, 10"% in. x 8V2 in.). This 
form is so printed that the face of one sheet (shown as 
the lower part of the illustration) gives a detail de- 
scription of the component runs making up the duct 
banks, while the back of the preceding sheet (upper 
part of the illustration) affords space for sketches of 
the various runs spoken of in the lists. It is obvious 
that such sketches may be made to show information 
as to the location of duct lines with respect to inter- 
secting streets and adjacent structures, which could not 
be incorporated into the lists without excessive written 
description. These sketches may also be used in con- 



n 



-O, 



o 

Component /runs. 





/Iqqregate Banks 



Company Pete 

•Subject -MaahalsS-acuL ^eryire Saxes. 

Computer. Checker , 



Hie Nn 
Ihppt No 

lay. No. 



IP 
111 



Long 



Wide 



APPRAISAL WORK — FORM III — LOOSELEAF SPECIMEN RECORD 
FOR MANHOLES AND SERVICE BOXES 

nection with records of other groups of property, as is 
shown by the headings on Form III (8V2 in. x lOYs 
in.), where the reference to the "sketch on the back of 
page No. ..." identifies the location absolutely when 
the manhole or service box number is known. In a re- 
cent appraisal this same sketch space on Form II was 
used to portray the location and graphic description of 
the Edison tube system efficiently and very conve- 
niently. 

It is frequently the case in card records of meters, 
transformers, poles, etc., that each item is given an 
identifying number which is recorded on the card, 
although the cards themselves are grouped and filed ac- 
cording to some other characteristic such as street loca- 
tion, type of equipment, etc. By making use of a form 
on which all the identifying numbers in use by the com- 
pany at the time of examination are shown in regular 
sequence, the card record may be transcribed in the 
order found, while the actual entries of the appraiser 
appear opposite the identifying numbers in their proper 
order. In addition to preventing duplications, pointing 
out omissions and showing actual error, an inventory 
list so prepared often indicates ways to solve problems 
connected with age of items, size and growth of the 
company, etc. 

The second portion of this paper, dealing with the 
field check, summation of data, labor costs and presenta- 
tion of appraisal data in evidence, will be published in 
a subsequent issue. 



Manila Company Offers Pulmotor to City 

C. Nesbitt Duffy, general manager of the Manila 
Electric Railroad & Light Company, Manila, P. I., has 
offered the Manila public, through the police depart- 
ment, the free use of one of its two pulmotors. In 
making his offer Mr. Duffy stated that, in line with 
its safety-first policy, the company had purchased in 
the United States two pulmotors, the latest and most 
efficient apparatus of its kind on the market. One of 
these had been installed at the power plant, and the 
other at the general offices. Mr. Duffy suggested that 
one of these be installed for the use of the public at 
the Meisic police station where the Philippine Health 
Service has a station. The board accepted the offer 
with thanks. 



APPRAISAL WORK — FORM II — DOUBLE FORM ILLUSTRATING THE 
USE OF SKETCHES TO ACCOMPANY LISTS OF PROPERTY 



The Champagnie Francaise de Tramways (Indo- 
China) reports receipts in 1915 of Fr. 848,247 as com- 
pared with Fr. 872,662 in 1914. Part of the decrease is 
attributed to the war, which was also the cause of the 
delay in the completion of the electrical equipment. At 
the annual meeting held in Paris on May 11 a vote was 
passed declaring a dividend of Fr. 50 per share on the 
capital stock and Fr. 20 on each participating certificate. 
The company owns a tramway at Saigon in Indo-China. 



July 15, 1916J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



101 



Storehouse Methods That Reduce Labor 

A Description of a Unique System of Arranging Stock and Keeping Storehouse and 
Accounting Records Which Have Greatly Increased Efficiency 

By W. V. C. BULKELEY 
Purchasing Agent Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio 



A STUDY and an investigation of storekeeping and 
store department accounting methods, covering a 
period of more than two years, developed the fact that 
most of the systems in general use provided for a more 
or less unsatisfactory arrangement of stock in the 
storerooms from both the distributing and inventory 
standpoints. Entirely too much clerical labor was re- 
quired for the results obtained, both in the storeroom 
and in the accounting department, and serious inac- 
curacies in records of prices and quantities of materials 
frequently occurred. With these points in mind, I en- 
deavored to develop a system for the Columbus Rail- 
way, Power & Light Company whereby the storekeep- 
ers would be brought into closer touch with their stocks 
and eliminate as far as possible the clerical labor of 
keeping records as well as keep the prices approxi- 
mately correct. At the beginning of this development 
work, I received very valuable assistance from H. C. 
Pearce, purchasing agent and general storekeeper of 
the Seaboard Air Line. 

First of all, the materials carried in stock were 
divided into twenty classifications which were indicated 
by the letters of the alphabet. The purpose of this is 
to indicate at any time, just how much money is in- 
vested in the different classes of stock, so that any ex- 
cess stock may be located and that particular classifica- 
tion checked. For convenience these twenty classifica- 
tions were made logical divisions of the materials gen- 
erally carried in the stock of a railway and lighting 
property. For instance, classification A indicates elec- 
tric motor and control apparatus, generators, incan- 
descent lamps, arc lamps and parts; B indicates in gen- 
eral, overhead and underground line material; C in- 
cludes material generally classified as station hardware ; 
D includes chemicals, paints and oils ; H includes all 
wire; J all kinds of tools; N all metals, including struc- 
tural steel and pipes, etc. These natural divisions of 



material readily fix the classification in the minds of 
those making requisitions on the storehouse. Further- 
more, when an inventory is taken of any particular 
classification the discrepancies found are confined to 
that class of material, and do not affect the remainder 
of the storeroom records. 

When materials are requisitioned from the purchas- 
ing agent by the classification method, all the require- 
ments for any one class of materials are indicated at 
one time by all the storehouses on the system, thus re- 
ducing routine work in the matter of purchasing. Each 
item in each classification has a number, according to 
its location in the storeroom bins. It is not necessary 
to have classification A at the beginning of the store- 
room and then follow out the alphabetical arrangement. 
On the contrary, the stocks are arranged in the man- 
ner most convenient for receipt and distribution and, 
with bins properly marked, the greatest flexibility is 
obtained. It is, however, highly important that a place 
be provided for every item of stock and that stock lo- 
cated in its proper place, so that if it is not there, that 
item of stock is exhausted. 

Standard Arrangement of Stock 

Standards of arranging stock were then adopted, so 
that when inventories are taken the stock is not 
touched, it being possible to see at a glance just how 
many items there are in each compartment or pile. This 
arrangement is clearly shown in the accompanying il- 
lustrations. For instance, note the compartment 
marked 5 L-177 at the left of the view in the oppo- 
site column. This compartment contains lV^-in., No. 
6, round-head, brass wood-screws. The figure 5 shows 
the depth arrangement, the L-177 is the stock classi- 
fication and number. We have adopted a standard pile 
of five or less, ten, twenty-five, fifty or 100. Five or 
less can be observed at a glance, and in this case the 




COLUMBUS STOREHOUSE SYSTEM — VIEW OF STOCK BINS SHOW- 
ING METHOD OF MARKING 



COLUMBUS STOREHOUSE SYSTEM — VIEW SHOWING STYLE OP 
BINS AND STANDARD PACKAGES 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



boxes are piled five high and five deep, therefore, there 
are twenty-five boxes of the screws in each full pile. 
Again referring to the particular bin, it will be noted 
that there are two full piles, and the third pile is short 
two boxes on the front row. This stock, therefore, 
shows immediately that there are seventy-three boxes 
of these screws in stock. 

In the second view will be noted another example of 
how time can be saved in taking an inventory. The 
end compartment in the third row from the bottom, 
marked "3 G-227," contains a certain kind of brake- 
hanger spring. In each of the packages there are 
twenty-five of these springs, and the packages are 
stacked ten high and three deep, therefore, there are 
750 of these springs in each full stack. Two full stacks 
can be noted in the illustration, therefore, these con- 
tain 1500 springs. There are also seven packages which 
can be observed when one stands directly in front of 




COLUMBUS STOREHOUSE SYSTEM — VIEW SHOWING METHOD OF 
MARKING ON ENDS OF BINS 



the bin or in the position occupied when an inventory 
is taken. These contain 175 more springs, and three 
springs are shown in the photograph, these being less 
than a standard package. Taken all together, 1678 of 
these springs can be counted almost at a glance. 

Advantages of Standard Arrangement 

After all the different items of stock had been classi- 
fied and numbered, an alphabetical index of the stock 
was prepared in loose-leaf form, so that it can be cor- 
rected from time to time and kept up to date and dis- 
tributed to each of the operating department heads. I 
will not enumerate the forms that we use, as these 
necessarily must differ for various locations and condi- 
tions, I will simply state that when any materials are 
required from stock it is only necessary to indicate 
the quantity and the stock number, the latter being ob- 
tained from the catalog of stock. The requisition thus 
prepared, upon being presented to the storekeeper, in- 
dicates automatically just where that stock is located, 
so that the storekeeper or his helpers can go immedi- 
ately to the compartment and withdraw the material re- 
quired without any doubt or delay. This system fur- 
thermore guarantees that the operating department is 
charged for just the material it obtains, and not what 
the accounting department must guess was obtained in 
cases where improper names are used to indicate a ma- 
terial taken from the storeroom. 



It will further be noted that the only marking on the 
bins is the depth number and stock number, which 
show in bold letters and figures, and greatly facilitate 
the location of stock. For instance, referring again to 
the first view, suppose that stock number L-185 should 
be desired. By a glance at the numbers on the end of 
the bin section, it will be noted that the marking on 
the top row is L-133, on the next row, L-155, then 
L-177, then L-199, L-221 and L-243. Now, inasmuch as 
L-185 must be in the row commencing with L-177, the 
eye follows along this until L-185 is reached. 

The third view gives a general idea of how the bins 
are arranged, their form of construction and the index 
tags which appear on the ends of the bins toward the 
main aisles. It will also be noted that the bins are con- 
structed on the stair principle. This eliminates the use 
of step ladders with their resultant danger and lack of 
efficiency. Furthermore, there are no retaining strips 
or other obstructions at the bottoms of the compart- 
ments, and the numbering strips are placed at the top 
of each bin. In the first illustration, it will be observed 
that at the compartment to the right of L-203 there is 
no back wall to the bin. All bins are built double so 
that the storekeeper can see at a glance when a com- 
partment is entirely empty or nearly so. In addition, 
this style of construction facilitates cleaning of the 
bins. 

Storehouse Records Simplified 

The only record that the storekeeper has to keep is 
the stock ledger, which simply shows the quantity con- 
sumed for the previous year (this being a yearly rec- 
ord), the average monthly consumption, and, of course, 
the stock number and a brief description. The results 
of the monthly inventories, referred to later, receipts 
of materials and open orders are also shown in his rec- 
ord. It will be noted that the issuances of materials 
are not recorded, and as this constitutes the bulk of the 
clerical work in the storeroom where the card system is 
used, considerable work is saved. The entire stock is 
inventoried every month so that it may be replenished. 
This taking of inventories is divided into eight periods, 
requisitions being received in the purchasing department 
on the four Tuesdays and the four Fridays in each 
month. In like manner, the annual inventory is dis- 
pensed with, this being distributed over a period of 
eight months in the year, and once in each month the 
inventory, which is taken for the purpose of replenish- 
ing stock, is forwarded to the accounting department 
where it is priced. 

This plan eliminates any duplication of work and 
further obviates the' prodigious task incident to the 
pricing and adjusting of a complete inventory. Inas- 
much as the time required for making the inventory 
has been reduced in the storeroom illustrated from ap- 
proximately 600 hours for one man to forty-two hours 
for one man, it will be seen that this monthly inventory 
consumes very little time. Moreover, considerable time 
is saved in requisitioning and ordering supplies under 
the new plan. By this method the storekeeper must see 
just how his stock actually stands in each item twelve 
times each year, and there is no excuse for a store- 
keeper running out of stock on account of the errors on 
the cards. Then, there being twenty-five items to a 
page, by referring to the stock ledger it is possible to 
check at a glance just how much twenty-five different 
items have moved in a period of two years. 

The operating departments, in preparing estimates 
for work to be done, are now furnished with the prices 
at which they will be charged for materials taken from 
stock. These prices are kept up to date by supplements 
issued by the purchasing department on the first of 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



103 



each month. These supplements also cover cancella- 
tions from or additions to the stock. Inasmuch as all 
department heads have a complete, up-to-date list of all 
materials in stock, this helps in a large measure to keep 
the obsolete stock at a minimum. 

Advantages to Accounting Department 

In the accounting department where the stock led- 
gers were formerly carried, by far the larger part of 
the clerical labor has been eliminated by the use of the 
classification accounts. It is no longer necessary to 
open a separate account for each item of stock and to 
enter all receipts of materials, total price, unit price, 
etc., as well as all issuances with the necessary sub- 
tractions, etc. This is entirely taken care of now by 
what is termed regular and supplemental classification 
accounts. In an article of this kind it is impossible to 
describe in detail just how these accounts are operated, 
except to say that the regular account is credited and 
charged for all materials issued and received at the unit 
prices as shown in the catalog of stock and catalog of 
prices. These catalogs, of courseware the same, the 
former having an alphabetical and the latter a numeri- 
cal arrangement. 

In the event that materials are purchased at prices 
in excess of those shown in the catalog, the regular 
classification account is charged at the catalog price 
and the excess takes the form of a debit in the supple- 
mental classification account. If materials are pur- 
chased at less than the catalog prices, the regular 
classification account is charged at the catalog prices, 
and the difference becomes a credit in the supplemental 
classification account. Of course, all materials are is- 
sued at the catalog prices, therefore the supplemental 
classification account is only used by the accounting de- 
partment. If it is necessary to increase the catalog 
prices a credit requisition is issued, on which the quan- 
tity of material affected on hand at the time of adjust- 
ment is shown. In the event of a decrease in the cata- 
log prices, the same procedure is followed except that a 
debit requisition is used. These differences are then 
either credited or charged to the supplemental classi- 
fication account, as the case may be. Therefore, the 
regular classification indicates at all times the value of 
material in stock, as the units multiplied by the unit 
prices should equal this amount, and the supplemental 
classification indicates fluctuations in prices of ma- 
terials. 

In this way the supplemental classification has 
no bearing on the amount of material in stock but con- 
stantly indicates whether materials are being charged 
out at the proper values. At the same time the total 
of the regular and supplemental classifications indicates 
the current market values of the materials in stock. 
In actual operation this system, so far, has met and 
even exceeded our expectations. It has also developed 
many desirable features that were not apparent when 
the work, preliminary to the installation of this system, 
was being laid out. 



Manganese-Tread Wheel 

In an article describing the new Davis cast-steel 
wheel with manganese tread recently put upon the 
market by the American Steel Foundries of Chicago, 
and printed on page 69 of last week's issue, through 
a typographical error a misleading statement appears 
in the third sentence. This should read "Its wear life 
is more than twice that of a cast-iron wheel because 
of the toughness given to both the wheel treads and 
flanges by manufacturing them of manganese steel." 



The Last New York Horse Car 

The accompanying illustration is reproduced as an 
appropriate valedictory to the closing era of trans- 
portation in New York City. While agreeing heartily 
with any timely sentiment that may attend the depar- 
ture of this form of locomotion, one cannot suppress a 




THE LAST NEW YORK HORSE CAR 

little exultation at the thought that the storage-battery 
car has supplanted the horse car in New York. It will 
not be so common now to pass through moments of 
nervous panic when time is scarce and the passenger 
endeavors to "make" the Fall River boat via a cross- 
town horse car line. 



Steam Railroad Statistics for 1915 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has issued an 
abstract based upon its compilation of steam railroad 
statistics for the twenty-eighth annual statistical re- 
port covering the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915. The 
advance figures given in this abstract may be slightly 
modified by revision before final publication. On June 
30, 1915, the roads represented 257,569.32 miles of 
line operated, including 11,279.64 miles used under 
trackage right. The aggregate mileage of railroad 
tracks of all kinds was 391,151.51 miles. 

The total steam railroad capital actually outstand- 
ing on the above-mentioned date was $19,719,893,944. 
consisting of $8,635,319,368 of stock and $11,084,574,- 
576 of funded debt. The total amount of railroad 
capital, including the securities held by the com- 
panies concerned, was $21,127,959,078, divided $8,994,- 
894,721 for stock and $12,133,064,357 for funded debt. 
Of the total capital, stock actually outstanding $3,415,- 
472,806, or 39.55 per cent, paid no dividends. The 
amount of dividends declared during the year was $328,- 
477,938, being equivalent to 6.29 per cent on dividend- 
paying stock. The average rate of dividends paid on 
all stocks actually outstanding, was 3.80. The invest- 
ment in road and equipment as of June 30, 1915, for 
companies with annual operating revenues of more than 
$100,000 was $17,247,101,881, this being an increase of 
$263,155,774 over the preceding year. 

The operating revenues of all railroads for the year 
ended June 30, 1915, were $2,956,193,202, or $11,538 
per mile of line operated. Operating expenses were 
$2,088,682,956, or $8,152 per line of mile operated. For 
companies with annual revenues of more than S100,- 
000, the number of passengers carried in 1915 was 
976,303,602 as compared to 1,053,138,718 in 1914, while 
the number of tons of revenue freight carried, includ- 
ing freight received from connections, was 1,802,018,- 
177 in 1915 as compared to 1,976,138,155 in 1914. The 
operating ratio showed a decrease from 72.22 per cent 
in 1914 to 70.52 per cent in 1915. 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 




INTERIOR OP LARGE STEEL TRAIL CAR ON SALT LAKE & OGDEN 
RAILROAD 

Large Steel Trail Cars in Operation on 
Salt Lake & Ogden Railroad 

IN connection with the inauguration of its summer 
schedule, the Salt Lake & Ogden Railroad recently 
placed in operation six new excursion-type trail cars, 
the order for which was noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 18, 1915. These cars are especially 
designed for accommodating the railroad company's 
heavy traffic to Lagoon, a pleasure resort situated about 
half-way between Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah. 

As shown in an accompanying illustration, the car is 
very large, having a seating capacity of eighty passen- 
gers. It is 61 ft. 6% in. long, 9 ft. 6 in. wide, 12 ft. 7 
in. high and weighs 56,000 lb. The body framing is 
entirely of steel, the posts are of composite construc- 
tion, with T-iron and wood fillers and the letterboards 
are of steel. The roof is of wood, covered with canvas, 
and the floor is of wood, double thickness. The seats 
are Hale & Kilburn No. 300A in quarter-sawed oak. 
Sliding duck curtains are provided in the window open- 
ings. The vestibules are arranged for through train 
operation with a swinging door in the center at each 
end. 

The car is equipped with both seven-wire General 
Electric and eleven-wire Westinghouse control cable so 
as to operate in trains with other cars equipped with 
either type. The Orem line and the Ogden, Logan & 
Idaho Railway with which the Bamberger line has con- 



nection, are also equipped with Westinghouse control 
apparatus. 

The underframing of this car is of heavy steel. The 
center sill is of 8-in. I-beam, 18 lb. per foot, while the 
side sills are of 8-in. channel bars, 13% lb. per foot. 
The intermediate sills are of 6-in. channel bars. The 
distance between truck centers is 39 ft. 2 in. and the 
trucks have a 6-ft. 6-in. wheelbase. They are equipped 
with standard 36-in. steel wheels with 6-in. axles and 
5-in. x 9-in. journals. The cars are furnished with 
Westinghouse complete trailer brake equipments in- 
cluding the American slack adjuster. Each end of the 
car has a Janney radial M.C'.B. coupler and is also fitted 
with a cast-steel spring buffer. The trucks were made 
by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, while the cars were 
built by the Jewett Car Company of Newark, N. J. 



Safety-First Work of Pittsburgh 
Railways 

IN a feature section published in connection with the 
Pittsburgh Safety Exhibit held the week of June 19, 
the Pittsburgh Post of that date had this to say of the 
safety-first work of the Pittsburgh Railways and other 
public utility companies: 

"Officials of the Pittsburgh Railways, Duquesne 
Light Company and Equitable Gas Company have for 
years been active in their efforts to prevent accidents 
not only among their patrons but among their em- 
ployees. Every possible safeguard against accident has 
been installed and campaigns of education have been 
conducted with a view to teaching employees how to 
spread the gospel of safety throughout the Pittsburgh 
district. 

"Pulmotor stations have been established in every 
portion of Allegheny County by the Equitable Gas Com- 
pany, Duquesne Light Company and Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways to assist in saving the lives of persons overcome 
by gas, smoke, drowning or electric shock. Employees 
were instructed how to use these pulmotors and physi- 
cians were made familiar with their use through free 
lectures and motion pictures and demonstrations of the 
apparatus. 

"Officials of the Pittsburgh Railways have been 
persistent in their efforts to teach their employees how 
to take care of themselves and how to safeguard the 
public. Every possible safeguard has been installed in 
shops and power houses, and motormen and conductors 
have been instructed in safety-first schools what to do 
in any emergency and how to do it. Emergency sta- 
tions in various parts of the city have proved of im- 
mense value in the general campaign of safeguarding 




STEEL TRAIL CARS WITH CAPACITY OF EIGHTY PERSONS NOW OPERATING ON THE SALT LAKE & OGDEN RAILROAD 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



105 



lives. Here are a few of the things which make the 
Pittsburgh Railways stand out as one of the foremost 
exponents of safety always: 

"First city railway to adopt steel cars for surface 
line. 

"All shop machinery equipped with safety guards for 
employees. 

"Eighty men always sanding track and keeping rails 
in safe condition on steep grades. 

"Cards with 'dont's' for teachers and children placed 
in every school room in Allegheny County and the co- 
operation of principals and teacher secured to caution 
their pupils how to avoid accidents. 

"For the safety of children all cars are stopped at all 
school buildings during school hours. 

"A second guard rail placed on all summer cars. 

"Window guards placed on all double truck closed 
cars. 

"Established free pulmotor service at many stations 
in Pittsburgh district. 

"Developed first practical low-step car. 

"Developed quick-acting safety car door. Five hun- 
dred cars equipped. 

"All double-truck cars equipped with automatic safety 
air brakes. 

"Steep grades and railroad crossings equipped with 
safety switches and safety trolley guards. 

"Proportionate share of expense in elimination of 
grade crossings. 

"First to adopt near-side stop." 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Moral Obligation of Witnesses 

Fifth Avenue Coach Company 

New York, July 10, 1916. 

To the Editors: 

After reading the article partly dealing with the 
work of claim agents, which appeared in the June 
issue of Good Housekeeping, aptly criticised in your 
editorial of July 1, I am disposed not to say anything 
more harsh than that the author does not know — as 
we claim agents and others connected with transpor- 
tation companies as well as a large portion of the 
general public know — about the methods used in the 
handling of accidents and the claims arising there- 
from. 

In regard to the advice given in the magazine article 
that witnesses to accidents should decline to give 
their names to conductors, it should be said that while 
it is true that there is no law requiring witnesses to 
furnish such information, anyone who will stop to 
give the matter a little consideration cannot fail to 
realize that in the interests of justice and a square 
deal to all concerned, a strong moral obligation rests 
upon all witnesses to furnish their names. On blank 
cards furnished to conductors by the company I rep- 
resent is printed the following, but nearly all trans- 
portation lines use similar forms: "The management 
respectfully requests your assistance that fair treat- 
ment may be given to all concerned, proper discipline 
imposed, and accidents and discourtesies to the public 
prevented." This, of course, means just what it says 
— that the company desires the co-operation of wit- 
nesses so that exact justice may be rendered to all 
parties, the injured person, the employees and the 
company itself. 

It would be most erroneous to suppose that the re- 
fusal of witnesses to give their names could result 



to the detriment and inconvenience of the railway 
only. Many times accidents occur in which the trans- 
portation line is in no way concerned, but since they 
happen near the cars, the employees report them and 
often secure the names of the only witnesses obtain- 
able. I have thus furnished many witnesses to in- 
jured persons or their attorneys when no other wit- 
nesses could be found, and their absence would have 
resulted in serious loss and injustice to honest in- 
jured persons. 

If the situation were reversed, how would injured 
parties feel if witnesses refused to come forward and 
aid them, when such witnesses were of the greatest 
importance in the interests of justice? But such a 
point need not be discussed. As before stated, a 
strong moral obligation rests on witnesses to furnish 
their names, and I know from long experience that 
the public as a whole recognizes this obligation and 
most people freely give their names when requested 
to do so. Indeed, many persons voluntarily sent their 
names to the interested parties, feeling that, in so 
doing, they are acting in the interest of fair dealing. 
Hence, while the magazine article referred to may do 
some harm for a short time, its bad effect will soon 
vanish, and the public at large will continue to aid 
in bringing about justice and right. 

In regard to the advice to shun the adjuster and 
consult a lawyer, I again repeat that the writer of 
the article does not know. I frankly admit that the 
offering of such advice twenty-five or thirty years 
ago would have had some justification, but there is. 
none at this time. In this connection I quote from 
my paper before the fourth annual convention of the 
Pacific Claim Agents' Association : "In those early 
days the claim agent who could boast about the num- 
ber of settlements he made in cases of exceedingly 
serious injuries for very small sums of money re- 
garded himself as the only person fit to act in the 
capacity of claim agent. This kind of claim agent, 
however, could not, should not and did not last. Such 
men were gradually forced out of business as claim 
agents." 

Such methods of conducting claim department work 
could not fail to result in a short time in harm not 
only to the claim department but also to the company 
as a whole. As I stated in the paper before men- 
tioned, the successful claim agent of to-day is the man 
who can look everybody squarely in the eye, who is 
regarded as a good citizen and fit to mingle with the 
best people in his community. The confidence of the 
public in his integrity is one of his strongest and best 
assets in handling the business of his department, 
and such confidence can be established only by fair 
dealing. 

I know personally nearly every man forming the 
American Electric Railway Claims Association and 
also personally many of the claim agents of the steam 
railroads, and can truthfully say that they are just 
the stamp of man described above. They all aim to- 
deal fairly with claimants injured by their companies 
and are not men to be shunned by injured persons. 
This the writer of the magazine article does not know. 
There may be claim agents who resort to sharp prac- 
tices in handling their business. If there are such, 
I do not know them. The men who compose the Claims 
Association have no time for such claim agents, and 
there is no place for such men in the association. 
The proceedings of this association for many years 
past contain numerous papers and discussions advo- 
cating square dealing with claimants as being the best 
and only safe policy to follow in the handling of claim 
work, apart entirely from the moral phase of the sit- 
uation. That such a policy is pursued by claim 



106 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[VoiFxLVIII, No. 3 



agents, there is no question. In my opinion, unfair 
claim agents, if there are any, are as scarce as the 
"white crows" mentioned in the article. 

As to the advice about referring the claim agent 
to the claimant's lawyer, my views are entirely simi- 
lar to those expressed in your editorial. No claim 
agent objects to any claimant being represented by 
a reputable attorney, and in many cases welcomes 
such representation. I would be the last to say a 
word against an honorable profession of which 
I am proud to be a member. Unfortunately, however, 
as in all other professions there are those in the legal 
profession who are not to be depended upon, and 
many persons injured in accidents have cause to re- 
gret bitterly ever having employed an attorney to 
represent them. I could cite from personal knowl- 
edge numerous cases of this kind in which large sums 
of money were paid to attorneys and only a small 
portion ever reached the claimant. In one case, in 
which $5,000 was paid in settlement, the injured per- 
son received nothing. Hence in advising the employ- 
ment of attorneys, it should be emphasized that the 
greatest care should be exercised in their selection. 

George Carson, Claim Agent. 



Efficiency in Military and Industrial 
Preparedness 

J. G. White & Company, Inc. 

New York, July 5, 1916. 

To the Editors: 

Inclosed find copy of a letter which I am sending 
to several United States senators and congressmen. This 
letter deals with a subject of most vital importance to 
the American people, and I believe that this general sub- 
ject should receive earnest and continued attention from 
yourself and all other editors who have a sensible view of 
what really contributes to the welfare of the American 
people of all classes, including members of labor unions. 

If now or later you can in any way contribute toward 
helping to build up a sentiment among your readers in 
favor of efficiency in all directions, whether in govern- 
ment departments or manufacturing establishments, you 
certainly will be performing a patriotic service to the 
country. 

In the long run this subject is one which ranks prac- 
tically on the same plane with the broad question of 
national military preparedness for adequate, effective de- 
fense. In season and out of season efficiency should be 
preached both as relating to military preparedness and 
industrial preparedness. 

In every state in the Union advisory boards to the 
Naval Consulting Board are giving freely of their time 
and money to assist in procuring information which 
would help the Army and Navy Departments quickly and 
effectively to utilize the industrial resources of the coun- 
try in case of war. 

Patriotic citizens generally are most anxious to assist 
in any efforts which will increase the military and 
economical preparedness of the country. It seems im- 
probable that, at such a time, legislation should be urged 
(and have serious prospect of passing) which encourages 
inefficiency during a period when all patriotic citizens 
should be working toward efficiency. 

J. G. White. 

[Letter of Mr. White] 

New York, July 5, 1916. 

Dear Sir: - ... .„ „ 

My attention has been called to the Tavenner bill (ii.K. 
8665), prohibiting time studies and other methods looking 
toward efficiency of those engaged in government work, also 
to the Van Dyke bill (H.R. 8677), the object of which ap- 
parently is similarly to discourage possible increased effi- 



ciency in the Post-office Department. I understand that 
similar legislation in the way of riders, or otherwise, may 
be attached to the post-office appropriation bill, the naval 
appropriation bill, army appropriation bill and fortifications 
appropriation bill. I earnestly hope you will do all that you 
possibly can to defeat any such pernicious and foolish legis- 
lation. 

As the active head of a large engineering and construc- 
tion organization in this country, and also of another or- 
ganization which we have built up, with headquarters in 
London, to do foreign work (the head men of which are 
Americans, but most of the staff being British, French, 
Swiss, Dutch, etc.), I have some appreciation of the im- 
portance of this general subject. 

At the present time the United States is enjoying excep- 
tional prosperity, due largely to our exports of munitions, 
together with other exports which are made possible, or at 
least largely helped, by the fact that the nations at war are 
unable to compete for this foreign business in many lines. 
After the war is finished there are many evidences to in- 
dicate a probable prolonged struggle for export business. 
On the part of the nations at war, the maximum exports 
will be of the utmost importance to enable them to take care 
of their huge debts and rehabilitate their financial systems. 
Before and during the war Germany had, and has, shown 
wonderful efficiency, particularly in all lines of manufacture. 
This has been due largely to the remarkable encouragements 
which were from time to time given by the Kaiser and the 
German government generally to increased efficiency in all 
lines of German endeavor, particularly those which would 
increase German exports. 

I am sure that you earnestly desire the continued pros- 
perity of the United States. While our unparalleled natural 
resources tend to assure us prosperity, irrespective of our 
own efforts and efficiency, yet this will carry us only to a 
certain extent, and beyond that the nation must prove its 
efficiency or its prosperity will be largely curtailed. 

Considering all of these and other conditions which might 
easily be mentioned, it would seem to be extremely important 
that our government should, in all reasonable ways, encour- 
age efficiency in all directions. The legislation herein re- 
ferred to has absolutely the opposite effect. If efficiency in 
government departments is discouraged or prohibited, cer- 
tainly this must reflect on efficiency in private establish- 
ments and tend to interfere with the prosperity of the United 
States. 

A good example of the pernicious effects of legislation in- 
spired by such forces as are apparently back of the Taven- 
ner bill, may be seen in the La Follette, or seamen's bill, 
the effect of which has been to hand over to the Japanese 
practically the entire control of the shipping of the Pacific 
Ocean and almost the entire carrying of the Oriental imports 
and exports of the United States. If the government, by 
the passage of the Tavenner bill, or other similar legislation, 
is to discourage or prevent efficiency or the development of 
American industries, it must inevitably materially increase 
the seriousness of the economic situation which will con- 
front us after the close of the European war. 

You, of course, know that exports on a large scale have 
been possible, in spite of the extraordinarily high wages paid 
in this country, only because of the high efficiency of our 
highly-paid labor. The urgent demand for munitions has 
led to careful time studies in connection with munitions 
manufacturing in practically all European countries, and 
this tends largely to decrease the difference in efficiency 
which formerly existed as between American and European 
labor. This is another reason why efficiency at home should 
be encouraged in every direction. 

Considering the above and other facts which might be re- 
ferred to, I earnestly hope that you will do everything pos- 
sible not only to avoid discouraging, but on the other 
hand, actually to encourage in all legitimate ways, efficiency, 
both in government and private industrial departments of 
enterprises. Very respectfully yours, 

[Signed] J. G. White. 

[Note. — The attention of the readers of this paper 
was called to the evils of the Tavenner bill and of the 
Van Dyke bill in an editorial entitled "Stupidity in 
Legislation," published on the first page of the issue of 
this paper for April 1, 1916. We indorse anything that 
Mr. White has to say about them, as well as his re- 
marks about the necessity for the introduction by manu- 
facturers during the war of efficiency methods if they 
are to compete with European manufacturers after the 
war is over. This point was emphasized in an editorial 
on "Preparedness for Peace Conditions," in the issue of 
this paper for June 24, 1916. — Eds.] 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



107 



EQUIPMENT AND ITS MAINTENANCE 

Short Descriptions of Labor, Mechanical and Electrical Practices 
in Every Department of Electric Railroading 

Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for at Special Rates. 



Car-Lighting Improvements and Costs 
on the Los Angeles Railway 

BY J. L. CLARKE 

Superintendent of Electrical Repairs, Los Angeles Railway 

A study of the cost of Mazda as compared with car- 
bon incandescent lighting on the cars of the Los An- 
geles Railway has been made for several years, the re- 
sults of which show a saving on the Mazda over the car- 
bon lamps of $18 per car-year. 

Heretofore the operating and maintenance cost of 
twenty-five 16-cp. carbon incandescent lamps per car, 
based on three hours lighting per day, including the 
maintenance cost of the carbon-arc headlights, has been 
$32 per car-year. The headlight, of course, is operated 
in series with the incandescent lamps. 

The cost of changing the lighting circuits for a uni- 
form distribution of nine Mazda 56-watt lamps, and 
equipping them with safety shade-holding sockets and 
glass reflector shades, but not including the cost of the 
Mazda lamps, was $26, while the cost of changing the 
arc headlight to the Mazda incandescent style, including 
the credit on the material scrapped, but not including the 
cost of the 56-watt Mazda lamp, was $1. The total, 
therefore, was $27. 

The operating and maintenance cost of the nine 
56-watt Mazda lamps and the one 56-watt Mazda head- 
light, based on three hours lighting per day, is $14 per 
car-year. This provides for supplying twenty-four 




HEADLIGHT SUPPORT INSERTED IN CAR DASH AND HELD IN 
PLACE BY SUSPENSION BRACKETS 

nation and step lighting, as we have made no 
changes in these. In the near future we intend to re- 
place the ten 16-cp. carbon incandescent lamps used for 
these purposes with 23-watt Mazda lamps, which should 
result in an additional saving of approximately $2.50 
per car-year. 

In changing from the carbon-arc headlights to Mazda 
headlights, no changes were necessary in the exterior 
of the case or frame, except to cover the hole formerly 
required for the ventilating cap. When replacements 
are necessary on account of badly-damaged headlight 
frames, they are made as shown in the accompanying 




Rjar Elevation 



Side Elevation 



Note. — All parts marked "A" to be re- 
moved when headlight is inserted in dash 



Section 

Headlight arranged for a 
5-in. and 6-in. reflector 



SECTION, SIDE AND REAR ELEVATION OF HEADLIGHTS ON LOS ANGELES RAILWAY REBU.LT AT SMALL COST FOR USE AS EITHER 

INSERTED OR SUSPENDED TYPE 



lamps per year to cover replacement of defective and 
stolen lamps, and includes 5 per cent replacement of 
reflector shades and periodical cleaning of the shades. 
Hence the saving on Mazda over carbon incandescent 
lighting is $18 per car-year, which covers the entire 
cost of new lighting installation expense in eighteen 
months, and after that time effects a net saving of $18 
per car-year. 

The above cost data do not include car-sign illumi- 



illustration so that they may ultimately be recessed or 
inserted in the car dash whenever it may be decided to 
use two headlights per car, but in the meantime they 
can be used with our old method of support at the sus- 
pension brackets on the car dash. This new recessed 
headlight frame, which was suggested some time ago by 
C. A. Henderson, assistant general manager of the com- 
pany, costs only 35 cents more than the old one, and is 
obviously more useful. 



108 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



Machining Tires 

BY "VULCAN" 
A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.E.E., England 

The vertical boring mill is now almost universally 
preferred for boring out the tires for electric tramway 
cars, and on the larger systems it is generally used. As 
compared with the wheel lathe, the chief point in its 
favor is, of course, the ease and saving of time in put- 
ting into and removing the tires from the machine. 
The best plan for holding the work is to have the ma- 
chine table constructed as a chuck with the four jaws 
shaped to suit the tread of the tire, and arranged both 
for universal and independent operation. 

By this means tramway tires in large numbers can 
be turned out at low cost, but on the smaller systems 
where there is not sufficient work to keep a man solely 
employed on this work, tire boring is commonly car- 
ried out in the wheel lathe. In such cases this method 
often proves to be the more economical in the end, be- 
cause only one operator may be needed to deal with the 



\ 





Tyhc \ 


I \ 






1 


Li 















ftaohnie Thble. 



CLAMPING RIG FOR USE IN MACHINING TIRES IN VERTICAL 
BORING MILL 

whole of the wheel work, i.e., retreading tire and center- 
boring, etc., and where this obtains there is no justifica- 
tion for installing an expensive vertical boring mill 
which will stand idle most of the time. If one were in- 
stalled, the increase in the capital charges would prob- 
ably be more than the small saving in working costs 
that its adoption might be expected to effect. 

In many shops where the vertical boring mill is used, 
there are no chuck jaws with the machine, the tires or 
wheel centers in such cases being attached to the work 
table by bolts in the tee slots and common straddle 
clamps. The latter require supporting at the back end, 
and as it is often thought that any old bit of scrap will 
suit the purpose, one sometimes sees the required height 
being made up by the use of two or three packings for 
each clamp. When a tire is put on or taken from the 
machine table, it becomes necessary on each occasion 
to handle a number of separate parts, made up of bolts, 
straddle clamps and packings, and this results in much 
waste of time due entirely to the multiplicity of these 
fittings. 

An improvement devised and used by the author for 
such cases consists in making new clamps of flat bar 
with a hole in the upper portion, through which the 
"bolt passes that holds the bolt down. The rear ends are 
bent downward, forming a heel to take the place of the 



ordinary packings. The arrangement is shown in the 
sketch and is self-explanatory. To remove the clamping 
rig the nut is loosened and the bolt with clamp attached 
can then be withdrawn from the tee slot. On many 
repetition jobs on other machines such clamps have been 
found useful time savers, and by their use the annoy- 
ance of lost or misplaced packings is avoided. 



Oxy-Acetylene Cutting Practice 

BY B. P. LEGARE 

Engineer Maintenance of Way and Construction United Railroads 
of San Francisco 

An apparatus which has proved to be a very valuable 
addition to our engineering equipment is an oxy-acety- 
lene outfit which has been in service for sixteen months. 
The principal shop work for which this outfit is used 
is in cutting rails in irregular shapes for built-up frogs, 
crossings, etc., and in cutting irregular shape steel 
plates and building up broken cast-iron gear teeth. 
These are applications where the use of the electric 
welding outfit is not practicable. 

In street work the oxy-acetylene is employed only 
where the electric welding outfit cannot be used, in 
work such as building up depressions and cuts in cable 
tracks where power is not accessible, and where there 
is cutting of rails or other material. All cutting is 
done by the oxy-acetylene outfit. There are a great 
many old cable tracks where the conduits were filled in 
many years ago and electric rails installed, leaving the 
yokes under the pavement. These yokes from time to 
time stick up in places where the pavement has worn 
down, and it is necessary to have them removed. In- 
stead of sawing them off the oxy-acetylene apparatus is 
used to cut off the ends. 

Where there are electric lines crossing the cable 
lines, the slot tends to close up on account of expansion 
in the heavy electric rails. Heretofore it has been 
necessary first to take out the pavement in order to cut 
off the rail at the arm of the crossing, and then to 
shove back the crossing in order to open up the slot. 
Instead of the above process we now cut a thin strip 
off one side of the slot rail, as shown in an accompany- 
ing illustration. This has been done on a heavy man- 
ganese double crossing, making a cut of 46 ft. at a 
cost of $19. If the slot had been widened in the usual 
manner by taking up the crossing and forcing it back 
into position, the cost would have been approximately 
$150 to accomplish the same result. The yokes men- 
tioned above and also the rails were cut off at about 




WIDENING CABLE SLOT IN SAN FRANCISCO WITH OXY-ACETY- 
LENE FLAME 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



109 




CUTTING RAILS IN IRREGULAR SHAPES WITH OXY- ACETYLENE 

FLAME 

one-half what the work would have cost if done in the 
usual way with hacksaws. 

When breaking in an operator at first, we procured 
the assistance of an expert employed by the sellers of 
the apparatus. It was necessary to call upon him re- 
peatedly for the first six or eight months, as consider- 
able trouble was experienced with the apparatus such 
as leaks, dirt in torch and valves, torch getting out of 
order, etc. At times, the trouble was a serious delay 
to the work. Now when a new operator is being used 
in the welding work he is kept continually in close touch 
with the foreman and expert, and gradually obtains the 
knowledge necessary to eliminate these difficulties and 
delays. 



Reinforcing Tubular Poles Internally 

BY S. L. FOSTER 

Chief Electrician United Railroads of San Francisco 

Of the various types of poles, tubular steel ones are 
generally admitted to be preferable for side-pole trolley 
work in urban districts. They are equally strong in all 
directions, are as unobtrusive as possible, can be kept 
painted cheaply, and are easily repaired when broken, 
etc. Situations are met with, however, where it is de- 
sirable to have greater strength without increasing the 



I-beam shape. There is at once, then, presented a prob- 
lem in higher mathematics to solve, namely, to design 
an I-beam section of minimum weight and maximum 
moment of inertia to go inside a given circle. Even 
that does not settle the matter, for, with a three-section 
tapering pole, a tapering I-beam is called for which in 
the present state of the art cannot be produced in a roll- 
ing mill except possibly in the shape of an expanded 
web-beam. 

Reinforcing has been done in some cases in a rough 
and ready way by inserting a piece of old girder or 
T-rail large enough to fill the lowest section of the pole. 
An objection to this method is that it increases the 
strength of the lowest section only, the pole being left 
unsymmetrically strong and as liable to fail at the first 
or second joint insertion as before the rail was added. 
Another way has been to use a rail only large enough 
to fill the top section of the tubular pole but equal in 
length to the full length of the pole. This plan is bet- 
ter, but, while increasing the strength of the top section 
to a reasonable limit, it does not increase that of the 
other sections proportionally nor as much as was pos- 
sible and the pole is still unsymmetrically strong. 

The United Railroads of San Francisco solved this 
problem in an unusual way along I-beam lines many 
years ago. They devised and constructed an economi- 
cally built beam of moment of inertia larger than that 
of the pole, made it tapering and used condemned scrap 
metal for the purpose. By the addition of 151 per cent 
of metal at an increased cost of 50 per cent a pole is 
produced whose strength is 126 per cent greater than 
before without any increase in external diameter or 
change in external appearance. This result is accom- 
plished by building a beam of 38 lb. per yard slot rail 
or, more correctly speaking, slot angle steel rejected as 
practically unsaleable from old cable railway lines that 
had been rebuilt as electric. The construction in the 
cuts show how four of these angles are used for the 
bottom section of the pole, three for the middle and 
two for the top section. The angles are riveted to- 
gether and distorted a little by forging at the two steps 
in the number of shapes corresponding to the joint in- 
sertions in the pole. This provides a symmetrically 
strong pole that has been used as standard for all un- 
usual strains up to 5000 lb. For 10,000 lb. and 15,000 
lb. corner feeder-cable strains special box-girder poles 
are used. 

After this built beam is inserted in the pole, the 




LOWER, MIDDLE AND TOP SECTIONS OF STANDARD PIPE POLE OF 8-IN. 7-IN. AND 6-IN. DIAMETERS, REINFORCED WITH FOUR, THREE 

AND TWO SLOT ANGLES RESPECTIVELY 



size of the pole or detracting from its slender appear- 
ance. Guying or external strengthening not being ap- 
proved, there is nothing left but increasing the strength 
by adding the reinforcing inside the pole before it is set. 
The ideal design for this internal reinforcing is an 



voids between beam and tubular envelope are filled with 
Portland cement concrete to fix the beam permanently 
in the pole and to protect all the metal surfaces inside 
from corrosion. 

The result is what is called a 'filled" pole that has its 



110 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



maximum strength along a line through the web of the 
built beam. The concrete used inside the pole, beside 
serving to preserve the iron from oxidation, adds 
strength to the compression side of the "shape" and 
gives stiffness to the whole. 

The standard size of pole so filled locally and used for 
heavy dead-ends, curve pull-off strains, feeder turns, 
guy poles, etc., is a 30-ft. 6-in., 7-in., 8-in. standard pipe 
pole. The moment of inertia of the unfilled pole is 71.98 
and of the built beam alone 90.53. Such a pole unfilled 
is good for about a 1045 lb. pull at a point 24 ft. from 
the 6-ft. setting with a fiber strain of 18,000 lb. per 
square inch, or a factor of safety of about three. Filled 
with the built beam described it is good for a safe load 
of 2400 lb. (without considering the strength added by 
the concrete) — an increased strength from the presence 
of the beam of 126 per cent. One corner pole so filled 
was unavoidably loaded for some time with feeder cables 
to 5900 lb. without failure. 

The unfilled pole formerly cost, at 3.15 cents per 
pound, $26. The beam filling cost in 1916 in place 
$13.17, or 51V2 per cent additional. To-day such a pole 
unfilled will cost more nearly 4V 2 cents per pound, or 
$37. 

The original pole weighs 825 lb., the beam 1250 lb. 
and the completed pole with concrete and all, 3100 lb. 

This innocent looking 6-in., 7-in., 8-in. filled pole is 
the sort of a pole that defies wild automobiles and auto- 
trucks. Heavy runaway, double-truck passenger cars 
also have so far come out second best after colliding 
with one of them. Altogether the idea has proved a 
most excellent one for furthering the construction and 
maintenance of permanent, sturdy, guyless urban over- 
head trolley lines. There are several hundred of these 
in service, and none has ever failed, though many of 
them have been in continuous service for the past nine- 
teen years at the ferry terminus. 

This slot rail-beam idea is also applicable, and has 
been utilized locally in strengthening several other sizes 
of tubular poles as, for example, 4-in., 5-in., 6-in. and 

5- in., 6-in., 7-in. standard pipe and 6-in., 7-in., 8-in. 
extra strong pipe in times of shortage of suitable sizes 
in stock and insufficient time available for delivery from 
the Eastern factories. 

Where cheap slot rail is not procurable from which 
to construct built beams for such internal reinforcing, 
another, though much more expensive way of doing this 
strengthening, would be to construct a three-joint tubu- 
lar pole of smaller diameters especially designed to fit 
inside the 6-in., 7-in., 8-in. pole as closely as possible — 
in this case one of "standard" or "extra strong" 5-in., 

6- in., 7-in. pipe — and fill the annular space between the 
two poles with a mixture of cement and sand. 

Such a pole for internal use and made of extra strong 
pipe (double extra strong would be too large) would 
weigh 16 per cent less than the slot rail beam, would 
cost (at 4.5 cents per pound for pole filling only) 359 
per cent more than the beam filling in place, and would 
make the combination pole only 82 per cent as strong as 
the slot rail beam makes it. It would, however, have 
the advantage of being equally resistant in whichever 
direction the strain might be applied, whereas the 
beam-filled pole has only one line of maximum strength, 
namely, parallel to the web of the built beam. 

The 6-in., 7-in., 8-in. extra strong and the double 
extra strong pipe poles cost to-day respectively 14 and 
63 per cent more than the built beam filled pole and 
have but 65 and 99.7 per cent as large moment of inertia 
respectively. 

From its uniqueness of design and smallness of cost 
the United Railroads idea seems to offer the most ef- 
ficient method of internal reinforcing to date and the 



cheapest pole for the heavy unidirectional or resultant 
pulls to be anticipated. Obviously the composite pole 
is most resistant when the side by side angles in the 
middle section are in tension. 

As the coefficients of expansion of cement and iron are 
nearly the same, and as cement exerts an inhibitive 
action on the oxidation of iron there has been no tend- 
ency for the outer tubular envelop to be strained or 
ruptured by internal stresses of expansion. 



New Type of Barometric Condenser 

The illustrations shown herewith are of the Beyer 
barometric condenser which has been placed on the 
market recently by the Ingersoll-Rand Company. 

It is of the counter-current type, in which air and 
cooling water flow in opposite directions. The steam 
inlet is at the bottom of the condensing vessel, the 
water inlet above and the air removal opening at the 
top. The sheets of cooling water overflowing the pool 
at the inlet point meet the entering steam. The two are 
brought into intimate contact by conical baffle plates 
assisting the water to absorb to its full capacity the 
latent heat of the steam. The non-condensable air lib- 
erated in the condensing action rises through the fall- 
ing water to the removal point at the top, being cooled 
to practically the temperature of the incoming water. 
Ample opportunity is given for the removal of the air 
content of the water before it mixes with the steam. 
This not only facilitates the mixing process but per- 
mits the removal of air and vapor at a comparatively 
low temperature, a distinct advantage, as the reduced 
volume saves in vacuum pumpage horsepower. 

The steam inlet is of large diameter to secure low 
velocity, and is hooded to discharge the steam into the 
center of the condensing vessel. The air removal open- 
ing is also of ample area and is protected by a self- 
draining baffle and trap. This, it is said, positively 




NEW TYPE OF BAROMETRIC CONDENSER 



July 15, 1916 1 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 111 




CONCRETING TRACK— VIEW OF OX Y- ACETYLENE WELD BOND CONCRETING TRACK — TRACK BLOCKED UP FOR CONCRETINC 



prevents water being carried over into the vacuum 
pump. 

The hot waste water is discharged through the self- 
draining tail pipe. This pipe straddles the hot well 
and rigidly supports the condenser. 



Concreting Track in Fort Smith, Ark. 

Decreased track construction costs and increased effi- 
ciency have been obtained by the track department of 
the Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, 
Ark., through the introduction of labor-saving con- 
crete-handling equipment. The particular piece of 
track construction on which this equipment was used 
was 3 miles long. This track was built with 6-in.. 
72-lb. plain girder rails laid on Carnegie steel ties 
placed at 5-ft. intervals, with inverted sections of 60-lb. 
standard-section rails spaced at 2 : 2-ft. centers with the 
Carnegie ties. This structure is supported on a con- 
crete foundation extending 12 in. below the base of the 
rails, and the track subgrade is drained with 6-in. 
jointless vitrified tile laid along the track center line. 
A 60-lb. standard-section rail was removed from the 
old track and this was cut into tie lengths with an oxy- 
acetylene cutting torch and drilled for rail clips in the 
repair shops of the company. 

After the track structure was completely assembled 
it was jacked up to surface, lined and blocked in posi- 
tion on brick piers placed midway between the ties. 
The manner of blocking is shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations. During the assembling of the 
track structure, concrete material, consisting of sand 
purchased from a local company and crushed stone ob- 
tained from a local quarry and crushed at the railway 
company's plant, was delivered beside the track trench. 
The sand was delivered by teams to a single pile at 
one end of each block. The crushed stone was deliv- 



ered on flat cars, from which it was wheeled in wheel- 
barrows across a short platform to the mixer. The 
sand was also wheeled to the mixer over a narrow in- 
cline leading from the street pavement to a platform 
on the charging side of the mixer. Cement was deliv- 
ered to the concrete mixer as it was required and a 
1:3:5 mixture was used in the track foundation. 

The assembled concrete-mixing outfit is shown in 
one of the accompanying illustrations. It consists of 
a Koehring l^-yd. batch mixer operated by a 15-hp. 
continuous-current General Electric motor, and a 1-yd. 
dump car which is moved the length of the block by 
cable attached to a winch car which is placed at the 
other end of the block from that occupied by the con- 
crete mixer. 

Special features of the concrete-mixing plant are the 
1-yd. dump car and the winch car, which moves the 
dump car back and forth over the track being con- 
creted. The dump car is placed beside the mixer where 
it is loaded with two ^-yd. batches. Upon signal to 
the operator of the winch car at the opposite end of 
the block the dump car is moved to the point where the 
concrete is to be deposited in the track. The design of 
the dump car is unusual in that it consists of a steel 
frame supporting the steel body, mounted on two pairs 
of wheels. The concrete is dumped at right angles to 
the track by the car operator, and the concrete is spread 
to the level of the tops of the ties by one of the hinged 
sections of the drop bottom. 

The movement of the car along the track is quite 
rapid, and the round trips between the mixer and the 
point where the concrete is dumped are practically con- 
tinuous. As soon as the car reaches the desired spot 
the operator gives the signal for the return trip and 
dumps the car simultaneously. In other words, at the 
time the car is dumped the winch operator reverses 
the cable and the car is returned to the mixer. In so 




CONCRETING TRACK — DUMPING THE CONCRETE; CONCRETE MIXING PLANT; VIEW OF WINCH CAR 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 




CONCRETING TRACK — BONDING RAILS WITH OXY-ACETYLENE 

doing the concrete is spread along the center of the 
track, and the only delay in the operation is that neces- 
sary for the car to receive the two batches of mixed con- 
crete. Including the foreman, the full crew necessary 
with this concrete mixing and placing plant comprises 
eighteen men. The concrete is distributed by two men 
and the rest of the crew is engaged in delivering 
crushed stone, sand and cement to the mixer and the 
mixer operating crew. An average of 115 cu. yd. of 
concrete per ten-hour day is the capacity of this plant 
when it is operated continuously. 

After the concrete foundation had set the Ohio Brass 
Company's oxy-acetylene welded bonds were installed. 
One of the accompanying illustrations shows the op- 
erator in the act of welding one of these bonds. Fol- 
lowing this a mortar cushion 1 in. thick and of a 1:9 
mixture was spread over the foundation and there- 
after a vitrified brick pavement was laid and grout- 
filled as promptly as possible. Special brick were not 
employed to form the wheel flangeways, but the brick 
were laid with a considerable crown between the rails, 
and the courses adjoining the rail were set under the 
head. 



New Types of Lightning Arresters 

The first illustrations shown herewith are of the con- 
denser type of d.c. lightning arrester, designated K-3, 
which has recently been placed on the market by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. This 
arrester was designed for use on voltages from 100 to 
1500 either in d.c. generating stations or on railway 
equipment. It is made in two forms, one for car and 
station service, the other for line mounting. The first 

consists of a con- 
denser in parallel 
with a resistor and 
both in series with 
a spark gap between 
line and ground. 
The second consists 
of the condenser 
alone without series 
gap or shunt resist- 
ance. Thecondenser 
is of the flatplate form, but has been modified and im- 
proved from the ordinary type by the use of a new insu- 
lating wax of much higher dielectric strength than 
paraffin. For the protection of station apparatus and 




CONDENSER-TYPE LIGHTNING ARRESTER 
READY FOR MOUNTING 




CONDENSER-TYPE LIGHT- 
NING ARRESTER WITH 
COVER REMOVED 



Spork Ga/> 



railway equipments up to 1500 volts, a condenser of 1 
mf. capacity is used, while for line mounting the capacity 

is only 0.3 mf. 

In the first form, the resistance in parallel with the 
condenser is high, and serves to keep the condenser 
discharged so that its full 
capacity may eb always 
available. The spark 
gap, which is adjusta- -*» 
ble, can be set very 
close, thus making the ar- 
rester extremely sensitive. 
It can be even short-circuited 
without causing harm, as 
the resistance of the con- 
denser shunt is high enough 
to stand the line voltage 
without wasting any appre- 
ciable amount of power. The 
spark gap provides a means 
of noting the discharge 
of the arrester by plac- 
ing a test paper in the gap. 

In the line arrester without gap or resistance the 
condenser is charged up to line voltage, but having no 
gap is ready to discharge all static formed at any volt- 
age. A resistance is not necessary in this form of 
arrester. 

Both forms of arrester are mounted in rectangular 
Condenser cast-iron boxes 

- with waterproof 

covers. The 
spark-gap cham- 
ber is accessible 
by removing a 
small separate 
cover. They are 
easily mounted 
underneath or on 
the roof of a car and in any position on a wall or pole. 

Another type of arrester for use on a.c. circuits of 
any commercial frequency and on voltages from 1000 to 
2500 and of a wide range of capacity is the Type CR 
lightning arrester illustrated herewith. This arrester 
is for pole mounting and is 
similar in many respects to 
the Type C arrester, which 
consists of six spark gaps 
between knurled non- 
arcing metal cylinders, 
but which has no re- 
sistance in series with 
the gaps. The new 
Type CR arrester, however, 
consists of four knurled, non- 
arcing metal cylinders mount- 
ed on a porcelain base with a 
series resistor held by fuse 
clips, the whole being mounted 
in a cast-iron box. The ar- 
rester unit is mounted on the 
inside front cover of the box so 
that it is automatically disconnected 
from the circuit when the box is 
opened. This safety-first feature 
eliminates all danger of accidental LIGHTNING arrester 
shocks to linemen when making in- with resistor, 
spections and repairs. Like the 
Type C unit, the Type CR arrester is designed par- 
ticularly for the protection of distributing trans- 
formers, and is unlimited in application, the maker 
points out. 



'-AAA/WAA^ 

Resistor 



DIAGRAM OF CONDENSER-TYPE LIGHT- 
NING ARRESTER CONNECTIONS 




July 15, 1916J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



113 



NEWS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



CLEVELAND INTERESTS TAKE OVER THE 
NICKEL PLATE 
Electrification Considered Likely, Although Nothing Definite 
Has Been Announced — Relation of Road to 
Present Lines Entering the City 

0. P. and M. J. Van Sweringen, Cleveland, and their asso- 
ciates who purchased the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
(Nickel Plate) Railroad, have made no definite statement 
regarding the reported electrification of the road, but the 
election of directors to take the place of the New York 
Central Railroad representatives on the board would indi- 
cate that electric railways in and about Cleveland will be 
interested in the developments. J. R. Nutt, in addition to his 
connection with the Citizens Savings & Trust Company, 
Cleveland, is a member of the board of directors and treas- 
urer of the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, 
which enters Cleveland from the south. E. W. Moore is 
president of the Lake Shore Electric Railway, which enters 
Cleveland from the West, and is also vice-president of the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company. F. E. Myers, 
Ashland, Ohio, is president of the Cleveland, Southwestern 
& Columbus Railway, which enters the city from the south- 
west. The other directors are 0. P. Van Sweringen, M. J. 
Van Sweringen, Warren S. Hayden, M. B. Johnson and 
Charles L. Bradley, all of Cleveland; E. R. Tinker, vice- 
president of the Chase National Bank, New York; G. M-P. 
Murphy, vice-president of the Guaranty Trust Company, 
New York; William H. Canniff, president of the company, 
and Chauncey M. Depew. 

As stated previously no announcement has been made by 
those interested as to whether any part of the Nickel Plate 
road is to be electrified, but rumors have been plentiful. 
One of them is that the road will be electrified east of 
Cleveland as far as Painesville and west as far as Lorain, 
and that it will ultimately carry the interurban cars from 
both east and west to the terminal station which the Cleve- 
land & Youngstown Railway, also a Van Sweringen proposi- 
tion, is to construct on Ontario Street, near the Public 
Square. The Cleveland & Youngstown Railway has already 
been built on the hill southeast of the main part of the city 
and through a growing residence district. The Nickel Plate 
is so situated that it could be utilized to carry cars of the 
Cleveland & Youngstown Railway to the downtown terminal 
without the inconvenience of running on any city streets. 
While the Cleveland & Youngstown Railway has the right 
to operate by steam power under its charter it is believed 
that electricity will be used. 

The general opinion is that the Van Sweringen interests 
purchased control of the Nickel Plate primarily to assist 
them to complete their plans for a terminal in Cleveland. 
As has already been stated in the Electric Railway 
Journal, they have a franchise for a freight yard in the 
valley south of the location for the passenger terminal and 
it has been their intention to build a system of rapid transit 
tracks along Kingsbury run, where they own the land, for 
the purpose of bringing in both steam and electric roads 
to the freight and passenger terminals. The Erie, the 
Wheeling & Lake Erie and the Baltimore & Ohio roads 
could all use these terminals, but whatever is done it is 
not expected that this will interfere with plans for a new 
passenger station on the lake front that will be used by 
the New York Central, Pennsylvania and Big Four roads. 

The original plans of bringing the interurban electric rail- 
ways into the terminal presented some difficult problems 
so far as those operating east and west were concerned, 
but the Nickel Plate is in position to bring them in very 
conveniently and it is felt that this is a part of the general 
terminal idea. These roads are the Cleveland, Painesville & 
Eastern and the Cleveland & Eastern on the east and the 
Lake Shore Electric and the Cleveland, Southwestern & 
Columbus on the west. The Northern Ohio Traction & 
Light Company could come in over the Kingsbury run route 



from the south. All the roads would have the advantage 
of making fast time through the city. 

The Van Sweringens are operating extensively in real 
estate on what is known as the heights to the southeast 
of the city, through which the original rapid transit line 
runs, although it has not been completed to any downtown 
point. It is said that these interests will be extended to the 
Chagrin Valley, where many of Cleveland's wealthy families 
now reside. This will necessitate the extension of the road 
to that section, but whether it is the intention of the owners 
to extend the Cleveland & Youngstown line to Youngstown 
or any point east of the Van Sweringen real estate hold- 
ings is not yet clear. 

Efforts made in New York to secure confirmation of the 
rumor in regard to the electrification of the road were un- 
availing. At the office of Mr. Murphy in New York his 
secretary said that Mr. Murphy's election to the board was 
so recent that he was not prepared to discuss the future 
of the road at this time. Mr. Tinker, another director, who 
is connected with the Chase National Bank, said that there 
,was no present authority for the statement that the road 
would be electrified. The matter of improvements and the 
future plans had not been definitely decided and any state- 
ment in regard to the company would probably be made 
public through the headquarters in Cleveland. 

The announcement of the sale of the road as made in 
New York on July 8 was as follows: 

"The New York Central Railroad Company on July 7 sold 
all of the stock owned by it in the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad Company to Cleveland interests repre- 
sented by 0. P. and M. J. Van Sweringen for $8,500,000, of 
which $2,000,000 has been paid in cash and $6,500,000 in 
notes secured by pledge of the stock. 

"Ten notes of $650,000 each were given. The first note is 
payable in five years and the others thereafter at intervals 
of one year each. The notes bear interest at 4 per cent for 
the first five years and 5 per cent thereafter. 

"The board of directors representing the New York Cen- 
tral interests have resigned and the new owners have elected 
successors representing their interests. 

"The Nickel Plate road was organized in 1881 and opera- 
tion of the road was begun in October of the following 
year. It was a period of competitive railroad building and 
at about the same time that the Nickel Plate was started 
the West Shore was built to parallel the New York Cen- 
tral lines from New York to Buffalo, where it was to con- 
nect with the new road to run from Buffalo to Chicago and 
St. Louis in competition with both the Lake Shore and the 
'Big Four.' " 



STRIKE RESULTS IN EFFORT TO REMOVE 
RECEIVER 

Frank Bret Thorn and Louis Wiard of the New York 
State Industrial Commission at Albany, who have been 
investigating the strike of platform men on the Buffalo 
Southern Railway have threatened to conduct an official in- 
quiry into the trouble by a court action unless a settlement 
is reached between representatives of the strikers and Na- 
than A Bundy, receiver and general manager. 

An action has been brought against Nathan A. Bundy 
as receiver of the company by Charles M. Gaffney, attor- 
ney for Henry C. Lein, West Seneca, and other stockhold- 
ers in the line, ordering him to show cause why he should 
not be removed as receiver of the road. The proceedings 
are brought as a means of ending the strike. At a pre- 
liminary hearing before Justice Marcus in the Supreme 
Court of Erie County, stockholders said the men were will- 
ing to return to work without a wage increase but de- 
manded recognition of the union. The stockholders said 
they had no objection to this. Mr. Bundy said he thought he 
was acting for the best interests of the majority of the stock- 
holders by refusing to renew the union agreement. Hearings 
will be held later on the order to show cause. 



114 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



NEW WAGES PROPOSED AT INDIANAPOLIS 

A new wage scale for increasing the pay of motormen 
and conductors was announced by the Indianapolis Traction 
& Terminal Company, Indianapolis, Ind., on June 6. The ad- 
vance figures approximately 8 per cent, and will increase 
the payroll for the car service men about $100,000 the first 
year. The present rate of wages, as established in 1914 by 
the Public Service Commission of Indiana, acting as an 
arbitration board, ranges from 21 cents an hour for the first 
year of service to 27 cents an hour for trainmen in continu- 
ous service five years and over. The new scale proposed 
for motormen and conductors, in continuous service, is as 
follows: One year or less, 22 cents an hour; one year and 
less than two years, 24 cents an hour; two years and less 
than three years, 25 cents; three years and less than four 
years, 26 cents; four years and less than five years, 27 cents; 
five years and less than six years, 28 cents; six years and 
less than seven years, 29 cents; seven years and over, 30 
cents. 

These rates of pay are to become effective on Jan. 1, 1917, 
but all car service men signing the individual working 
agreement of the company are to receive a bonus of 1 cent 
an hour from July 1 to Nov. 8 (the date of expiration of 
the present working agreement) and a bonus of the differ- 
ence between the old rate and the new wage scale from 
Nov. 8 to Dec. 31, 1916, is to be given. The bonus agree- 
ment attached to the new wage scale agreement presented 
to the employees reads as follows: 

"The Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company will set 
aside and on Dec. 31, 1916, pay to each conductor and mo- 
torman then in its regular service, a bonus of 1 cent for 
each hour worked to Nov. 8, 1916, and thereafter to Jan. 1, 
1917, the difference between the present rate and the new 
rate, which begins at said date; such payment to be made 
only to employees who have complied with the conditions 
prescribed in Sec; (a) below, and to begin as to each em- 
ployee who has so complied at the time specified in Sec. (b) 
below. 

"(a) A motorman or conductor, to be entitled to such 
bonus, shall have signed the working agreement, and shall 
after this time well and truly have opposed and used his 
influence to oppose any strike or attempt to strike, and, in 
the event of a strike, have faithfully reported for duty at 
his usual time and place each day, and operated his car as 
his superior officer directed. 

"(b) For men signing such agreements on or before 
July 8, 1916, such bonus shall begin to accrue on July 1, 
1916, and for those signing after July 8, 1916, and before 
Aug. 1, 1916, it shall begin to accrue at the date of signing. 

"In the case of new employees, entering the service be- 
fore Jan. 1, 1917, the bonus shall begin to accrue at the date 
of signing." 

Robert I. Todd, president of the Indianapolis Traction & 
Terminal Company, made the following statement in con- 
nection with the new wage scale: 

"For more than three months the company has had under 
discussion with its representative motormen and conductors 
the question of a new wage scale. These men were signers 
of the working agreement with car service men, which has 
now been signed by all except about 100 of the car service 
employees, and represented the great majority of the men 
in this class of service. The new scale was proposed by 
them and we have every reason to believe that it will be 
favorably received by all those who are parties to the 
working agreement, and which cannot help but be accept- 
able to all. Outside of the increase in wages provided for, 
there are no changes in the working conditions as provided 
in the individual working agreement with the car service 
men, which has proved so acceptable to the great majority 
of the trainmen. Arbitration is fully provided for." 

Within a few hours of the announcement of the new 
schedule, more than one-half of the car service men had 
signed the individual working contracts, and before July 8 
most of the men had accepted the new scale and a continu- 
ance of the working agreement. The contract gives the 
period of the new wage agreement from Jan. 1, 1917, to 
Dec. 31, 1921. 

In commenting editorially on the new wage scale, the 
Indianapolis Star on July 7 contained the following: 



"The startling increase in wages announced by the street 
railway must be regarded as a very important move for the 
obtainment of settled labor conditions in mdianapolis and 
indirectly for a noteworthy addition to the prosperity of the 
whole city. 

"The naked truth appears to be that the company has 
paid something like $100,000 as an investment for the sake 
of insuring against a strike; and it is perfectly clear that a 
street car strike falls nothing short of a public calamity. 
We are all interested in its prevention. 

"Obviously the ratification or rejection of this proffered 
contract and bonus must now face the ordeal of acceptance 
by the employees. They will have to balance the vague bene- 
fits or losses of the strike weapon against this handsome 
concession in the interest of peace and steady employment 
at higher pay. 

"Every good citizen must join in the hope that the con- 
tract may be speedily ratified. Its importance goes far be- 
yond the immediate circumstances of the case, for it carries 
an earnest of what wise employers may do in the way of 
forestalling strikes through fair and even generous terms of 
wages and working conditions. Riotous agitators some- 
times find in greedy employers their most effective allies." 



COMMISSIONER MAKES PLEA FOR PORTLAND 
COMPANY 

The Public Service Commission of Oregon has recently 
completed an exhaustive investigation into the affairs of the 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Company. Among its 
studies was an appraisal of the property of the commission. 
The conclusions reached on this phase of its study were 
published recently in the Electric Railway Journal. That 
the efforts which the company is making to meet the re- 
quirements of the territory which it serves and the adverse 
conditions under which it is working are appreciated by 
the commission is instanced by remarks made by Thomas 
K. Campbell not speaking formally as a member of the com- 
mission, but telling the results of information gained from a 
three-year study of the situation. Commissioner Campbell 
is quoted by the Portland Journal as follows: 

"The Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, if con- 
ditions do not change for the better, will be compelled in a 
short time to come to the Public Service Commission for 
relief. I hold no brief for the company. I am simply 
stating conditions as they exist. The company is giving 
as good or better, service, than any other similar company 
in the United States. 

"You can ride 18 miles for a nickel and the people of 
Portland have been getting that service for the last year 
or more, furnished to them at a loss by the company. Jitney 
competition is costing the company $1,500 a day, taken from 
the cream of the company's business. Light and power com- 
petition is taking the cream of that classification of the 
company's service out of the downtown district. Twenty 
cents out of every dollar of gross revenue earned by the 
company is paid to the city and county governments for 
bridge tolls, street improvement assessments and similar 
charges. 

"The city either cannot or will not, regulate the jitney 
operation, with the result that the cream of the close-in 
traffic is handled by the jitney, which pays no tolls for 
bridge or street use, and gives no revenue to the city. 

"The result of this is that the company is, and has been 
operating at a loss, even figured on the basis of valuations 
all owed by the commission. The outcome will be, in my 
opinion, that the company will be forced to come to the 
commission for relief. I do not know whether that will 
mean a readjustment of transportation charges by the 
establishment of zone rates, or some other change. That 
is a question for the future, and a serious one. It would 
be a serious step to charge more than 5 cents for street 
car fare from the suburban districts of the city. It would 
mean a serious depreciation of property values outside the 
5-cent zone and great loss to the people who have pur- 
chased property in those districts. 

"I do not want to hazard a statement of what may come 
in the future. I am only stating what appears to me to be 
the facts, from knowledge gained from the investigations 
that have just been concluded." 



July 15, T?16| 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



115 



COST OF DUAL SYSTEM IN NEW YORK WILL 
EXCEED ESTIMATES 

The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has sent to the Mayor and the Board of Esti- 
mate of New York City a report prepared by Commissioner 
Whitney and Chief of Rapid Transit Harkness, which shows 
that the total cost of city-owned lines in the dual system 
will exceed by some $22,000 000 the cost as estimated in 
March, 1913, when the dual system contracts were signed. 
The appropriations made in March, 1913, indicated a total 
cost of municipal lines to be operated by the Interborough 
at $101,602,000, to which the company was to contribute 
$58,000,000. The estimates as of March 1, 1916, however, 
put the total cost at $125,902,000, of which more than $10,- 
271,000 is estimated. It is pointed out, however, that the 
actual construction work is $1,309,000 less than the original 
estimate and it is expected that the resale of surplus prop- 
erty will show a balance in favor of the city of over $500,000. 
The interest charges, however, have run way ahead of the 
original estimates partly because interest was not estimated 
for the full period and because work could not be completed 
in the time anticipated. The excess will amount to some 
$6,250,000. The additional amount required for the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company municipal lines will be in 
the neighborhood of $4,350,000. 

In the case of contract No. 4 for the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit system, the total cost of municipal lines was put at 
$114 002,000, of which the company was to contribute only 
$13,500,000. The construction cost for these lines will prob- 
ably exceed the estimated cost by $8,298,000 and the item of 
excess interest will be $4,109,000 and excess real estate cost 
$5,128,000. It is pointed out in the report that the excess 
cost is due largely to the increased prices of material and 
labor since the European war. 

Including the amount to be expended while third-track- 
ing the Second, Third and Ninth Avenue lines and building 
certain extensions, the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany was to expend some $47,000,000 and a similar amount 
was to be supplied by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, making a grand total, as estimated in March, 1913, 
of some $330,000,000. It is said now that if the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company and Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Company have kept within their original estimates for 
company-owned lines, the grand total of the cost of the 
dual system will still be in excess $350,000,000. 



HEARINGS ON PROPOSED NORFOLK FRANCHISE 

The Councils of Norfolk, Va., met on July 6 as a com- 
mittee of the whole to consider the proposed franchise to 
the Virginia Railway & Power Company. Several persons 
spoke in opposition to the franchises as they now stand. 
The principal objections were to the abrogation of the 
2% -cent labor tickets, the fact that tickets are not to be 
sold on the cars for three years, the placing of electric 
lighting rates in the franchise, the clause limiting the opera- 
tion of another company over the tracks of this company 
to 500 yards, the clause providing for conditions under 
which extensions of track into new territory should be made 
and the provisions allowing the city to receive taxes on total 
gross earnings, both in the county and the city. It was also 
urged that a provision be inserted in the franchise to regu- 
late the issuance of securities. The question of a reduction 
in gas rates is also involved, and the committee appointed 
some time ago to go into this matter will meet some time 
next week. The paragraph regarding extensions of track, 
to which objection is made, is in substance as follows: 

"That the parties desiring such extension of lines shall 
guarantee that the earnings thereof shall be sufficient to 
pay the operating expenses through the term of the fran- 
chise under which it is built and shall agree to pay to the 
company annually the difference between the revenue and 
the operating expenses, if said extension does not earn its 
expenses. It is further provided that in the event it shall 
be necessary to construct a bridge or viaduct or to make 
a fill or cut in excess of 3 ft. in depth, the parties desiring 
the extension shall agree to guarantee the operating ex- 
penses and the interest at the rate of 6 per cent on the cost 
of such bridge, viaduct, fill or cut. The parties desiring 



the extension are required to execute a bond to make good 
their guarantee." 

A resolution was finally passed appropriating $2,500 with 
which to employ an expert to advise Councils on all matters 
involved in the franchises. 



POWER AND NEW CAR QUESTIONS CONSIDERED 
AT CLEVELAND 

At a meeting of the Council committee on street railways 
at Cleveland on July 10, Commissioner of Light and Heat 
Davis urged that the municipal electric plant be extended 
sufficiently to furnish the additional power needed by the 
Cleveland Electric Railway. J. J. Stanley, president of the 
railway, and the engineers of the company expressed the 
opinion that it would be more economical to spend $250,000 
for enlarging the company's Cedar Avenue power plant. 
Mr. Davis had estimated that it would require an expendi- 
ture of $1,750,000 to enlarge the municipal plant to take care 
of this business. He insisted that the city be allowed to 
quote a rate to the company based upon the switchboard 
cost. Mr. Stanley said the additional power would be needed 
within six months and it will be impossible to make the 
necessary addition to the municipal plant within that time. 

The committee authorized the purchase of fifty additional 
trail cars. Half of them will be made in the railway's own 
shops and the others are to be made by a private company. 
They will cost about $3,000 each. Mayor Harry L. Davis 
suggested that the company make all of its own cars, but 
Engineer Joseph Alexander stated that the capacity of the 
shops was not sufficient to make deliveries in time, as the 
cars were needed at once. 

At a conference on the East Cleveland franchise matter 
on July 5, A. L. Graham, director of public service of that 
suburb, demanded three-minute service to Windermere and 
six-minute service to points beyond on both Euclid and 
Hayden Avenues. President Stanley agreed with him, but 
Street Railway Commissioner Sanders said that four- and 
eight-minute service, the same as at present, would be the 
best that could be done. It is improbable that East Cleve- 
land will agree to a 5-cent fare without an improvement 
in the service. 



QUEENS LINES TO OPEN IN DECEMBER 

Dec. 15 next has been set by the Public Service Commis- 
sion for the First District of New York as the probable 
date for the opening of the new Queens rapid transit lines, 
consisting of two elevated routes to be jointly operated by 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation. One line terminates 
at Ditmars Avenue, Astoria, and the other at Alburtis 
Avenue in Corona. They will furnish rapid transit service 
to the whole northern section of Queens Borough. The de- 
cision to open the Queens lines on Dec. 15 was made at a 
conference held on July 5 at the offices of the commission, 
and attended by members of the commission, Mayor 
Mitchel and members of the transit committee of the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment, and officers and other rep- 
resentatives of the Chamber of Commerce of the Borough 
of Queens. Frank Hedley, vice-president and general man- 
ager of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, was one 
of the conferees. It was also agreed at the conference that 
it may be possible to open the extension of the Queens- 
boro subway from the Hunter's Point Avenue station, its 
present eastern terminus, through to the Queensboro Bridge 
Plaza station by Nov. 1 next. It was also stated that the 
connection between the Queensboro subway and the Grand 
Central station will be ready for use by the end of August. 
This latter fact means that the walk of some 900 ft. now 
necessary between the Grand Central subway station at 
Forty-second Street and Park Avenue and the present west- 
ern terminus of the Queensboro subway between Lexing- 
ton and Third Avenues on Forty-second Street will be obvi- 
ated. It was pointed out at the conference that it might 
have been possible to open the Queens lines this fall except 
for the delays arising through the difficulty of obtaining 
various materials both for construction and equipment. 
These delays have largely been due to the freight embargo 
and shipping difficulties caused by the European war. 



116 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



Strike Declared in El Paso. — The trainmen in the employ 
of the El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway, which operates in 
El Paso and in Juarez, Tex., went on strike on June 29. 
The men are demanding higher wages, with shorter hours 
and other changes in conditions under which they work. 

Strike in Portland. — Conductors, motormen and linemen to 
the number of 350 employed by the Cumberland County 
Power & Light Company, Portland, Me., went on strike on 
July 12. The strike was precipitated by the company ignor- 
ing a written demand for the reinstatement of men who had 
been discharged for cause. 

Companies Must Pay for Ludlow Viaduct, Cincinnati. — 
The Court of Appeals at Cincinnati, Ohio, has affirmed the 
decisions of the lower courts to the effect that the Cincinnati 
Traction Company and the Cincinnati Street Railway must 
pay to the city of Cincinnati $61,220 as their portion of the 
cost of the Ludlow Avenue viaduct. 

United Railroads' Injunction Hearing Postponed. — The 
hearing on the application of the United Railroads for a 
permanent injunction to prevent the city of San Francisco 
from laying car tracks of the municipal line on Market 
Street at Van Ness Avenue has been postponed, and it is 
expected that either Aug. 15 or Aug. 22 will be set by 
Judge Van Fleet as the date of the hearing. 

Progress of Trenton Arbitration. — Clifton Reeves, the 
third arbitrator selected by the Trenton & Mercer County 
Traction Corporation, Trenton, N. J., and the union of em- 
ployees, has announced that all cases of the men discharged 
by the company for alleged sniping of fares will be settled 
within a few days and that he will publicly announce the 
decision. On July 12 it was said that nearly all of the 
testimony was in and that only a few details were to be 
completed before the result is known. 

Electrification of Short Pennsylvania Line Reported Pro- 
posed. — The Quakertown & Delaware River Railroad, run- 
ning from Quakertown to Riegelsville and passing through 
the towns of Springtown, Richlandtown, Pleasant Valley, 
Durham, Durham Furnace, Wittee, Passer and Pullen, Pa., 
for a distance of 15 miles, has been sold at auction to John 
M. Buckland, Allentown. The railroad has a 60-ft. right-of- 
way all along its route. Gasoline cars have been in use on 
the road, but it is reported that the line will now be elec- 
trified. 

Auto Companies Protest Against Proposed Railways. — 

Protests were heard on July 11 by the Pennsylvania Public 
Service Commission against the incorporation of the 
Womelsdorf, Richland & Myerstown Street Railway and the 
Newmanstown & Sheridan Street Railway, which seek to 
operate in Berks and Lebanon Counties in territory cov- 
ered by certain auto bus companies. The auto companies 
allege that the granting of the franchises will injure their 
business and fail to improve public service in the territory 
named. 

West Virginia Company to Purchase Power. — The 

Charleston (W. Va.) Interurban Railroad has closed a con- 
tract under which the Virginian Power Company will fur- 
nish it power for a period of ten years, amounting to 
about 15,000 kw.-hr. per day. This will add a load of about 
1000 kw. at the Virginian Power Company's central station 
at Cabin Creek Junction, W. Va. The railway operates 38 
miles of line, including interurban lines to St. Albans and 
Cabin Creek Junction, where the power company's plant is 
located. 

Toledo Franchise Plan Nearly Completed. — Henry L. Do- 
herty was asked the latter part of the week ended July 8 to 
meet with Mayor Milroy's committee on July 12 and 13 to 
consider the final details of the community plan. Three 
plans have been prepared so far by Judge Ralph D. Emery 
in collaboration with Chairman Johnsson Thurston of the 
committee, Secretary E. P. Usher and Mr. Doherty. At a 
meeting on July 7 these plans were discussed by the full 
committee and it was then believed that matters were in 
such shape that the final detail could be taken up during the 
week ended July 15. 

40,000 Men in Atlanta Preparedness Parade. — Practically 
every man that the Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Atlanta, Ga., could spare marched in the preparedness 
parade at Atlanta on July 4. In all about 1000 men from 
the company participated. Technical societies of Atlanta 



composed one section of the parade with more than 200 
men participating, including electrical, chemical, civil and 
architectural engineers. More than 100 employees of elec- 
trical dealers and contractors also took part. The number 
in the Atlanta parade approximated 40,000. It is said 
l,o have been the largest preparedness parade in the South. 

United Railroads Offers $5,000 Reward for Dynamiters. 
— Jesse W. Lilienthal, president of the United Railroads, 
San Francisco, Cal., has announced that a reward of $5,000 
will be paid for information leading to the arrest and con- 
viction of the person who dynamited two towers on the line 
which brings power to San Francisco for operating the 
United Railroads. About two weeks ago two towers on 
the Sierra & San Francisco transmission line which 
traverses San Mateo County were dynamited during the 
night. The damage was promptly discovered and the steam 
auxiliary stand-by station in San Francisco was started up 
in time to prevent any interruption to service in San Fran- 
cisco. 

Philadelphia Transit Appropriation Bills Signed. — Mayor 
Smith of Philadelphia, Pa., has signed the loan appropria- 
tion ordinances for the rapid transit subway and elevated 
roads and also the ordinances for the letting of contracts 
for building the new transportation facilities. The Mayor 
said that work on the Broad Street subway and the Frank- 
ford elevated will be continued, but that there might be 
some delay in beginning work on any other section of the 
system. A conference of the representatives of the city on 
the board of directors of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company and of the officers of the company will be called 
to discuss further the negotiations for the leasing by that 
company of the new lines as they are constructed. 

Reasons for Non-Construction Discussed in Seattle. — To 
discuss ways and means of effectively breaking the existing 
deadlock between the city of Seattle, Wash., and the Puget 
Sound Traction, Light & Power Company over the issue of 
construction of new lines in districts where additional track- 
age is needed, a general city meeting was called for July 
17 by all civic improvement clubs of the city. A. W. Leonard, 
president of the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Com- 
pany, has offered committees from the various civic im- 
provement clubs free access to the corporation's records to 
prove that the earnings of the company are unremuneratvye 
under the unregulated jitney transportation, and that the 
earnings do not warrant further expenditure of capital. The 
company has placed before the committees the fiat issue of 
more street car lines under regulation of jitney traffic, or a 
continuance of the no-building policy of the company under 
the present unrestricted and unregulated operation of com- 
peting jitney lines. 



PROGRAMS OF ASSOCIATION MEETINGS 



New England Street Railway Club 

The outing committee of the New England Street Rail- 
way Club decided to hold the annual ladies' day at Lake 
Pearl, Wrentham, Mass., one of the most beautiful spots 
in New England, on July 14. The park covers 25 acres of 
splendid pine groves, hills and valleys and borders a lake 
2 miles in length with picturesque bays and inlets, and 
dotted with wooded islands. Every opportunity was pre- 
sented for one of the most satisfactory outings in the his- 
tory of the club. 



Railway Signal Association 

This year's meeting, the twentieth of the Railway Signal 
Association and the eleventh of the Signal Appliance As- 
sociation, will be held at the Grand Hotel, Mackinac Island, 
Mich., on Sept. 12, 13 and 14. Hotel reservations may be 
made to C. C. Rosenberg, secretary Railway Signal Asso- 
ciation, Bethlehem, Pa. There will be no official exhibit, 
but if any manufacturer wishes to show some device in 
his room or other place the committee will aid him as much 
as possible. The arrangement committee has provided for 
a special train from New York, over the New York Central 
and the Michigan Central Railroad, to Mackinaw City, and 
a special train from Chicago, over the Michigan Central and 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, to Mackinaw City. 



* July 15, 1916 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



Financial and Corporate 



ANNUAL REPORT 



Portland Railway, Light & Power Company 

The comparative income statement of the Portland Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore., for the cal- 
endar years 1914 and 1915 follows: 





1915 

A 




1914 




t 

Gross earnings 

Operating expenses.. 


Amount 
.$5,511,345 
2,542,278 


Per 
cent 
100.00 
46.13 


t 

Amount 
.$6,273,171 
2.695.356 


Per 
cent 
100.00 
42.97 


Net earnings 


$2,969,067 


53.87 


$3,577,815 


57.03 


Taxes 


$531,351 
47,752 
2,160,603 


9.64 
0.87 
39.20 


$568,527 
45.198 
2,127,480 


9.07 
0.71 
33.91 


Total fixed charges 


$2,739,706 


48.71 


$2,741,205 


43.69 


Surplus 


$22!), 361 


4.16 


$836,610 


13.34 



During 1915 the gross earnings of the company showed 
a decrease of $761,826 or 12.1 per cent as compared to the 
1914 results. The operating expenses, however, dropped 
off only $153,078 or 5.7 per cent, so that the net earnings 
decreased $608,748 or 17 per cent. The tax payments 
showed a decrease of $37,176 or 6.5 per cent, but this was 
almost offset by increases of $2,554 or 5.07 per cent in 
bridge rentals and $33,123 or 1.5 per cent in interest 
charges. The net income, therefore, suffered a loss of 
$607,249 or 72.6 per cent. 

The showing noted above was indicative of the distress- 
ing conditions under which the property was operated dur- 
ing the year. These conditions in the order of their im- 
portance were as follows: (a) General business depression 
prevailing in Oregon and Washington, especially acute in 
the western half of these States, covering the territory in 
which the company operates. (6) Unlicensed and unregu- 
lated jitney competition beginning immediately after Jan. 
1, 1915, and continuing throughout the year without re- 
strictions or regulation of any kind, (c) Continued elec- 
tric light and power competition from the Northwestern 
Electric Company. 

The general depression in business in the Pacific North- 
west was more pronounced during almost the entire year 
than in any other portion of the United .States, this condi- 
tion being strikingly in contrast with the sharp renewal 
of activity in the Eastern and Middle States. The lumber 
business suffered not only from lack of business due to 
small demands of railroads and to decreased building ac- 
tivity, but also from the inability of mills to secure ocean 
tonnage for coastwise or foreign shipment, owing to the 
withdrawal of ships from the Pacific to meet more urgent 
demands elsewhere. Since Jan. 1, however, demands from 
railroads for ties and car-building lumber have been re- 
ceived freely, and lumber orders and inquiries from the 
interior and California points have also steadily increased. 
The improving conditions in lumber will directly benefit 
the company through increased freight tonnage on its in- 
terurban lines and through the general business improve- 
ment naturally following a revival of this chief industry. 

The effects of the jitney competition are shown by the de- 
crease in gross earnings of the railway department of $492,- 
000, and the net earnings of $419,000, a very large part of 
which was due to the jitneys. The number of passengers 
carried in 1915 was 78,704,913 as compared with 89,934,644 
in 1914. Commencing with Feb. 1, 1916, jitneys were re- 
quired to secure licenses from the city, but the enforce- 
ment of the ordinance up to date has not materially reduced 
the number of jitneys. There has been, however, a reduc- 
tion of approximately 25 per cent in their number since No- 
vember, 1915, which is attributed to lack of patronage, 
possibility of securing other employment and a gradual 
realization on the part of the jitney drivers that the busi- 
ness is unprofitable even without effective regulation. 

During January and the first week of February, 1916, 
Portland suffered from a succession of snow and sleet 



storms and floods, which seriously affected the earnings of 
the company, and added greatly to the operating expenses. 
Since Feb. 8, however, there has been a steady improvement 
in street railway earnings, averaging about 6 per cent 
above the previous year, and it is believed that the stock- 
holders may reasonably expect each of the following months 
of 1916 to show increases of street railway earnings over 
the corresponding months of 1915. 

In the light and power department the competition of the 
Northwestern Electric Company continued throughout the 
year at somewhat lower rates. The loss in gross earnings 
from light and power business was due entirely to this com- 
petition, but attention may be called to the fact that the 
decrease amounted to $229,500 in the first six months of 
1915 as compared to 1914, and to only $21,500 during the 
last six months of 1915. In November and December, 1915, 
there were small increases in gross earnings as compared 
to 1914. 

The capital expenditures for 1915 were the smallest in 
the history of the company. Aside from the payment of 
$8,500 for railway rights-of-way on the river line, settle- 
ment for which had been held up for several years, ex- 
penditures were confined to construction necessary to serve 
new customers and to betterment work required by city 
ordinances. Expenditures chargeable to property accounts 
during the year totaled $212,371, divided as follows: Rail- 
way extensions and improvements, $65,046; power plants, 
substations, etc., $21,995; customers' installations, $72,740; 
gas generating plant, $6,573; real estate and buildings, 
$45,543, and miscellaneous, $471. There were no additions 
to rolling stock. Railway trackage was slightly increased, 
the mileage owned and operated now being 299.2 on a 
single-track basis. In addition the company operates 11.8 
miles of track owned by other interests. 



NEW COMPANY INCORPORATED CONSOLIDATING 
STRICKLAND LINES 

The charter of the Texas Electric Railway, with a capital 
stock of $10,500,000, has been filed with the Secretary of 
State of Texas. The Texas Electric Railway consolidates 
under one head the Texas Traction Company, with an 
authorized capital stock of $3,000,000, and the Southern 
Traction Company, with an authorized capital stock of 
$7,500,000. Stock to the amount of $10,000,000 had previ- 
ously been issued by the companies. 

The Texas Electric Railway takes over the lines of the 
companies mentioned, from Denison in Ellis County, through 
Sherman in Grayson County, McKinney in Collin County, 
Dallas in Dallas County, southeasterly to Ferris in Ellis 
County, Corsicana in Navarco County, southwesterly to Lan- 
caster in Dallas County, Waxahachie in Ellis County, Hills- 
boro in Hill County and Waco in McLennan County. It 
further provides for the construction of such lines as neces- 
sary to connect the route from Dallas to Waco with the 
lines from Dallas to Corsicana. Extensions provided for 
are from Waco, in McLennan County, to Houston in Harris 
County, and from Waco to San Antonio in Bexar County 
through Austin, the State capitol. The company will also 
operate the local lines in McKinney, Bonham, Paris, Den- 
ison, Sherman, Waxahachie, Corsicana and Waco. 

The new stock consists of 105,000 shares at $100 each. Fif- 
teen thousand shares are first preferred, 30.000 are second 
preferred and 60,000 are common stock. It is stipulated 
in the charter that first preferred stock shall bear 7 per 
cent yearly dividends as a maximum allowance. The divi- 
dends are cumulative. Similarly, second preferred stock 
will bear a 7 per cent maximum dividend. First and second 
preferred stocks are subject to redemption at the option of 
the company upon any dividend date at 115 per cent of par 
plus any dividend accruing at that date. In case of dissolu- 
tion the first preferred is paid par value plus apportionment 
of dividends, and then second preferred is paid par value 
plus dividend if any, and the balance is apportioned among 
the holders of the common stock. 

There are twenty-one directors in the company: J. F. 
Strickland, A. A. Jackson, R. B. Stichter, Osce Goodwin, and 
H. B. Temnleton, Dallas; George W. Bowman, Piano; W. R. 
Brentz and C. B. Dorchester, Sherman; J. L. Love joy, Mc- 
Kinney: S. D. Moore, Van Alstyne; W. B. Munson, Denison; 
R. L. ' Waddell, McKinney; W. W. Batchler, Ferris; F. L. 



lis 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



Drane, Corsicana; W. D. Lacy, W. J. Neale and W. W. 
Sealey, Waco; J. L. Penn, Waxahachie; A. L. Smith, Hills- 
boro, and S. N. Powell, New York. 

A meeting of the directors and stockholders of the South- 
ern Traction Company and the Texas Traction Company has 
been called for July 18 in Dallas, when the merger will be 
formally and finally ratified. 



REPORT TO MEXICO BONDHOLDERS 
Review of Report of Messrs. Phippen and Trowbridge, Who 
Visited Mexican Properties 

Copies of the report of F. H. Phippen, Toronto, Ont., and 
E. D. Trowbridge, Detroit, Mich., to the National Trust 
Company, Ltd., London, England, trustee for the holders of 
the bonds of the Mexico Tramways, Mexican Light & Power 
Company, Ltd., Mexican Electric Light Company, Ltd., and 
the Pachuta Light & Power Company have been received in 
the United States. Messrs. Phippen and Trowbridge visited 
Mexico recently in the interest of the bondholders of the 
company at the request of the trust company. On their 
return they made a report on the properties, with important 
recommendations. As a result a joint meeting of the hold- 
ers of the bonds of the companies previously mentioned was 
called to be held in London on July 14 to consider and decide 
upon the policy to be adopted for the protection of the inter- 
ests of the bondholders until conditions in Mexico improve. 
The enterprises covered by the report are commonly known 
as the Pearson Mexican electrical enterprises. They are all 
inter-related, and in a large measure are interdependent. 

After a review of early history the report says: 

"The business continued in a flourishing state until 1913, 
when it was somewhat affected by a fall in exchange rates 
due to the disturbed political conditions of the country. In 
1914 there was a further collapse in exchange, which badly 
affected the company's finances and since then the history of 
the business has been involved in the general turmoil. 

"Following a strike in September, 1914, the tramways 
were seized by the Mexican Government. Since seizure the 
tramways system has been operated by the factions from 
time to time in power. The authorities have had three act- 
ing managers of the system. Under the first two much 
of the rolling stock went out of commission through neglect 
in making repairs, but of late there has been considerable 
improvement in this respect, not only in keeping up the 
rolling stock used but also in repairing stock whch had been 
placed out of condition. Recently, moreover, considerable 
track repair work has been done. 

"In August, 1915, the military authorities operating the 
tramways made an increase in fares amounting to about 
60 per cent of the concession tariffs. This increase afforded 
some surplus above payrolls and ordinary working expenses 
(power excluded). The surplus has been largely applied to 
repairs of cars and tracks. The minimum under the in- 
creased tariffs was 10 centavos, which — at the time the tariff 
was put in effect — was equivalent to 0.6 of 1 cent gold or 
0.3 of Id. Due to the fall in exchange, however, this mini- 
mum fare, which covers practically all the purely urban 
traffic, had fallen, at the time we left Mexico City, to the 
equivalent of 0.2 of 1 cent gold, or 0.1 of Id. 

"While it would appear ridiculous to attempt the opera- 
tion of tramways on any such fares, it must be remembered 
that payrolls are on a correspondingly low scale. The aver- 
age pay of 3000 employees — motormen, conductors, etc. — is 
at present 3.30 pesos (6.6 cents gold) a day. Another vital 
factor in the low relative operating cost is the frightful 
overcrowding: of cars. This is best shown by the fact that 
the income from passenger service in December, 1913, was 
567,000 pesos, with 233 cars operated. Assuming that the 
average fare had been increased 60 per cent, the revenue 
would in the same month have been 907,000 pesos. It was 
in fact 828,000 pesos with 111 cars operated. In other words 
more than 90 per cent of the normal fares were collected, 
with less than one-half of the number of cars operated. 

"Since September, 1914. nothing has been paid for power. 
The Mexican Lieht & Power Company's contract to supply 
power is O" a eold basis. Without doubt, the Mexican Licrht 
& Power Company was fully justified in supplying this 
power without receiving present payment. Insistence on 
payment would have suspended the tramway service. This 



would have meant demoralization of working conditions in 
Mexico City and might possibly have resulted in the Gov- 
ernment taking over and operating the power plant as it did 
the tramways. Besides there was no other available market 
for the power." 

In regard to general conditions the report says in part: 

"When we left Toronto we were of the opinion that great 
damage had been done to the physical properties of the com- 
panies, particularly to those of the tramways. We were 
pleased to find, however, that these reports were much ex- 
aggerated. The most serious part of the situation, so far 
as the companies are concerned, is the fall which has taken 
place in the value of the peso. In the normal times a peso 
was approximately worth an ounce of silver or 50 cents. 
As a peso was 100 centavos this value was usually spoken 
of as a 2 to 1 basis. At the time we visited Mexico the 
value of the peso had depreciated so that $1 would buy 27 
pesos. When we left Mexico three weeks later, it had fur- 
ther depreciated until more than 50 pesos could be obtained 
in exchange for one American dollar. As the principal 
part of the companies' supplies must be purchased on a 
gold basis, the result has been disastrous to their enter- 
prises. Naturally, it has been impossible to advance wages 
so as to take care of the decreasing value of the currency. 
The prices of commodities have gone up almost to a gold 
basis. This has resulted in a disorganized condition of 
affairs and has been disastrous to net earnings. 

"In spite of the conditions which have prevailed, the legal 
status of the companies has not been affected. The obliga- 
tions imposed by the concessions have been carried out, all 
taxes have been duly paid, and as a whole the record in this 
respect is clear. It appears reasonably certain, however, 
that the Mexican peso will not for many years go back to 
anything like its former value. If this assumption be cor- 
rect, it may become essential to negotiate modifications of 
the various concessions. At the moment, however, it is ob- 
viously unwise to attempt anything of this kind." 

As explained before, the lines and other property of the 
Mexico Tramways were seized in 1914, and have since been 
operated by the military authorities of the Federal District. 
On different occasions the Mexican authorities demanded 
that the company appoint a representative to take back its 
property. Part of the mission of the representatives of the 
bondholders was to meet the authorities and ascertain what 
terms and guarantees could be negotiated, protecting the 
company, if the property was accepted. On their arrival 
in Mexico City Messrs. Phippen and Trowbridge notified 
General Pablo Gonzalez, the Military Governor of the Fed- 
eral District, that they were prepared to discuss matters 
with the authorities. In regard to their conference with 
Messrs. Sarabia and Fuentes, the appointees of the govern- 
ment, Messrs. Phippen and Trowbridge say in part: 

"We made it clear that in taking back the property sev- . 
eral essential points should be settled. The first and most 
important was that the return must be made under con- 
ditions which would permit the company to operate without 
any violation of the conditions imposed by its concessions. 
As the minimum rate of fare in the concessions is 6 centa- 
vos, the charging of a 10-centavo fare (established last 
August by the Government authorities) would be in excess 
of the legal rate. Moreover, we pointed out, it was quite 
apparent that even the 10-centavo rate would be insuffi- 
cient, partly because of the fall in exchange and partly 
because of the need of some considerable surplus with which 
to buy necessary materials for repairs. Furthermore, inas- 
much as a considerable part of the rolling stock was not 
serviceable (due to lack of materials for repairs), it was 
clear that it would be impossible for the company to furnish 
a full service at once. We urged that it would be necessary: 

"1. To raise the fare sufficiently to enable the company to 
increase the wages of its employees, to pay for necessary 
equipment and track repairs, to place the property in nor- 
mal condition, to pay the interest on the underlying securi- 
ties, and to pay a portion at least of its bill for power. 

"2. To accept the property on the condition that the 
proper Government authorities would give the company a 
waiver against any violation of the franchise or concession 
terms as to rates of fare, etc., and a further agreement that 
the company would not be held responsible for any defi- 
ciency or service until normal conditions were restored. 



July 15, 1916 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



119 



"3. To provide that nothing done under the agreement 
should in any way affect the company's concession rights. 

"4. To provide for the return of all surplus moneys re- 
sulting from operation which the Government authorities 
might have on hand at the time of the return. 

"5. To reserve to the company all of its rights for in- 
demnity, whether due to destruction of property or to losses 
in earnings or otherwise due to faulty administration by the 
Government or to the forced acceptance of worthless paper 
currency issued by previous administrations." 

The commission seemed disposed to treat the whole ques- 
tion in a fair spirit, and as the result of several conferences 
the points were agreed to with several exceptions. 

In conclusion Messrs. Phippen and Trowbridge say: 

"The net result of the negotiations as to the return of the 
tramway properties is therefore, briefly, that general bases 
for such return can be continued by the company at any 
time; that on the whole very friendly relations have been 
established with the Government authorities, and that for 
the moment the tramway properties continue to be operated 
by the military authorities, a condition which, in view of 
all existing circumstances, we consider at present safer 
and better for the property." 

APRIL EARNINGS KEEP UP 
Comparison of Electric Railway Returns Indicates Improve- 
ment in Gross and Net Over 1914 Results 

A comparison of electric railway statistics for April, 
1916, with figures for the corresponding month of 1915, 
made by the information bureau of the American Electric 
Railway Association, indicates a considerable improvement 
in the electric railway business in the United States. Re- 
turns for April, representing 5,536.38 miles of line of com- 
panies scattered throughout the country, show an increase 
in operating revenue of 10.36 per cent, in operating ex- 
penses of 6.49 per cent, and in net earnings of 17.01 per cent, 
while returns representing 3,877.07 miles of line indicate an 
increase in taxes of 6.53 per cent and in operating income of 
16.79 per cent. 

Of the three groups shown in the accompanying table the 
Eastern, represented by 2,996.91 miles of line, or about 50 
per cent of the total mileage, shows an increase in operat- 
ing revenue of 14.26 per cent, in operating expenses of 
9.98 per cent and in net earnings of 20.62 per cent. Returns 
representing 58 per cent of the mileage show an increase of 
4.42 per cent in the amount of taxes paid and of 21.47 per 
cent in operating income. 

The Southern group, represented by 409.07 miles of line, 
had an increase in operating revenue of 15.67 per cent, 
in operating expenses of 4.93 per cent, and in net earnings 
of 39.54 per cent. Returns for about 60 per cent of this 
mileage show a very slight decrease in operating expenses, 
an increase in the amount of taxes paid of 7.07 per cent, 
and an increase in net income of 49.22 per cent. It must be 
borne in mind in this connection that the apparent large 
increase in net earnings and operating: income is but a per- 
centage one and does not exceed $40,000 in the first case 
and about $20 000 in the second. This is probably due to 
the small number of miles represented and is partly borne 
out by a comparison with similar figures for March. 

Data for the Western group, represented by 2,130.40 miles 
of line, or about 38 per cent of the total mileage, indicate 
an increase in operating revenue of 4.88 per cent, in operat- 
ing expenses of 2.68 per cent, and in net earnings of 9.38 
per cent. Returns representing 90 per cent of this mileage 
show an increase in the amount of taxes paid of 8.10 per 
cent and in operating income of 10.81 per cent. The large 
percentage increase in the operating income of all three 
groups is probably not due so much to the improved busi- 
ness conditions of the current year as to the poor conditions 
of the past year and a comparison with figures for 1914, 
which are not available, might show poorer results. 

All districts had a decrease in the operating ratio, that 
for the United States as a whole decreasing from 63.22 
in 1915 to 61.01 in 1916. Of the three districts the Eastern 
had the lowest operating ratio and the Western the highest. 
In general the returns show almost no improvement over 
the preceding month and but slight improvement over the 
three months ended March 31, 1916, though, of course, they 



are not strictly comparable because of the difference in the 
miles of line represented. 



Revenues and Expenses of Electric Railways for April, 1916 
Companies Not Companies 
Reporting Taxes Reporting Taxes 





t 


*\ 


f 




.\ 1 11 U 1 1 1 




Per Cent 




Pei" Cent. 


Amount 


Increase 


Amount 


Increase 


United States* 


in 1 916 


Over 1915 


in 1913 


Over 1915 


Operating- revenues 


$10,275,046 


10.36 


$7,004,145 


8.88 


Operating expenses... 


6.269,005 


6.49 


4,399,482 


5.75 


Net earnings 


4,006.041 


17.01 


2,604,663 


14.61 






514,376 


16.79 








2,090,287 


16.79 


( ) 1 1 t j r - 1 1 i 1 1 p" t i^, ( mi r 
j.itr i <i 1 1 1 1 Itlllo, ) 13 1.J 






64.87 




nap ncn + , 1 ' , 1 , 


61.01 




62.81 




Miles of line represented 


K £ 9 it O O 
O , D o O . o 8 




9 C77 It 1 




Eastern District* 










Operating revenues 


$5,724,627 


14.26 


$3,035,046 


14.00 


Operating expenses... 


3,292,643 


9.98 


1,802,302 


11.29 


Net earnings 


2,431,984 


20.62 


1,232.744 


18.17 








210,578 


4.42 








1,022,166 


21.47 


tl 11 1 Ig I.lllO, y 1913 


-i y . t a 




60.82 




|,pi> nont t l ■, 1 






59.38 




Miles of line represented 


z , y y o . y i 




1,751.24 




Southern District* 












$428,053 


15.67 


$208,830 


12.06 


Operating expenses... 


267,854 


4.93 


124.284 


rfO.71 


Net earnings 


160,199 


39.54 


84.546 


38.19 








17.145 


7.07 


Operating income 






67,401 


49.22 


Operating ratio, ( 1915 


68.97 




67.18 




per cent | 1018 


62.57 




59.51 




Miles of line represented 


409.07 




229.94 




Western District* 












$4,122,366 


4.88 


$3,760,269 


4.92 


Operating expenses... 


2.708.508 


2.68 


2,472,896 


2.38 


Net earnings 


1,413,858 


9.38 


1,287,373 


10.20 


Taxes 






286.653 


8.10 


Operating income 






1,000,720 


10.81 


Operating ratio, ( 1915 


67.11 




67.40 




per cent \ 1916 


65.70 




65.78 




Miles of line represented 


2,130.40 




1,895.89 





Note. — Letter d denotes a decrease. 

•Groupings are as follows: Eastern District- — East of the Mis- 
sissippi River and north of the Ohio River, exclusive of Greater- 
New York. Southern District — South of the Ohio River and east 
of the Mississippi River. Western District — West of the Missis- 
sippi River. 



CANADIAN STATISTICS FOR 1915 

The annual report of the comptroller of statistics in re- 
gard to railway operation in Canada for the year ended June 
30. 1915, reveals on the whole a year of growth for electric 
railways in the dominion, but a decline in gross and net 
earnings. During the statistical year 50.51 miles were added 
to the single-track mileage, bringing the total up to 2102.95 
miles. The capitalization was increased from $147,585,342 
in 1914 to $150,344,002 in 1915, an amount of $2,758,660. 

Several electric railways did not send in reports for the 
year, and it was therefore necessary to use certain figures 
for the preceding year in order to complete the statistical 
statement. The following figures in regard to operation must 
be considered in the light of these omissions. For the last 
fiscal year the gross operating revenues amounted to $26,- 
922 899 as compared to $29,691,007 for the preceding year, a 
loss of $2,768,108 or 9.3 per cent. The greatest losses arose 
in passenger revenue,, which fell off $2,301,639 or 10.9 per 
cent, and in freight revenue, which decreased $141,869 or 
12.6 per cent. The operating expenses showed a much 
smaller decrease than did the gross revenues, the decrease 
being from $19,107,817 in 1914 to $18,131,842 in 1915, an 
amount of $975,975 or 5.1 per cent. Maintenance of way and 
buildings decreased $106,637 or 9.1 per cent, operation of 
cars $214,437 or 2.9 per cent and general expenses $207,132 
or 10.1 per cent, but these decreases were partly offset by an 
increase of $110,794 or 4.0 per cent in cost of motive power. 
The operating ratio in 1915 was 67.40 per cent, this compar- 
ing with 64.36 per cent in the preceding year. For a number 
of years, it is said, the ratio of operating expenses to gross 
revenues has been increasing. 

There were 562,302,373 passengers carried by electric rail- 
ways in Canada in 1915 as compared to 614,709,819 in 1914. 
The freight traffic reached 1,433,602 tors as compared to 
1,845,923 in 1914. The total passenger traffic was the lowest 
since 1912 while the freight total was the smallest since 
1911. During 1915 the companies had 14 795 employees or 
1556 less than for the preceding year. The salaries and 
wages bill for the year amounted to $10,781 199 as compared 
to $11,845,463 for the year preceding, the percentage of op- 
erating expenses in the two years being 59.6 per cent and 
61.9 per cent respectively. 



120 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



SEPARATE RECEIVERS PROPOSED FOR SYRACUSE, 
LAKE SHORE & NORTHERN RAILROAD 

Papers have been served by the lawyers representing the 
Columbia Trust Company, New York, N. Y., in the fore- 
closure proceedings under the mortgage of the Syracuse, 
Lake Shore & Northern Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y. An order 
for permission to foreclose the mortgage was signed by 
Justice Leonard C. Crouch on June 24 on application of 
Davies, Auerbach & Cornell, attorneys for the Columbia 
Trust Company, which is trustee under the mortgage. 
The application was made by the Trust Company at the re- 
quest of the bondholders' protective committee, of which 
James M. Gilbert is chairman. 

An application for receivers to be appointed for the Syra- 
cuse, Lake Shore & Northern Railroad will be made on 
July 15. It is understood that the bondholders' protective 
committee will ask that C. Loomis Allen and Hendricks S. 
Holden, now co-receivers of the Empire United Railways, 
Inc., and the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railway, be 
made receivers. The foreclosure and appointment of re- 
ceivers will take the Lake Shore out of the Empire United 
receivership and it will be operated hereafter by the re- 
ceivers for the benefit of the bondholders. The three prop- 
erties will then be operated in three receiverships. 



Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — William A. 
Read & Company, New York, N. Y., are offering for sub- 
scription at 81% and interest $75,000 of Old Colony Street 
Railway 4 per cent first" mortgage refunding gold bonds 
and at the same price $100,000 of Boston & Northern Street 
Railway 4 per cent first mortgage refunding gold bonds. 
Both issues are direct obligations of the Bay State Street 
Railway. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamilton, 
Ohio. — Former Judge Benton S. Oppenheimer was appointed 
receiver of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Com- 
pany by Judge W. A. Geoghegan of the Common Pleas 
Court of Hamilton County at Cincinnati on July 6. This 
action was taken in the suit of the Cleveland Trust Com- 
pany, Cleveland, Ohio, trustee for the bondholders. The 
bond was fixed at $10,000. The receiver is to be in charge 
as the representative of the court, receive all funds and make 
an effort to collect the rentals alleged to be due from the 
Ohio Electric Railway, lessee of the company's property. 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. — Judge W. A. Geoghegan of the Common Pleas Court 
of Hamilton County, on July 6, appointed Attorney Richard 
C. Swing as special commissioner to sell the property of the 
Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Company under foreclosure 
and entry of sale made on July 5, when an agreement was 
reached by all parties concerned. The upset price had not 
been agreed upon at that time, but it will probably be be- 
tween $850,000 and $950,000. The company's property was 
so badly damaged by the flood of 1913 that it was compelled 
to go into the hands of the Union Savings Bank & Trust 
company as receiver. While the road has more than paid 
operating expenses since then, the receiver found it impos- 
sible to pay the interest on the $750,000 of bonds or the 
dividends on the $1,500,000 of stock. 

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway. — Harris, Forbes & Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y.; Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company, Inc., 
New York, N. Y., and E. W. Clark & Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., are offering for subscription at 99% and accrued 
interest $3,500,000 of Grand Rapids Railway first mortgage 
three-year 5 per cent gold bonds authorized by the Michigan 
Railroad Commission. The bonds are dated June 1, 1916, 
and are due June 1, 1919, but are redeemable as a whole 
at 101 Vi per cent and interest on Dec. 1, 1916, 101 per cent 
and interest on June 1 or Dec. 1, 1917, and 100 % per cent 
and interest on June 1 or Dec. 1, 1918. The bankers offer- 
ing the bonds say that they are followed by $2,000,000 of 
5 per cent cumulative preferred stock and $2,000,000 of com- 
mon stock. Dividends have been paid on the preferred 
stock since the organization of the company in 1900 and 
on the common stock since 1906. The company is a con- 
stituent of the Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light 
Company, and is under the direction, supervision and man- 
agement of Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company, Inc., and E. W. 
Clark & Company. 



Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. — The last steps in closing 
the receivership of the Metropolitan Street Railway and 
the turning over of the property to the Kansas City Rail- 
ways involved paying the receivers, attorneys and others 
who participated in the proceedings. The amounts of these 
payments are not to be made public. The city members of 
the board of directors of the Kansas City Railways were 
asked to secure the information. They responded that the 
city's interest began with the new company, and did not 
extend back to the proceedings under which the receivers 
and attorneys were paid. 

Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — The California 
Railroad Commission has authorized the Northern Electric 
Railway, Marysville and Colusa Branch, to issue its demand 
notes for $25,000 at 6 per cent to take up similar notes to 
the First National Bank, San Francisco. 

Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn. — On June 
29 stockholders' meetings of the various properties owned 
and operated by the Shore Line Electric Railway were held 
and in the case of the Shore Line votes were passed author- 
izing the purchase of the Norwich & Westerly Traction 
Company, the Groton & Stonington Street Railway and the 
New London & East Lyme Street Railway, and the stock- 
holders of these companies voted to sell, the Norwich & 
Westerly Traction Company first having voted to buy the 
Ashaway & Westerly, which is now operated by the Nor- 
wich & Westerly Traction Company under lease. This 
means that when the transaction is confirmed by the Pub- 
lic Utilities Commission of the State of Connecticut, and 
the details of the transfer are completed, all the properties 
now operated from the office of the Shore Line Electric- 
Railway will be owned and operated by the Shore Line Elec- 
tric Railway. 

Union Traction Company of Indiana, Indianapolis, Ind. — 

The Public Service Commission of Indiana on July 5 handed 
down a decision approving and authorizing the lease of the 
Muncie & Portland Traction Company to the Union Traction 
Company of Indiana. The petition setting forth the terms 
of the lease was filed about two weeks ago, as noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of July 1, page 38. Under the 
terms of the lease as set out in the order of the commission, 
the Union Traction Company will pay 4 per cent on $1,389,- 
500, with a further contingent sum equal to 2 per cent on 
that amount, such contingent sum to be dependent on the 
income of the entire system of the Union Traction Company 
of Indiana. The commission, in its ruling, orders the Muncie 
& Portland Traction Company to issue $500,000 par value 
of its preferred stock, bearing 4 per cent cumulative divi- 
dends, and when such stock is issued the company is di- 
rected to cancel an equal amount of its common stock. The 
order of the commission sets out that it finds the construc- 
tion cost of the Muncie & Portland Traction Company to be 
$804,400, and the reproduction cost $1,000,000. The lessee, 
the Union Traction Company of Indiana, is directed by the 
commission to pay the interest on the outstanding indebted- 
ness of the Muncie & Portland Traction Company. 

Utah Securities Corporation, New York, N. Y. — The ag- 
gregate gross earnings of the operating subsidiaries of the- 
Utah Securities Corporation increased 9 per cent and the net 
earnings 22 per cent during the year ended March 31, 1916, 
despite the unfavorable business conditions prevailing dur- 
ing the first three months of the period. Of the year's total 
gross increase of $426,160, all but $81,720 was made in the 
last six months of the year, and of the year's total net in- 
crease of $482,135 all but $151,280 Was made in the last six 
months. The gross earnings of the Utah Light & Traction 
Company, which operates the street railway property in Salt- 
Lake City and vicinity, were $1,420,887 for the year, with 
operating expenses and taxes at $945,163, so that the net 
earnings amounted to $475,724. The total income was $837,- 
541 and deductions were $812,165, leaving a balance of 
$25,376. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — At 

the annual meeting of the Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany on July 20, the stockholders will be asked to approve 
an increase in the authorized amount of preferred stock 
from $8,000,000 to $9,000,000, the additional stock to be 
issued as required for improvements, extensions and bet- 
terments. The Virginia Railway & Power Company now has 
$7,698,400 of preferred stock outstanding. 



July 15, 1916 | 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



121 



DIVIDENDS DECLARED 

Chicago (111.) Railways, $8, series No. 1 participating 
certificates. 

Cumberland County Power & Light Company, Portland, 
Me., quarterly, iy 2 per cent, preferred. 

East St. Louis & Suburban Company, East St. Louis, 111., 
quarterly, three-quarters of 1 per cent, preferred. 

Green & Coates Street Passenger Railway, Philadelphia, 
Pa., quarterly, $1.50. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway, 3 per cent. 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, 
common. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, Iowa, 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Public Service Investment Company, Boston, Mass., quar- 
terly, iy 2 per cent, preferred. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., quarterly, 75 cents, preferred. 

Railway & Light Securities Corporation, Boston, Mass., 
3 per cent, preferred; 3 per cent, common. 



Period 

Ira., May, '16 
1 15 
11 16 
11 15 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

BERKSHIRE STREET RAILWAY, PITTSFIELD, MASS. 

Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Revenues Expenses Income Charges Income 

$$4,466 *$68.65S $15,808 $27,850 ±t$ll,S09 

77,502 *64,276 13,226 17,123 tt3,763 

874,055 *736,374 137,681 229,695 tt89,963 

872,665 *779.974 92,691 189,461 ±t95,235 

COLUMBUS RAILWAY, POWER & LIGHT COMPANY 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 
In.. May, '16 $277,688 *$164,737 $112,951 $42,875 $70,076 
1 15 245,947 * 1 5 1 , 1 7 94,777 37,821 56,956 

12 16 3,270,766 "1,923,814 1,346,952 498,200 848,752 

12 15 3,065,554 *1, 846, 344 1,219,210 467,975 751,235 

CONNECTICUT COMPANY, NEW HAVEN, CONN, 
lm., May, '16 $800,058 *$528.341 $271,717 $98,009 t$196,284 
•15 687,527 *455,724 231,803 104.963 $163, 237 



'16 

'15 



lm., Mav, 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



8,131,033 *5, 552, 890 2,578,143 1,082,657 ±1, 748, 165 
7.274.970 *5. 265, 413 2,009,557 1,087,674 ±1, 174, 493 

LAKE SHORE ELECTRIC RAILWAY, CLEVELAND, OHIO 
lm., May, '16 $130,172 *$85,774 $44,398 $36,197 $8,201 
1 15 114,031 *74,255 39,776 36,055 3,721 

5" " '16 583,317 *397,598 185,719 181,576 4,143 
5 15 505,338 '356,429 148.909 179,918 t31,009 

NEW YORK (N. Y. ) RAILWAYS 
'16 $1,192,035 $718,402 $473,633 $384,095 ±$134,426 
'15 1,138,652 713,876 424,776 359,843 ±107,747 
'16 12,543,455 7,658.356 4,885,099 4,094,829 ±1,304,603 
'15 12.265,626 7,837,292 4,428,334 4,106,707 ±801,917 

NEW YORK & STAMFORD RAILWAY, PORT CHESTER. N. Y. 
lm., May, '16 $33,099 *$25,542 $7,557 $7,979 ± + $376 
1 15 32,228 *25,953 6,275 7,991 ±f 1,676 

11 " " '16 341,964 *277,338 64,626 87,919 ±±22,738 
11 15 340,795 *281,902 58,893 87.051 ±f27,746 

NEW YORK, WESTCHESTER & BOSTON RAILWAY, 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 

lm., May, '16 $48,450 *$43,845 $4,605 §$5,589 ±$348 

1 15 43,000 *41,199 1.801 §5,976 ±±2,641 

11 16 468,438 *513,318 44,880 §68,520 ±±96,012 

11 15 409,508 *476,640 ±67,132 §69.584 ±+118,885 

NORTHERN OHIO TRACTION & LIGHT COMPANY, 
AKRON, OHIO 

lm., May, '16 $422,045 *$256,154 $165,891 $49,690 $116,201 
1" " '15 323,323 *191,317 132,006 51,524 80,482 
5 16 1,940,627 •1,164,526 776,101 257,022 519,079 

5 15 1,424,674 *900.767 523,907 255,962 267,945 

PORTLAND RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER COMPANY, 
PORTLAND, ORE. 
lm., May, '16 $445,223 *$256,694 $188,529 $181,925 $6,604 
1 " " '15 446,149 '253,728 192,421 188,440 3,981 

12 16 5,457,872 *3, 068, 941 2,388,931 2,196,617 192,314 
12 15 5,794,271 *3. 149, 446 2,644,825 2,207,287 437,538 

RHODE ISLAND COMPANY, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
lm., May, '16 $493,296 *$354,687 $138,609 $118,579 ±$21,120 
"15 404,576 __*321.294 .83,282 117,558 ±f33,435 



11 " 
11 " 



'16 
'15 



4,984,767 $3,755,615 1,229.152 1,279,909 ±41,624 
4,668,385 *3, 629, 383 1,039,002 1,296,807 ±±163,107 



WESTCHESTER STREET RAILROAD, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 

lm., May, '16 $22,964 *$22,413 $551 $1,798 ±±$1,219 

1 15 22,644 *22,036 608 1,464 ±±836 

11 16 229,396 *234.514 t5,118 18,590 ±±23,399 

11 15 235,700 *246,828 til. 128 14,632 ±±25,635 



Traffic and Transportation 



•Includes taxes. tDeflcit. Jlncludes non-operating income. 

§Excludes interest on bonds, charged income and paid by the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad under guarantee, also 
interest on notes held by the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, not credited to income of that company. 



PRESIDENT SULLIVAN TESTIFIES 

Bay State Fare Hearing Concluded — Fifty-six Days Present- 
ing Testimony — Briefs to Go in Soon 

Serious problems which the street railway industry is 
facing were clearly set forth by P. F. Sullivan, president of 
the Bay State Street Railway, at a hearing on July 5 on 
its petition to the Massachusetts Public Service Commission 
for approval of general fare increases. The competition of 
the private automobile, as well as the jitney, the growth 
of moving-picture shows, which draw their patronage mainly 
from local sources, and the greatly increased expenditures 
for taxes and for all materials, were described as hindering 
materially a return on investment. 

Mr. Sullivan was under direct examination by James F. 
Jackson, senior counsel for the petitioners. After describ- 
ing the advantage gained by the consolidation of the various 
roads which constitute the Bay State system, among which 
were the reduction of friction in communities where more 
than one company operated under the same stock control, 
with no transfer interchange, and the saving in accounting 
where formerly thirty sets of accounts were kept, Mr. Sul- 
livan pointed out the competitive factors that have lately 
entered the field, notably the automobile and the "movies." 

The company last fall made a census of its territory and. 
found 26,054 automobiles registered therein, outside of 
Boston. Estimating the revenue diverted to privately owned 
automobiles at 10 cents a day, about $1,000,000 is accounted 
for per annum. This new element was first noted in 1906 
or 1907. The company had been reckoning on a normal 
yearly increase of revenue of 5 or 6 per cent. It was found 
that 4 per cent was nearer the fact. 

Jitneys came into the territory about April, 1915, and 
spread rapidly. Competition from this source amounts to 
$300,000 to $350,000 a year, ranging from about $500 a 
day in winter to $1,000 a day in summer. Regarding the 
future of the jitney, Mr. Sullivan said: "It is problematical. 
I feel that jitneys in some form or other will stay. All 
such matters are naturally progressive, and they will fluc- 
tuate from place to place. We now have more in the terri- 
tory than we formerly had, whereas on the other hand, Fall 
River has fewer than it had a year ago. It looks as if 
any change would be from a small car operating in a 5-cent 
territory to a bus, which is a more serious competitor." Mr. 
Sullivan expressed the opinion that private automobile com- 
petition would increase. 

In turning to the subject of the "movies," the witness 
pointed out that in suburban towns people who formerly 
patronized theaters now go to local picture shows. Much 
of the money formerly expended for park riding is thus 
diverted. People walk to the picture shows. 

Taxation is a heavy burden on the street railways in the 
State. During Mr. Sullivan's service with the Bay State 
this item has increased from 2.5 per cent gross revenue to 
7 per cent, the difference amounting to $400,000. Mr. Sul- 
livan said: 

"The cost of substantially every item that enters into the 
construction, maintenance and operation of the railway has 
increased." 

On the subject of one-man operation, Mr. Sullivan pointed 1 
out that if the plan was adopted of operating one-man 
cars during the dull periods of the day and two-men cars, 
in rush hours, little platform expense would be saved, as 
the company would have to have almost as large a list in- 
reserve, and is now obliged to guarantee six hours' pay. 

Mr. Sullivan considered the Arnold proposal to eliminate 
local carhouses and store the cars at a few centers to be 
impracticable, owing to the large amount of dead mileage 
which this would necessitate. 

In referring to a proposed reduction in general expenses, 
Mr. Sullivan said three of the company's most valuable gen- 
eral officers had refused higher salaries from other corpor- 
ations. The total amount of salaries of general officers, 
eliminating that of the president, is $74,600. 



122 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol., XLVIII, No. 3 



The presentation of testimony was closed on July 7. The 
members of the board and opposing counsel were to confer 
on July 10 for the purpose of deciding- when the arguments 
will be made and the order of the presentation. 

Just before the hearing closed, Robert M. Feustel, expert 
for the company, submitted a number of new exhibits, 
bringing the total up to 102. The hearings have consumed 
fifty-six days, six of these being taken up by the company 
and the remainder by the remonstrants. 



CHICAGO ELEVATED PROUD OF SAFETY RECORD 

In the current issue of The Elevated News the Chicago 
Elevated Railroads calls the attention of the public to its 
unparalleled record of operation. This road has handled 
1,200,000,000 passengers during the past eight years with- 
out a single fatal accident to a passenger on a train. Every 
week-day the elevated system handles upward of 500,000 
passengers, and this record of safe operation is a source 
of gratification to the management and to the employees, 
and furnishes an incentive to try, with the co-operation of 
the public, to eliminate all minor accidents. Regarding this 
remarkable record, the Chicago Herald recently published 
the following editorial under the title "A Remarkable 
Achievement": 

"The managers and employees of the Chicago Elevated 
Railroads are certainly entitled not only to feel some pride, 
but also to advertise the pride they feel, in the results of 
their efforts to carry safely all who use these transporta- 
tion facilities. What these results are cannot be told better 
than in the words used in the advertisement: 

"Eight years without one fatal accident! One billion two 
hundred millions of passengers — equivalent nearly to the 
entire population of the world — have been carried by the 
Chicago Elevated Railroads during the past eight years 
without a single fatal accident while on their trains. 

"Such an achievement not only justifies pride, and the 
recognition it has received from safety organizations, but 
also should strongly impress upon the public mind the 
accompanying appeal for co-operation in the prevention and 
elimination of even minor accidents. 

"Here is something which every user of the elevated 
trains can help to do for his own and his family's welfare, 
and for his fellow citizens' welfare, and for humanity, by 
just using reasonable caution and constant care. With the 
help of the public Chicago should win this year the Brady 
medal for electric railroad safety. But the managers and 
employees cannot do it without that help." 



GEORGIA COURT REFUSES TO PREVENT RAILROAD 
COMMISSION FROM PROMULGATING 
JITNEY RULES 

In its decision under the injunction proceedings brought 
by O. C. Long and others before Judge Ellis in the Superior 
Court at Atlanta, Ga., against the Railroad Commission to 
restrain that body from regulating the operation of jitneys 
the Superior Court of Georgia has refused to grant the 
injunction sought, and has affirmed the judgment. All 
judges concurred. The opinion was by Justice Beck. In the 
pleadings it was alleged by the plaintiffs that the Georgia 
Railway, Light & Power Company had filed a petition with 
the commission seeking to have it regulate the jitneys. In 
the answer of the commission it was set out that it had 
not prescribed rules and regulations, but was preparing a 
set of rules. Justice Beck says: 

"We are of the opinion the court properly refused to 
grant an injunction in this case. No evidence was sub- 
mitted at the hearing, but the sworn answer of the defend- 
ants showed that no rules or regulations affecting the busi- 
ness of petitioners had been passed or promulgated or were 
about to be enforced. 

"The court properly refused to enjoin the commission 
from considering the rules and regulations set out in the 
exhibit to the petition. A court will not undertake in ad- 
vance to enjoin one from considering whether or not he will 
perform a certain act. 

"Should the Railroad Commission actually promulgate 
the rules which it proposes to consider and thereafter to en- 
force them or put them in form to be enforced, the question 



as to the power of the commission under the laws and the 
constitution to do this may be raised and revised." 

The Railroad Commission has been awaiting the decision 
of the Supreme Court before proceeding further with the 
work of passing rules and regulations. 



EXTRAORDINARY TRAFFIC INCREASES IN 
NEW YORK 

The subway and elevated lines of the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and the surface lines of the New 
York Railways carried in June a total of 79,931,794 passen- 
gers — more than 2,664,393 a day. This represented an 
increase of 5,259,645 passengers for the month over June, 
1915. The subway alone in June carried 30,202,401 
passengers, receipts from whom were $1,508,130, an in- 
crease of 2,753,940 in passengers and $137,520 in revenue 
over June, 1915. The elevated lines carried 26,241,280 
passengers with receipts of $1,310,973, an increase of 1,729,- 
.130 passengers and $86,290 in revenue. The increase in 
receipts from passengers for the elevated and subway com- 
bined was $223,810, or 9 per cent. These lines altogether 
carried 56,473,681 passengers, nearly 2,000,000 a day. To 
carry these 56,473,681 passengers in June the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company operated on its different lines a 
total of 180,000 trains, or 6000 every day. Of the number 
of passengers carried, 1,250,000, approximately two-thirds, 
traveled between 7 a. m. and 10 a. m., and 4 p. m. and 
7 p. m. During those periods trains were often run forty 
seconds apart. The New York Railways surface lines car- 
ried 23,488,113 passengers in June, an increase of 776,375. 
Receipts from passengers were $1,143,083, as compared 
with $1,106,615 for June, 1915. The subway and elevated 
lines in June used 2919 cars, and to man the trains, plat- 
forms, ticket agencies and switches, utilized the service 
of 4000 men. The surface lines had in service 1308 cars 
handled by 3200 motormen and conductors. Together all 
these transportation facilities gave employment in June 
to 7200 men. The total of wages for the 7200 men 
amounted to $680,000. 



A MISDEMEANOR TO GIVE OR ACCEPT FREE 
TRANSPORTATION IN COLORADO 

On July 3 the Public Utilities Commission of Colorado 
issued the following general order: 

"Any person, public utility or corporation, or person act- 
ing as an officer, agent or employee of a corporation or 
utility, who furnishes or accepts free or reduced-rate trans- 
portation over or upon any line of railway of any public 
utility operating within the State of Colorado, in violation 
of subdivision A of Sec. 17 of the public utilities law of the 
State of Colorado, shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and shall be punishable by a fine not exceeding 
$1,000 or by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding 
one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Sees. 62, 63, 64 and 65 of the 
public utilities act of the State of Colorado. 

"It is further ordered, that every person, public utility 
or corporation, or any person acting as an officer, agent or 
employee of a corporation or utility, who shall violate this 
order, shall be deemed to be in contempt of the commission, 
according to Sec. 66 of the public utilities act of the State 
of Colorado, and shall be punishable by the commission in 
the same manner and to the same extent as contempt is 
punished by courts of record." 



Jitney Bus Increase in Los Angeles. — For the quarter 
ended June 30, 1916, the report of the license clerk shows 
a total of 517 jitney buses operating in Los Angeles, Cal. 
The total on April 1 was 489. 

B. T. R. Aids War on Paralysis. — Through Miss Hester 
Jenkins of the department of social betterment of the 
Brooklyn Bureau of Charities arrangements were made for 
the distribution of more than 100,000 leaflets on infantile 
paralysis through the services of the Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Company. The leaflets are printed in Yiddish, Italian 
and English. 

Safety Committees in Norfolk and Richmond. — The Vir- 
ginia Railway & Power Company, operating, in Norfolk and 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



123 



Richmond, Va., has organized a general safety committee 
to investigate and make recommendations on all matters 
pertaining to the safety of the public and the employees of 
the company. The first meeting of the committee was held 
at Richmond on June 28. 

Jersey City Jitney Bill Passed. — The City Commission- 
ers of Jersey City, N. J., have passed an ordinance, based 
on the Kates law, requiring jitney men to file a $5,000 in- 
demnity bond and pay a tax of 5 per cent of their gross 
earnings. It is said that certiorari proceedings to test the 
validity of the law will be commenced by George L. Record, 
counsel for the jitney men. 

Head-on Collision at Youngstown. — An interurban car on 
the Youngstown & Sharon Street Railway, Youngstown, 
Ohio, carrying approximately forty passengers, and a work 
train bearing a dozen men met in a head-on collision on 
the afternoon of July 8 in a cut on the eastern outskirts 
of Youngstown. Thirteen persons, including three women, 
were injured; five seriously. 

Safety Posters Carried on St. Louis Cars. — In connection 
with the safety campaign now being conducted by the 
United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., large posters, printed in 
white lettering on a green background, are carried on the 
dashboards of all cars. These posters are prepared and 
furnished to the railway by the safety committee of the St. 
-Louis Business Men's League and they read as follows: 
"Make St. Louis the safest city. Safety first is thinking 
first." 

More One-Man Car Permits. — The Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company, Seattle, Wash., has received per- 
mission from the City Council to operate one-man cars on 
the Summit and Twelfth Avenue lines. The Council has 
also granted the petition of the Western Washington Power 
Company to operate one-man cars on condition that two 
men be employed on the cars during rush hours, and the 
headway increased during other hours of the day. The 
Western Washington Power Company operates cars in Bal- 
lard. 

San Diego Suburban Service Discontinued Owing to Jit- 
neys. — The San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway discontinued 
the operation of its cars over the San Diego & Southeast- 
ern Railway on June 26 between San Diego and National 
City, owing to a lack of jitney regulation by the board of 
trustees of National City. The San Diego & Southeastern 
Railway will operate the line on a reduced schedule. Con- 
struction work on the San Diego & Southeastern Railway 
across Sweetwater Valley to Chula Vista has also been 
suspended for the same reason, it is reported. 

Right to Operate One-Man Cars Sustained. — The East 
St. Louis & Suburban Railroad, East St. Louis, 111., has won 
its suit in the higher court for the right to operate one- 
man cars through the streets of Belleville, 111. Circuit: 
Judge Crow upheld the decision of L. E. Wangelin, a 
justice of the peace, and ruled that a recent ordinance could 
not supersede a franchise in which the one-man system 
was stipulated. Judge Crow ruled also that the power 
of legislating against corporations is now restricted by the 
public utilities act and is not vested in local authorities 
in a case of this kind. 

Railway Folder of St. Louis. — The United Railways, St. 
Louis, Mo., has recently issued an attractive descriptive 
folder entitled "Trolley Trips In and Out of St. Louis," 
printed in black, green and orange. The folder opens so 
that at the center there is available for ready reference a 
tourists' trolley map of the city and its environs. This 
map is 16 in. wide by 13 in. high. At the time of the Dem- 
ocratic national convention in St. Louis the company in- 
serted in the folder a map of the downtown section show- 
ing the relative locations of the convention hall and the 
leading downtown hotels. 

Jitneys to Go on Franchise Basis. — Commissioner of Po- 
lice Daly of Portland, Ore., has received from City Attorney 
LaRoche the first draft of a proposed ordinance to force all 
jitneys to operate on a franchise basis, doing away with the 
present system of independent operation on licenses. The 
measure as it stands sets forth that it is impracticable 
and impossible to regulate the jitneys under the present 
system so that they will give reliable or reasonable service 



and that for that reason they shall after a date to be fixed 
obtain franchises conditioned on assurances of a schedule 
(if service to be kept up over routes to be specified by the 
City Council. 

Working on Rearrangement of Spokane Owl Service. — 
H. L. Bleecker, vice-president of the Washington Water 
Power Company, Spokane, Wash., reports that R. A. Will- 
son, general superintendent of the railway lines of the com- 
pany, and E. E. Lillie, superintendent of the Spokane Trac- 
tion Company, controlled by the Spokane & Inland Empire 
Railroad, have been assigned the work of rearranging owl 
car schedules on the parallel lines of the companies. Mr. 
Bleecker stated that nothing along the line of merging or 
eliminating parallel lines of the two companies was being 
considered at this time. The matter of joint action has gone 
no further than the consideration of owl car service. 

Ruling on Muskogee Jitney Ordinance. — Operators of 
jitney busses in MusKcgee won in part and lost in part in 
their contest of the ordinance recently passed by the City 
Council fixing a tax of $25 a month on each jitney in opera- 
tion on the streets of Muskogee, limiting operation to cer- 
tain prescribed streets and requiring a bond of $2,500 for 
each jitney operated. Suit for injunction against the city 
was filed by the jitney drivers, and Judge C. G. Watts of 
the District Court granted a permanent injunction against 
the city, restraining its officers from collecting the monthly 
tax of $25 on the ground that it was confiscatory, but 
i.pheld other features of the ordinance. Pending the time 
when they could make the required bond of $2,500 for each 
jitney operated, the drivers placed signs "Jitney Service 
Free," and operated on the donation plan. 

Seattle Company Publication Quotes "Electric Railway 
Journal" Editorial. — Several company publications were 
quick to realize the availability and timeliness of the edi- 
torial which was published in the Electric Railway 
Journal of May 13 entitled "Strap Hangers Do Not Pay 
Dividends." One of the papers which made use of the 
information contained in the editorial was the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, Wash. As 
Electrogram, the company publication, points out, one of 
the most common and reckless statements about the street 
railway business is that "dividends are in the straps." 
Electrogram tabulated in an effective way the cost of 
operating one extra car for one extra trip during the rush 
hour and the revenue from that extra trip on a route 7 miles 
long as given in the Electric Railway Journal. 

Seattle Cars Must Be Heated. — The Public Service Com- 
mission of the State of Washington has entered an order 
stating that after Dec. 1 the thirty-eight cars of the Puget 
Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, operated on the 
Alki, Ballard Beach and Fauntleroy Park lines in Seattle, 
must be heated. On other cars of the system open places 
are to be provided with sash and glass, so that they can 
be closed. The commission has also directed that heating 
apparatus now installed 'in forty-seven cars operated by the 
company be removed and relocated so as to provide proper 
distribution of heat throughout the conveyance. Included 
among the orders of the commission are the following pro- 
visions: Not less than six heaters be installed in single- 
truck cars; not less than ten heaters in double-truck cars; 
glass windows to inclose open ends of cars during winter 
months; cars on long-haul lines, which include Alki Point, 
Ballard Beach and Fauntleroy, to maintain a temperature 
not lower than 40 deg. Fahr. 

Skip-Stop Trial in Detroit.— The Council of Detroit, Mich., 
has consented to a trial of the skip-stop plan of operating 
cars of the Detroit United Railway on Woodward and Jeffer- 
son Avenues under the direction of the police authorities. 
The company has issued a statement in which it said: "At 
the outset we urge that the test be thorough and convincing. 
This means that it should be fair and without prejudice. We 
announce now, with all the positiveness at our command, 
that if it does not work out to the benefit of the public we 
do not want the plan continued. There has been no ulterior 
motive back of our long and urgent advocacy of the plan. 
We do know that the skip-stop plan is a time saver for the 
public where used in other cities; we do know that during 
the very brief trial of some months ago on Woodward 



124 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



Avenue, done at the request of the police department, it 
was a time saver in Detroit. If a more extensive trial does 
not make clear that the benefits greatly outweigh the ob- 
jections we will be the first to throw up our hands and state 
that this, as one plan for alleviating transportation troubles 
in Detroit, is a failure. We have faith in it; but we may be 
wrong." 

Louisville Traffic Rule Upheld. — In his instructions to the 
jury in a case against the Louisville (Ky.) Railway, Judge 
Thomas R. Gordon in the Jefferson Circuit Court, at Louis- 
ville, upheld the validity of a city ordinance which gives 
right of way at street intersections to vehicles crossing 
east and west. The case had to do with an accident at 
Third and Walnut Streets, and the court ruled that it was 
the duty of the man driving the automobile with which the 
street car collided "to give timely warning of the approach 
of his automobile by sounding his horn and to exercise 
ordinary care to permit the street car to pass across the 
intersection in front of him if he saw, or by the exercise 
of ordinary care could have seen, the approach of the car 
in time to have given it such opportunity" and that his 
failure to do so favored the defendant. The judge said 
that the time was fast approaching when the courts must 
act in an endeavor to require vehicle traffic to observe 
traffic regulations for the benefit not only of those who 
operate vehicles, but for the great mass of people who travel 
on foot. For that reason he felt it was his duty to do 
everything in his power to assist the city authorities in 
enforcing the ordinance. 

Writ of Supersedeas in New Orleans Jitney Case. — The 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals has granted to the 
jitney men of New Orleans, La., a writ of supersedeas, 
which carries practical restraining force against the im- 
mediate enforcement by the city of the ordinance under 
which the jitneys went out of operation several weeks ago. 
Following this formality, the jitneys will operate until the 
three judges of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
for the New Orleans district meet and render a decision 
on the legality of the ordinance passed by the city. During 
the interim the jitneys will have the right of operation. 
The writ of supersedeas was issued by the judge whose 
residence is Huntsville, Ala. The procedure upon which 
the writ was based was somewhat similar in character 
to that upon which appeal was made to Judge Foster 
of the United States District Court at New Orleans. It 
was recited that the rights of one F. Lutze, a jitney opera- 
tor, had been infringed upon, since he is a native of Ger- 
many and a subject of the Kaiser. The attorneys claimed 
in behalf of Lutze violation of treaty rights between the 
United States and Germany, said rights supposedly guar- 
anteeing to every German subject resident in the United 
States the free and unhampered use of his property. The 
writ of supersedeas is only applicable to Lutze and sev- 
eral co-appellants. 

Service Reduced in Seattle. — On June 26 the Puget 
Sound Traction. Liorht & Power Company. Seattle, Wash., 
adopted a new schedule involving material reductions in 
service on the Capitol Hill line. Electrogram, published 
by the company, in commenting on the change in schedule 
said: "For two years past the receipts on the Capitol Hill 
line have been declining. During that time the service has 
been increased. It finally became evident that the service 
was much greater than the patronage of the line warranted. 
The necessary reduction of service was therefore effected. 
The following figures speak for themselves. The receipts 
of the Capitol Hill line in May, 1914, were $11,384; in May, 
1915, $7,747, and in May, 1916, $7,411. The receipts of 
May, 1916, were 35 per cent less than for the same month 
two years ago. At the same time the service had been 
increased 11.7 per cent. The company could not continue 
operating under those conditions, hence the reduction of 
service. The reduced receipts are apparently the result of 
a preference by many persons living along that line for the 
service furnished by the jitneys. There has of course been 
a loss of revenue on other street railway lines, but that on 
Capitol Hill is the only instance where the loss has been 
so great as absolutely to necessitate a reduction of street 
railway service. The reduction which has been made in the 
service on that line is proportionate to the reduction of re- 
ceipts." 



-p. 

Personal Mention 



Charles Barrington, Jr., auditor of the Los Angeles 
(Cal.) Railway Corporation, has been transferred to the 
post of purchasing agent of the company and will have 
full charge of all materials and supplies. 

Thomas Bulpin, assistant chief engineer of the Los 
Angeles (Cal.) Railway Corporation, has been appointed 
chief engineer of the company to succeed George Kuhrts, 
who has become assistant general manager. 

George Kuhrts, chief engineer of the Los Angeles (Cal.) 
Railway Corporation, has been appointed assistant general 
manager of the company to succeed C. A. Henderson, who 
will hereafter devote all his time to the financial operations 
of the company. 

J. W. Tipton, former superintendent of the interurban 
line between Dallas, Tex., and Waxahachie, operated by the 
Strickland interests, has been appointed superintendent of 
the Oklahoma, New Mexico & Pacific Railroad, succeeding 
R. W. Patterson, resigned. 

Henry G. Stott, superintendent of motive power, Interbor-. 
ough Rapid Transit Company, New York, underwent a seri- 
ous operation on July 7. According to the latest reports he 
is rapidly recovering from its effects, although at first grave 
doubts as to his recovery were entertained. 

Charles F. Smollin, who has been correspondence clerk of 
the Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York for most of the time since 1910 when he joined the 
commission's staff, has been promoted to the position of 
chief clerk to succeed George F. Daggett. 

C. A. Henderson, director, secretary, treasurer, assistant 
general manager and purchasing agent of the Los Angeles 
(Cal.) Railway Corporation, has relinquished the position 
of purchasing agent and assistant general manager so that 
he may assume entire charge of the finances of the corpo- 
ration. 

E. J. Burdick has been appointed assistant general man- 
ager of the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway and not gen- 
eral manager, as was announced in the Electric Railway 
Journal of July 8. The mistake in the announcement as 
printed was made by the compositor in putting the item into 
type and it was not discovered until most of the edition for 
July 8 had been printed. 

R. G. Carroll, who has been assistant treasurer of the 
Northern Texas Traction Company, Fort Worth, Tex., for a 
number of years, will be transferred to Beaumont, Tex., 
where he will become acting manager of the Beaumont 
Street Railway, the Beaumont Lighting Company, the 
Beaumont-Port Arthur Interurban Railway and the Port 
Arthur Lighting Company. 

George F. Daggett, who has been connected with the 
Public Service Commission for First District of New York 
practically since its creation in 1907, and most of the time 
as its chief clerk, has been promoted from that position to 
become an assistant secretary. Mr. Daggett has entire 
charge of the work of handling informal complaints against 
transportation companies filed with the commission. 

M. F. M. Werth has been appointed assistant su- 
perintendent of power of the Detroit United Lines with 
headquarters in Detroit, Mich. Mr. Werth is a native of 
Richmond, Va., and was graduated from the Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute, electrical engineering course, at Lexington. 
Va. He was later employed in Schenectady, Baltimore and 
New York. He entered the electric railway field with the 
Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, Youngs- 
town, Ohio, and was later associated with the British 
Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C. 

W. L. Davis has been appointed traveling auditor for the 
American Power & Light Company, New York, N. Y. Mr. 
Davis has for the past year been connected with the firm 
of Ernst & Ernst, certified public accountants, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Mr. Davis began his work in the railway field in 
1906 with the Ohio Electric Railway and was appointed 
statistician of the company in 1909, serving in this work 



July 15, 1916 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



1 

125 



until 1^12, when he joined the organization of the Texas 
Power & Light Company, Dallas, Tex., first as traveling 
auditor and later as assistant secretary-treasurer. From 
1914 to 1915 Mr. Davis was auditor for the Southern Trac- 
tion Company and the Texas Traction Company, both of 
Dallas. 

W. D. Seeley has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, Rochester, N. Y., 
to succeed J. M. Pneuman, resigned. In 1905 Mr. Seeley 
entered the service of the New York Central Railroad at 
its East Buffalo shops as an air-brake inspector's helper 
and gradually advanced in this class of work until 1909, 
when he was appointed airbrake instructor on the New 
York Central Lines, east of Buffalo. During his occupancy 
of the latter position he had charge of experimental work 
in connection with the use of airbrakes in handling moun- 
tain trains on the Montpelier & Wells River Railroad. 
Later Mr. Seeley entered Syracuse University, from v/hich 
he was graduated in 1915 with the degree of mechanical 
engineer. During his college course he was connected with 
considerable of the experimental work in the airbrake de- 
partment of the Westinghouse Traction Brake Company. 
Since his graduation he has been engaged in miscellaneous 
engineering work on the Syracuse & Suburban Railroad, 
and just previous to becoming connected with the Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester Railway was in charge of the in- 
stallation of signals on the Syracuse & Suburban Railroad. 
His experience of more than ten years with different steam 
roads in the section of the country near Buffalo and his thor- 
ough study of the question of airbrakes, particularly adapt 
him for the position to which he has just been appointed on 
the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway. 

F. I. Hardy, the newly appointed general manager of the 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway, South 
Bend, Ind., has been actively engaged in steam and electric 
electric railway operation 
for the last nineteen years. 
During that time he served 
the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad, 
the Indiana Union Traction 
and the Fort Wayne & 
Northern Indiana Traction 
in various capacities. Mr. 
Hardy became connected 
with the Fort Wayne & 
Northern Indiana Traction 
Company in 1905 and re- 
signed in 1911. During this 
connection with the com- 
pany he served as division 
superintendent and superin- 
tendent of transportation. F. I. hardy 
In July, 1911, he was made 

superintendent of transportation of the Chicago, South 
Bend & Northern Indiana Railway, where he had full charge 
of operation and traffic matters up to the time of his recent 
appointment as general manager of the company to suc- 
ceed C. D. Emmons, who has become second vice-president 
and general manager of the Boston & Worcester Street Rail- 
way. 

OBITUARY 

Raymond H. Harrison, executive clerk to H. A. Benedict, 
mechanical engineer of the Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J., died on July 11 from typhoid fever. Mr. Harrison was 
born in August, 1889, and was graduated from Cornell in 
1910. On April 17, 1911, he entered the employ of the 
Public Service Railway as a cadet engineer. He is survived 
by his father, mother and two sisters. 

M. W. Savage, president and treasurer of the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Traction Company, 
Minneapolis, Minn., died in that city on July 12 after a brief 
illness. Mr. Savage was fifty-five years old and had lived 
in Minneapolis since 1886. He was the owner of several of 
the most celebrated racing and trotting horses in the country, 
one of them, Dan Patch, by which name the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Traction Company was gen- 
erally known locally in Minneapolis and throughout Minne- 
sota. 




Construction News 



Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously reported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 

'Thomasville (N. C.) Terminal Company. — Incorporated to 
construct and operate an electric railway in Thomasville and 
maintain interurban lines to neighboring points. Capital 
stock, $125,000 authorized and $5,000 subscribed. Among 
those interested are T. J. Finch, J. W. Lambeth, E. V. Crutch- 
field, Frank S. Lambeth and R. L. Lambeth. 

Tulsa (Okla.) Interurban Railroad. — Incorporated to build 
a combination electric and steam railroad from Tulsa to 
Wagoner, 37 miles, in order to permit an entrance into 
Tulsa of the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf and the Iron Moun- 
tain railroads. The interurban will parallel the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas Railroad from Tulsa to Broken Arrow, and 
from Broken Arrow will run due east to Wagoner. Esti- 
mates of construction and equipment place the cost at 
$480,000. 

Texas Electric Railway, Dallas, Tex. — Incorporated to 
take over the Texas Traction Company, which op'erates an 
interurban line from Denison to Dallas, and the Southern 
Traction Company, which operates from Dallas to Waco, also 
from Dallas to Corsicana. The company also acquires and 
takes over the street car systems of Denison, Sherman, 
McKinney, Waxahachie, Corsicana and Waco. The new 
corporation is also authorized to extend southwest from 
Waco to San Antonio via Austin, also south to Houston. 
Capital stock, $10,500,000. This is the consolidation of the 
so-called Strickland lines mentioned previously in this paper 
and referred to at length on page 117 of this issue. Incorpo- 
rators: M. J. Templeton, J. F. Strickland and Osce Goodwin, 
all of Dallas, and others. 

FRANCHISES 

Whittier, Cal. — The Pacific Electric Railway has asked 
the Council for a franchise in Whittier. Bids for the fran- 
chise will be received at the office of the City Clerk until 
July 31. 

Cleveland, Ohio. — The Cleveland Railway has asked the 
County Commisioners for a franchise to construct an ex- 
tension on Pearl Road from the southerly limits of Cleve- 
land to Ridge Road in Parma Township. 

Elyria, Ohio. — The Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 
Railway has received a new twenty-five-year franchise from 
the City Council of Elyria. The company agreed to sell 
six tickets for 25 cents, put on half -hour cars in addition to 
the hourly interurban cars and extend the track east to the 
manufacturing district. 

Portland, Ore. — The Council has acted favorably on the 
request of the Portland & Oregon City Railway for an ex- 
tension of three years' time in which to extend its pro- 
posed interurban line to Portland's west side business dis- 
trict. According to present plans, the company purposes 
making its terminal at East Third and Morrison Streets, 
carrying passengers from the west side to the terminal by 
means of a free bus service. 

*San Angelo, Tex. — The Interstate Electric Corporation 
of New York has been granted a franchise from the City 
Commissioners to construct and operate a street railway 
system, in San Angelo. It is agreed by the company that im- 
provements representing an outlay of $108,000 will be made 
immediately. Officials of the Interstate Electric Corporation 
are now negotiating with the County Commissioners of Tom 
Green County for trackage rights across the county viaduct 
that spans the Concho River. If trackage rights are not 
granted over the viaduct, the company will build its own 
bridge over the river. 

Turn water, Wash. — The Olympia, Tumwater & Brighton 
Park Railway has received a franchise from the Council to 
construct a street railway from the corner of Reserve and 
Des Chutes Streets to the Olympia city limits. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Arkansas Northwestern Railroad, Bentonville, Ark. — It 

is announced that service will soon be resumed on the Ben- 
tonville-Rogers interurban line. Service on this line was dis- 
continued several weeks ago when the St. Louis & San 
Francisco Railway Company increased the rental on a por- 
tion of its track which was used by the interurban com- 
pany. It is announced that the company will build its own 
track, thus eliminating the necessity of renting or leasing 
trackage rights from any other railway company. 

Visalia Electric Railway, Exeter, Cal. — It is reported that 
an extension of this company's line will be built from 
Exeter southerly along the foothills to the Lindsey and El 
Mirador country. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany will lower its grade through the Garden Grove sec- 
tion for about 2800 ft. The track will be lowered 3 ft. 4 in., 
and culverts will be placed where needed to carry flood 
waters. 

Florida East Coast Railway, Jacksonville, Fla. — An- 
nouncement has been made that the electric train heretofore 
operated on the Mayport branch of the Florida East Coast 
Railway will be placed in service between West Palm Beach 
and Miami. 

Atlanta & Anderson Electric Railway, Atlanta, Ga. — It 

is reported that this company, which proposes to begin con- 
struction of an electric railway from Atlanta to Anderson 
about Sept. 1, will connect with the Piedmont & Northern 
Railway at Anderson. J. L. Murphy, Atlanta, is interested. 
[June 17, '16.] 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. — It is 

reported that the Georgia Railway & Power Company will 
purchase the Gainesville Midland Railroad, equip it for 
electrical operation and extend the line into Athens. A 
further extension will be the construction of a line connect- 
ing Atlanta and Macon, and later a link between Macon and 
Athens. 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Company, Honolulu, 
Hawaii. — Work will soon be begun by this company on the 
extension of its King Street line to Moanalua Hill Boundary, 
past Fort Shafter military reservation. 

Pocatello Traction & Interurban Company, Pocatello, 
Idaho. — This company announces that work will be begun 
about Oct. 1 on the construction of an extension from Pres- 
ton, Idaho, or Petersburg, Utah, to Ashton, Idaho. [May 6, 
'16.] 

Aurora, Mendota & Western Railroad, Aurora, 111. — Pre- 
liminary surveys have been begun at Aurora for the Aurora, 
Mendota & Western Railroad. After the survey has been 
completed an outline of the route will be presented to the 
Public Utilities Commission. 

Rock Island Southern Railway, Rock Island, 111. — About 
$25,000 will be spent by this company on improvements to 
its system and its rolling stock. The roadbed will be im- 
proved from Rock Island to Galesburg. 

Tri-City Railway Company of Illinois, Rock Island, 111. — 
This company plans to double-track its line from Sears to 
Center Station. 

Southern Iowa Railway, Light & Power Company, Albia. 
Iowa. — Improvements are being planned by this company 
in Albia amounting to about $50,000. 

Iowa Railway & Light Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. — 
The Town Council of Earlville has entered into a contract 
with the Iowa Railway & Light Company to supply elec- 
tricity to operate the municipal electric light system. 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western, Bonner Springs, 
Kan. — It is reported that construction will be begun this 
summer on this company's proposed extension to Topeka, 
snd it is expected that the line will be in operation about 
June 1, 1917. 

*Transcona, Man. — Negotiations are now under way for 
the construction of an electric railway between Transcona 
and Winnipeg, and it is expected that the line will be com- 
pleted this summer. J. W. Hull, Winnipeg, may give 
further information. 

♦Boston & Western Street Railway, Marlboro, Mass. — A 



committee of the Marlboro Board of Trade is co-operating 
with a committee of Waltham citizens to secure the con- 
struction of an electric railway between Marlboro and Wal- 
tham, about 15 miles, making a direct route from Boston. 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. — Within the next month 
work on the extension of three car lines will be begun 
by the Kansas City Railways. These include the Paseo 
extension on the old Marlborough line, from Forty-eighth 
Street to Seventy-first Street; the Brooklyn Avenue exten- 
sion, from Thirty-ninth Street to Forty-fourth Street, and 
the Troost Avenue line, from Forty-eighth Street to Fifty- 
third Street. 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Company, St. 
Joseph, Mo. — Among the improvements included in the ap- 
plication for $12,000,000 bonds by this company is the con- 
struction of an extension of its Prospect Avenue line. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 
This company is building a half mile of double track and 
overhead lines as an extension to existing lines, and it now 
has under way the rehabilitation of 25,550 ft. of single 
track. This latter work includes all new rail, ties and re- 
paving. 

Reno (Nev.) Traction Company. — This company plans to 
relocate its line in Sparks from B Street to D Street from 
Miller's Curve to Thirteenth Street. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. — The work of lay- 
ing tracks on this company's Central Avenue line through 
Orange has been completed to Scotland Street and it is ex- 
pected that operation will soon be begun. For the present 
the line west of Scotland Street cannot be completed, as the 
tracks would have to cross the Lackawanna Railroad at 
grade. Until the railroad's elevation work is completed and 
the tracks are carried over Central Avenue on a bridge, the 
extension will end at Scotland Street. 

Rahway Valley Railroad, Summit, N. J. — It is reported 
that this company, which operates a railroad from Summit 
to Aldene, plans to equip its line for electrical operation. 
J. S. Caldwell, Kenilworth, N. J., general manager. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

Bids were received by the Public Service Commission for the 
First District of New York on July 6 for the supply of 
eighteen portions of special work to be used in the Seventh 
Avenue subway. The only bids received were Pennsylvania 
Steel Company, New York, at $65,316 and Ramapo Iron 
Works, New York, at $66,740. The commission has an- 
nounced that the extension of the Queensboro Subway — the 
Steinway Tunnel — will be open for operation to the Queens-* 
boro Bridge Plaza station by Nov. 1, and that by Dec. 15 the 
service will have been extended to the new lines extending 
to Astoria and Corona. In making this announcement the 
Public Service Commission asserted that the new connecting 
link between the Queensboro subway and the Grand Central 
Station would be ready for use by the end of August. Ele- 
vators are now being built at the eastern end of the Grand 
Central Station platform to extend down to the level of the 
Queensboro line. When these elevators are in operation it 
will be possible to run Queensboro subway trains west to a 
new station on the lower level at Park Avenue and Forty- 
second Street. 

New York & Queens County Railway, New York, N. Y. — 

Application has been made by this company to the Public 
Service Commission for the First District of New York for 
one year's extension of time to discontinue the operation of 
cars across the meadows between Corona and Flushing. 

Dayton, Xenia & Southern Railway, Dayton, Ohio. — This 
company plans to construct an extension of its lines in 
Dayton. 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio. — R. P. Stevens, president of the Mahon- 
ing & Shenango Railway & Light Company, a subsidiary 
of the Republic Railway & Light Company, has announced 
that the company will build an extension of its lines in 
Sharon covering the eastern section of the city and to Buhl 
Farm. The best delivery for rails which it has been pos- 
sible to secure is in the first quarter of 1917. It is expected 
that the line to Buhl Farm may be in operation by July 
4, 1917. 



July 15, 1916] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



127 



Toronto (Ont.) Civic Railway. — New track is being built 
by the Toronto Civic Railway from Bathurst and Front 
Streets to Exhibition Park. The total length, of the line is 
approximately 10,900 ft. of single track, and it is for the 
most part double-track construction with 60-lb. A.S.C.E. 
rails on cedar ties and gravel ballast. The overhead con- 
struction is span work and No. 00 round trolley wire will 
be used. Orders have been placed for material for track 
and overhead work. 

Willamette Valley Southern Railway, Oregon City, Ore. — 
It is reported that this company will construct an exten- 
sion to Silverton this fall. 

*Silverton, Ore. — It is reported that the Silver Falls 
Timber Company will electrify its railroad from Silverton 
to its logging camps. 

Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway. — This company will 
reconstruct its tracks on Main Street from Linden to Cal- 
houn Streets, preparatory to improving that section of the 
street. 

*San Angelo, Tex. — The A. Fitkin Company of New York 
City, through C. W. Hobbs of San Angelo, has agreed to 
build and equip a modern street car line in San Angelo and 
to build 1 miles of track south of the North Concho River, 
if given a franchise for eighty years. The proposed line 
will cost $180,000, according to the estimate furnished by 
Engineer Clifford of the Stone & Webster interests, and the 
city has accepted the proposition. The county commission- 
ers' court, however, is holding the matter up by demanding 
that the company pay $200 per annum for the privilege of 
crossing the viaduct over the North Concho River. The city 
commissioners and Mr. Hobbs went before the county com- 
missioners but could not induce them to recede from the 
stand. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — At 
the annual meeting of the Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany, to be held on July 20, the stockholders wrli be asked 
tc approve an increase in capital stock from $8,000,000 to 
$9,000,000, the proceeds to be used for improvements and 
extensions to the system. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. 
Va. — This company has asked the Public Service Commis- 
sion of West Virginia for permission to construct an ex- 
tension from MOrgantown to Adamson. Work has been 
begun by the company on the construction of an extension 
from O'Neil to Wolf Summit. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Southern Pacific Company, San Francisco, Cal. — Plans 
have been completed by the Southern Pacific Company for 
the construction of an office building at Market, Steuart 
and Spear Streets. The structure will be 275 ft. x 210 ft., 
ten stories. The steel has already been ordered and it is 
expected that construction will soon be under way. 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway. — A con- 
tract has been awarded to James Miles & Son Company, 
Worcester, by the Worcester Consolidated Street Railway, 
for the construction of an addition to its express station at 
Green Street to be used for the storage of freight. The ex- 
tension will be 97 ft. x 35 ft., one story high, of brick with 
a tar and gravel roof. 

Salem & Pennsgrove Traction Company, Salem, N. J. — 
This company has awarded a contract to Charles D. Burns, 
Philadelphia, for the construction of car shops and offices. 
The structure will be one story, of brick and concrete. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 
Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — This company will construct a new transmission line 
about 6 miles long in order to supply additional power to the 
southeast section of the city. The line will extend on Front 
Street to Ambos, thence along the old canal bed to Frank 
Road and from there to Smoky Road. The line will be of 
both underground and overhead construction. It is esti- 
mated that the cost will be about $80,000. 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore. — It is reported that this company plans to construct 
a large transformer station near the interstate bridge, 
across the Columbia River, between Vancouver, Wash., and 
Portland, Ore. 



Manufactures and Supplies 



COPPER AND STEEL PRICES STILL HIGH 
The Copper Market Has Resolved Itself Into a Waiting Prop- 
osition and Steel Business Continues to Be Brisk 

Conditions in the copper market have changed considera- 
bly in the last three months. At the beginning of April to- 
tal transactions were on an unusually large scale, large or- 
ders coming from both domestic and foreign sources, and 
sales being made to the end of the year. During the first 
three weeks of April over 400,000,000 lb. of copper were sold 
to England and France. At the present time business is on 
a much more moderate scale, all quotations are nominal and 
the enthusiasm which attended the buying movement of a 
few months ago has evaporated, although England and 
France are reported to be making inquiries on a large scale 
for delivery in 1917. 

Prices increased from 26 cents in the latter part of March 
to 31 cents during the first week in May. Since that time 
the price of copper has decreased to the present nominal 
quotation of 25% cents. 

Total sales of copper since the beginning of the year far 
outstrip all previous records in the history of the industry. 
With considerable uncertainty existing as to the question of 
values likely to prevail within the next two or three months, 
market operations have dropped to a restricted scale. The 
leading producers and dealers, being well sold, are not quot- 
ing for immediate delivery, and it is understood that, in an- 
ticipation of an increase in market price, no large orders for 
future delivery have been taken. Consumers, as a rule, have 
provided for several months. In influential circles, the im- 
pression is that the price advance has been overdone and that 
a more normal market is necessary to impart confidence. 

During the year 1915 a total of 1,624,204,448 lb. of refined 
copper were produced by the regular refining plants, accord- 
ing to estimates made by government authorities. If busi- 
ness resumes its activity of the first part of April it will be 
necessary to carry out plans that will place the annual out- 
put on a 50 per cent higher basis. 

Looking into the situation of the steel market, we find a 
recent statement by E. H. Gary, chairman of the United 
States Steel Corporation, which says: "The steel business in 
the United States for domestic use and for export is better 
than ever before. The production is larger, the profits 
greater and the workmen are receiving higher wages. The 
unfilled orders for the various products of the subsidiary 
companies of the corporation aggregate nearly 10,000,000 
tons, and about 6,000,000 tons of this total have already been 
specified for actual deliveries. Besides the present daily 
bookings are about 80 per cent of full producing capacity. 
We are producing at the rate of 51,000 to 52,000 tons per 
day." 

With this condition general in the trade, there is no strong 
expectation of any material change in prices. The stability 
of the present high price is causing little or no concern. The 
consensus of opinion in the steel market is that the outcome 
of the Mexican crisis will help rather than hurt the market. 

At the present time there are very few domestic orders 
being placed, and although orders for export have slackened 
somewhat, new export business is sustaining the market. 



ROLLING STOCK 

Macon Railway & Light Company, Macon, Ga., is reported 
to be building new cars in its own shops and beginning with 
the last week in July expects to place one new car in opera- 
tion weekly. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways has received the first delivery 
on its order for 240 all-steel cars which were ordered during 
the latter part of 1915. The remainder of the deliveries 
will be made during the summer. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway has been authorized by the 
Council Committee to add fifty trail cars to its equipment. 
Twenty-five of these will be purchased and the remainder 
will be built in the company shops. 



128 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLVIII, No. 3 



Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, Gloversville, 

N. Y., noted in the Electric Railway Journal of July 8 
as considering the purchase of two single-truck, all-steel 
cars, 33 ft. 4 in. overall, has ordered this equipment from the 
Niles Car & Manufacturing Company. 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, Cleveland, 
Ohio, has ordered from the Cincinnati Car Company six 
50-ft. trailer freight cars, of 50,000 lb. capacity, to be 
equipped at each end with Tomlinson M. C. B. couplers. 
Wide doors are arranged at each side and at one end to 
facilitate readily loading the freight to be carried. These 
are the six interurban cars referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 17. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 10 as making informal inquiries 
regarding 100 center-entrance motor cars and forty-two ele- 
vated cars, has placed the following- orders: Forty-two center- 
entrance elevated cars, 46 ft. iy± in. over platforms with 
Brill trucks from the Pressed Steel Car Company. The cen- 
ter door is to be 45 in. wide and the end doors are to be 43 
in. wide, instead of 40 in. and 33 in., the widths of the doors 
on the present cars. Fifty center-entrance surface cars have 
also been ordered from The J. G. Brill Company and fifty 
from the Laconia Car Company. No motors have been pur- 
chased as yet, nor trucks for the surface cars. A contract for 
fifty articulated center-sections will be awarded soon. 

TRADE NOTES 

R. L. Brown has been appointed a special representative of 
the Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has re- 
ceived an order from the International Railway Buffalo, N. 
Y., for sixteen four-motor equipments, GE 203 type, with 
PC control. 

Railway Improvement Company, New York, N. Y., has re- 
ceived an order for 6400 straps for the 200 cars recently 
ordered from the Laconia Car Company by the Bay State 
Street Railway, Boston, Mass. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has received an 
order to equip with ring 88 fixtures and Rex rollers, the 
twelve cars recently ordered from the Osgood-Bradley Car 
Company by the Union Street Railway of New Bedford, 
Mass. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., reports 
the receipt of an order for air cleaners for the cars of the 
Conestoga Traction Company, being built by The J. G. Brill 
Company, and an order for 100 hydrogrounds from the Union 
Railway, New York, N. Y. 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
reports that on July 1 the factory employees requested 
the privilege of a mass meeting with the officials of 
the company. At this meeting, one of their number 
delivered a carefully prepared speech, at the end of which 
a signal was given and a large American flag came 
gracefully down from its hiding place behind one of the 
beams. This was voluntarily presented to the company as 
a sign of good-will. This is particularly significant at this 
time, since for the past six months this has been one of the 
very few machine shops in Cincinnati that has not been 
affected by the machinists' strike. The men also asked the 
privilege of erecting a steel flag-pole in the front yard. 

Sturtevant Engineering Company, London, has been issu- 
ing from time to time since the beginning of the war a 
series of "War Letters" or copies of letters received at the 
offices of the company and of its associated companies from 
members of their staffs now serving under the colors. 
These "letters" are issued partly to enable those at the 
front to hear the experiences of their comrades and partly 
to create interest in a fund from subscriptions to assist the 
families of the men in the service. The twelfth number in 
this series has just been issued, and contains, besides several 
letters, a number of illustrations relating particularly to 
the work of the American Ambulance Organization at 
Neuilly-Paris. The letters are largely personal in character, 
and for this reason give a very good insight into the life in 
the trenches and in the hospitals. 

Drew Electric & Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind., reports recent additional orders for Drew motorman's 



safety mirrors from the following companies: Public Service 
Company, Newark, N. J.; Lake Shore Electric Railway, San- 
dusky, Ohio; San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway, Oak- 
land, Cal.; Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction, Rushville, 
Ind.; Toledo Railways & Light, Toledo, Ohio; Empire United 
Railways, Syracuse, N. Y.; Union Traction Company of In- 
diana, Anderson, Ind.; Butte (Mont.) Electric Railway; 
Terre Haute Indianapolis & Eastern Traction, Indianapolis 
and Terre Haute, Ind.; Southwest Missouri Railroad, Webb 
City, Mo.; Muskegon Traction & Lighting Company, Muske- 
gon, Mich.; Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Street 
Railway, Waynesboro, Pa.; Boston (Mass.) Elevated Rail- 
way; New York State Railways, Syracuse, N. Y.; Youngs- 
town & Ohio Railway, Youngstown, Ohio; Augusta-Aiken 
Railway, Augusta, Ga.; Kentucky Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany, Lexington, Ky.; Easton Transit Company, Allentown, 
Pa.; Norfolk & Southern Railway, Norfolk, Va., and the Que- 
bec Railway, Light, Heat & Power Company, Quebec. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Mass., 

has issued two illustrated folders, one on an installation 
at the power plant of the Remington Arms-Union Metallic 
Cartridge Company at Bridgeport and the other featuring 
the construction of the Midland Warehouse at Chicago. 

Vulcan Soot Cleaner Company, Du Bois, Pa., has issued 
an illustrated catalog which describes the Vulcan soot 
cleaner, its application to various types of boilers and 
economizers, and tells what soot really is. A frontispiece 
reproduces in actual colors nine specimens of soot formed 
with hard and soft coal. 

Day & Zimmerman, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., are circulat- 
ing the first issue of "Development," a booklet which they 
describe as "a journal to disperse ideas, advice and informa- 
tion for use in the proper development of industries and 
public utilities." This issue contains several illustrations 
showing some of the work done by this firm. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, New York, N. Y., 
has issued their 1916 catalog on heating and ventilating 
apparatus for railway cars. The numerous illustrations, 
many of which are in two colors, show the various parts of 
the apparatus made by this company. This catalog also 
contains a number of inserts printed in three colors. 

J. G. White Companies, New York, N. Y., and London, 
Eng., have issued a booklet entitled "Engineering in For- 
eign Fields," which gives a list of some of the more im- 
portant work carried out abroad by them. A large number 
of excellent illustrations shows the diversity of experience 
of these companies. A short description of the various 
departments of these companies is also given. 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y., have issued a 
booklet describing their Vitralite railway enamel system 
for cars whereby labor and material are appreciably de- 
creased over the old paint and varnish system. It is said 
that the time of stopping cars is reduced, the durability of 
the finish increased 50 per cent, cleaning made easier, the 
original color retained and refinishing simplified. Equip- 
ment men will appreciate the revolutionary character of 
the Vitralite system when it is stated that only four coats 
are required for the exterior finish of new steel cars. New 
work on steel cars is handled in eight days from the metal 
primer to the striping. Similar specifications, except for 
the use of surfacing compounds instead of Vitralite coat- 
ings, apply to wooden cars. 



HEATER ORDERS IN BROOKLYN 

Owing to the fact that several articles have appeared in 
this paper on the orders for car heaters in the New York 
Municipal Railway cars, and to remove any possible mis- 
understanding, the following resume will be made: 

The order for panel heaters for the first 100 cars was 
given to the Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company in the 
spring of 1914. The second and third orders were for 100 
cars each, and were placed during the summers of 1914 and 
1915 with the Consolidated Car Heating Company. The 
fourth and latest order, placed early in 1916, for 200 cars, 
was given to the Peter Smith Heater Company, and was for 
its new panel gravity type of electric heater. 





JU121M916 



Electric Railway^Jou 



Published by the McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journal- and Electric Railway Review 




Vol. XLVIII 



NEW YORK SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1916 



No. 4 



ANNUAL REPORT Practically all electric railway 
AS PUBLICITY companies recognize the neces- 

MATERIAL s ;t y f keeping the public in- 

formed on matters of interest on their lines, but many of 
them are often at a loss to know what to give out. At 
this season of the year most companies are completing 
their a